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到 Azure 的大规模迁移Scale a migration to Azure

本文将演示虚构公司 Contoso 如何进行到 Azure 的大规模迁移。This article demonstrates how the fictional company Contoso performs a migration at scale to Azure. 该公司考虑了如何规划和迁移超过3000个工作负荷、8000个数据库和10000个虚拟机 (Vm) 。The company considers how to plan and perform a migration of more than 3,000 workloads, 8,000 databases, and 10,000 virtual machines (VMs).

业务驱动因素Business drivers

IT 领导团队与其业务合作伙伴密切协作,以了解合作伙伴希望在本次迁移中实现的目标:The IT leadership team has worked closely with business partners to understand what they want to achieve with this migration:

  • 解决业务增长。Address business growth. Contoso 在不断壮大,这给本地系统和基础结构造成了压力。Contoso is growing, causing pressure on on-premises systems and infrastructure.
  • 提高效率。Increase efficiency. Contoso 需要删除不必要的过程,为开发者和用户简化流程。Contoso needs to remove unnecessary procedures, and streamline processes for developers and users. 业务要求 IT 反应迅速,不浪费时间金钱,从而更快满足客户需求。The business needs IT to be fast and not waste time or money, thus delivering faster on customer requirements.
  • 提高灵活性。Increase agility. Contoso IT 需要对业务需求更加敏感。Contoso IT needs to be more responsive to the needs of the business. 它必须能够比 marketplace 中的更改更快地做出反应,以实现全球经济。It must be able to react faster than the changes in the marketplace, to enable success in a global economy. 它不得或成为业务阻止手段。It mustn't get in the way or become a business blocker.
  • 纵向.Scale. 随着业务成功发展,Contoso IT 团队必须提供能够同步成长的系统。As the business grows successfully, the Contoso IT team must provide systems that are able to grow at the same pace.
  • 改进成本模型。Improve cost models. Contoso 希望降低 IT 预算中的资本需求。Contoso wants to lessen capital requirements in the IT budget. Contoso 希望使用云功能进行扩展并降低昂贵硬件的需求。Contoso wants to use cloud abilities to scale and reduce the need for expensive hardware.
  • 许可成本更低。Lower licensing costs. Contoso 希望云成本降至最低。Contoso wants to minimize cloud costs.

迁移目标Migration goals

Contoso 云团队制定了本次迁移的目标。The Contoso cloud team has pinned down goals for this migration. 它使用这些目标来确定最佳迁移方法。It used these goals to determine the best migration method.

要求Requirements 详细信息Details
快速迁移到 AzureMove to Azure quickly Contoso 希望尽快将应用程序和 Vm 迁移到 Azure。Contoso wants to start moving applications and VMs to Azure as quickly as possible.
编译完整清单Compile a full inventory Contoso 希望组织中的所有应用程序、数据库和 Vm 都有完整的清单。Contoso wants a complete inventory of all applications, databases, and VMs in the organization.
评估应用程序并对其进行分类Assess and classify applications Contoso 想要充分利用云。Contoso wants to take full advantage of the cloud. 默认情况下,Contoso 假定所有服务都将作为 "平台即服务" (PaaS) 运行。As a default, Contoso assumes that all services will run as platform as a service (PaaS). 将基础结构即服务 (IaaS) 用于 PaaS 不适合的位置。Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) will be used where PaaS isn't appropriate.
培训并移到 DevOpsTrain and move to DevOps Contoso 希望移到 DevOps 模型。Contoso wants to move to a DevOps model. Contoso 将提供 Azure 和 DevOps 培训,并根据需要重新组织团队。Contoso will provide Azure and DevOps training and will reorganize teams as necessary.

建立目标和需求后,Contoso 查看 IT 需求,并识别迁移过程。After establishing goals and requirements, Contoso reviews the IT footprint and identifies the migration process.

当前部署Current deployment

Contoso 已计划并设置 Azure 基础结构 ,并 (POC) 迁移组合来尝试不同的概念证明,如前面的表中所述。Contoso has planned and set up an Azure infrastructure and tried out different proof-of-concept (POC) migration combinations as detailed in the preceding table. 现已准备好在大规模迁移到 Azure 的接纳。It's now ready to embark on a full migration to Azure at scale. Contoso 希望迁移的内容如下。Here's what Contoso wants to migrate.

Item VolumeVolume 详细信息Details
工作负载Workloads > 3000 应用程序> 3,000 applications
  • 应用程序在 Vm 上运行。Applications run on VMs.
  • 应用程序平台包括 Windows、SQL Server 和 Application platforms include Windows, SQL Server, and LAMP.
  • 数据库Databases 大约8500个数据库Approximately 8,500 databases 数据库包括 SQL Server、MySQL 和 PostgreSQL。Databases include SQL Server, MySQL, and PostgreSQL.
    VMVMs > 35000 Vm> 35,000 VMs Vm 在 VMware 主机上运行,由 vCenter 服务器管理。VMs run on VMware hosts and are managed by vCenter servers.

    迁移过程Migration process

    由于 Contoso 已经建立了业务驱动程序和迁移目标,因此它可以与 迁移方法保持一致。Now that Contoso has established business drivers and migration goals, it can align to the Migrate methodology. 它可以根据迁移波形和迁移冲刺(sprint)的应用构建,以迭代计划和执行迁移工作。It can build on the application of migration waves and migration sprints to iteratively plan and execute migration efforts.

    计划Plan

    Contoso 通过发现和评估本地应用程序、数据和基础结构来发起规划过程。Contoso kicks off the planning process by discovering and assessing on-premises applications, data, and infrastructure. 下面是 Contoso 要做的事项:Here's what Contoso will do:

    • Contoso 需要发现应用程序,在应用程序之间映射依赖关系,并决定迁移顺序和优先级。Contoso needs to discover applications, map dependencies across applications, and decide on migration order and priority.
    • Contoso 评估时,它将生成应用程序和资源的全面清单。As Contoso assesses, it will build out a comprehensive inventory of applications and resources. Contoso 还将使用和更新这些现有项目:Along with the new inventory, Contoso will use and update these existing items:
      • 配置管理数据库 (CMDB) 。The configuration management database (CMDB). 它包含 Contoso 应用程序的技术配置。It holds technical configurations for Contoso applications.
      • 服务目录。The service catalog. 它记录了应用程序的操作详细信息,包括关联的业务合作伙伴和服务级别协议。It documents the operational details of applications, including associated business partners and service-level agreements.

    发现应用程序Discover applications

    Contoso 在一系列服务器上运行数千个应用程序。Contoso runs thousands of applications across a range of servers. 除了 CMDB 和服务目录,Contoso 还需要发现和评估工具。In addition to the CMDB and service catalog, Contoso needs discovery and assessment tools.

    工具必须提供一种可将评估数据亏送到迁移过程的机制。The tools must provide a mechanism that can feed assessment data into the migration process. 评估工具必须提供可帮助生成 Contoso 物理和虚拟资源的智能清单的数据。Assessment tools must provide data that helps build up an intelligent inventory of Contoso's physical and virtual resources. 数据应包括配置文件信息和性能指标。Data should include profile information and performance metrics.

    发现完成后,Contoso 应对资产以及与它们关联的元数据提供完整清单。When discovery is complete, Contoso should have a full inventory of assets and the metadata associated with them. 公司将使用此清单来定义迁移计划。The company will use this inventory to define the migration plan.

    标识分类Identify classifications

    Contoso 可标识部分常见类别,以对清单中的资产进行分类。Contoso identifies some common categories to classify assets in the inventory. 这些分类对于 Contoso 做出迁移决策至关重要。These classifications are critical to Contoso's decision making for migration. 分类列表有助于建立迁移优先级并识别复杂问题。The classification list helps to establish migration priorities and identify complex issues.

    类别Category 已分配值Assigned value 详细信息Details
    业务组Business group 业务组名称列表List of business group names 哪个组负责清单项?Which group is responsible for the inventory item?
    POC 候选对象POC candidate Y/NY/N 应用程序是否可以作为 POC 或早期使用者进行云迁移?Can the application be used as a POC or early adopter for cloud migration?
    技术债务Technical debt 无/部分/严重None/Some/Severe 库存项运行或使用的是不支持的产品、平台还是操作系统?Is the inventory item running or using an out-of-support product, platform, or operating system?
    防火墙影响Firewall implications Y/NY/N 应用程序是与 internet 通信还是外部通信?Does the application communicate with the internet or outside traffic? 应用是否与防火墙集成?Does it integrate with a firewall?
    安全问题Security issues Y/NY/N 应用程序是否存在已知的安全问题?Are there known security issues with the application? 应用程序是使用未加密的数据还是过时的平台?Does the application use unencrypted data or out-of-date platforms?

    发现应用程序依赖项Discover application dependencies

    作为评估过程的一部分,Contoso 需要确定应用程序的运行位置。As part of the assessment process, Contoso needs to identify where applications are running. 它还需要确定应用程序服务器之间的依赖关系和连接。It also needs to figure out the dependencies and connections between application servers. Contoso 按步骤映射环境:Contoso maps the environment in steps:

    1. Contoso 发现服务器和计算机如何映射到各个应用程序、网络位置和组。Contoso discovers how servers and machines map to individual applications, network locations, and groups.
    2. Contoso 清楚地识别出依赖项的应用程序,它们适用于快速迁移。Contoso clearly identifies applications that have few dependencies and are suitable for a quick migration.
    3. Contoso 可以使用映射来帮助确定更复杂的依赖项和应用程序服务器之间的通信。Contoso can use mapping to help identify more complex dependencies and communications between application servers. 然后,Contoso 可以对这些服务器进行逻辑分组,以表示应用程序,并根据这些组规划迁移策略。Contoso can then group these servers logically to represent applications and plan a migration strategy based on these groups.

    完成映射后,Contoso 可以确保在生成迁移计划时确定并考虑所有应用程序组件。With mapping completed, Contoso can ensure that all application components are identified and accounted for when building the migration plan.

    依赖关系映射的关系图。

    评估应用程序Evaluate applications

    作为发现和评估过程的最后一步,Contoso 可以评估评估和映射结果,确定如何迁移服务目录中的每个应用程序。As the last step in the discovery and assessment process, Contoso can evaluate assessment and mapping results to figure out how to migrate each application in the service catalog.

    为了捕获此评估过程,Contoso 向库存添加了几个分类。To capture this evaluation process, Contoso adds a couple of classifications to the inventory.

    类别Category 已分配值Assigned value 详细信息Details
    业务组Business group 业务组名称列表List of business group names 哪个组负责清单项?Which group is responsible for the inventory item?
    POC 候选对象POC candidate Y/NY/N 应用程序是否可以作为 POC 或早期使用者进行云迁移?Can the application be used as a POC or early adopter for cloud migration?
    技术债务Technical debt 无/部分/严重None/Some/Severe 库存项运行或使用的是不支持的产品、平台还是操作系统?Is the inventory item running or using an out-of-support product, platform, or operating system?
    防火墙影响Firewall implications Y/NY/N 应用程序是与 internet 通信还是外部通信?Does the application communicate with the internet or outside traffic? 应用是否与防火墙集成?Does it integrate with a firewall?
    安全问题Security issues Y/NY/N 应用程序是否存在已知的安全问题?Are there known security issues with the application? 应用程序是使用未加密的数据还是过时的平台?Does the application use unencrypted data or out-of-date platforms?
    迁移策略Migration strategy Rehost/Refactor/Rearchitect/RebuildRehost/Refactor/Rearchitect/Rebuild 应用程序需要哪种迁移?What kind of migration is needed for the application? 如何将应用程序部署到 Azure?How will the application be deployed in Azure? 了解详细信息Learn more.
    技术复杂性Technical complexity 1-51-5 迁移复杂程度如何?How complex is the migration? 此值应由 Contoso DevOps 和相关合作伙伴定义。This value should be defined by Contoso DevOps and relevant partners.
    业务关键性Business criticality 1-51-5 业务应用程序的重要程度如何?How important is the application for the business? 例如,可以为小型工作组应用程序分配一个分数,而在组织中使用的关键应用程序则可以分配5个分数。For example, a small workgroup application might be assigned a score of one, while a critical application used across the organization might be assigned a score of five. 此分数将影响迁移优先级别。This score will affect the migration priority level.
    迁移优先级Migration priority 1/2/31/2/3 应用程序的迁移优先级是什么?What's the migration priority for the application?
    迁移风险Migration risk 1-51-5 迁移应用程序的风险级别是什么?What's the risk level for migrating the application? Contoso DevOps 和相关合作伙伴应同意此值。Contoso DevOps and relevant partners should agree on this value.

    确定成本Determine costs

    为了确定 Azure 迁移的成本和可能的节省量,Contoso 可以使用 总拥有成本 (tco) 计算器 来计算和比较 AZURE 的总体拥有成本,并将其与可比较的本地部署进行比较。To determine costs and the potential savings of Azure migration, Contoso can use the total cost of ownership (TCO) calculator to calculate and compare the TCO for Azure to a comparable on-premises deployment.

    确定评估工具Identify assessment tools

    Contoso 确定用于发现、评估和生成清单的工具。Contoso decides which tool to use for discovery, assessment, and building the inventory. Contoso 标识了 Azure 工具和服务的混合、本机应用程序工具和脚本以及合作伙伴工具。Contoso identifies a mix of Azure tools and services, native application tools and scripts, and partner tools. Contoso 尤其对 Azure Migrate 用于规模评估感兴趣。In particular, Contoso is interested in how Azure Migrate can be used to assess at scale.

    Azure MigrateAzure Migrate

    在为迁移到 Azure 进行准备时,Azure Migrate 服务可助你发现和评估本地 VMware VM。The Azure Migrate service helps you to discover and assess on-premises VMware VMs, in preparation for migration to Azure. 下面是 Azure Migrate 的用途:Here's what Azure Migrate does:

    1. 发现: 发现本地 VMware Vm。Discover: Discover on-premises VMware VMs.

      Azure Migrate 支持从多个 vCenter 服务器中按顺序 (的发现) ,并且可以在单独的 Azure Migrate 项目中运行发现。Azure Migrate supports discovery from multiple vCenter servers (serially) and can run discoveries in separate Azure Migrate projects.

      Azure Migrate 通过运行 Azure Migrate 收集器的 VMware VM 来执行发现。Azure Migrate performs discovery via a VMware VM running the Azure Migrate Collector. 同一收集器可以发现不同 vCenter 服务器上的 Vm,并将数据发送到不同的项目。The same collector can discover VMs on different vCenter servers and send data to different projects.

    2. 评估准备情况: 评估本地计算机是否适合在 Azure 中运行。Assess readiness: Assess whether on-premises machines are suitable for running in Azure. 评估包括:An assessment includes:

      • 大小建议: 根据本地 Vm 的性能历史记录,获取有关 Azure Vm 的大小建议。Size recommendations: Get size recommendations for Azure VMs, based on the performance history of on-premises VMs.
      • 估计每月成本: 获取在 Azure 中运行本地计算机的估算成本。Estimated monthly costs: Get estimated costs for running on-premises machines in Azure.
    3. 确定依赖关系: 可视化本地计算机的依赖关系,为评估和迁移创建最佳计算机组。Identify dependencies: Visualize dependencies of on-premises machines to create optimal machine groups for assessment and migration.

    Azure Migrate 服务工作原理的关系图。

    由于此迁移的规模,Contoso 需要正确使用 Azure Migrate:Contoso needs to use Azure Migrate correctly, given the scale of this migration:

    • Contoso 通过 Azure Migrate 评估每个应用程序。Contoso assesses each application via Azure Migrate. 此评估确保 Azure Migrate 向 Azure 门户返回及时的数据。This assessment ensures that Azure Migrate returns timely data to the Azure portal.
    • Contoso 管理员了解如何 大规模部署 Azure MigrateContoso admins learn how to deploy Azure Migrate at scale.
    • Contoso 说明下表中汇总的 Azure Migrate 限制。Contoso notes the Azure Migrate limits summarized in the following table.
    操作Action 限制Limit
    创建 Azure Migrate 项目Create Azure Migrate project 10,000 个 VM10,000 VMs
    发现Discovery 10,000 个 VM10,000 VMs
    评估Assessment 10,000 个 VM10,000 VMs

    Contoso 将按如下方式使用 Azure Migrate:Contoso will use Azure Migrate as follows:

    • 在 vCenter 中,将 Vm 组织到文件夹中。In vCenter, organize VMs into folders. 这样,管理员就可以很容易地专注于针对特定文件夹中的 Vm 运行评估。This will make it easy for the admins to focus as they run an assessment against VMs in a specific folder.
    • 评估计算机之间的依赖关系。Assess dependencies between machines. 这要求在要评估的 VM 上安装代理。This requires agents to be installed on VMs to be assessed.

    Contoso 将使用自动化脚本来安装所需的 Windows 或 Linux 代理。Contoso will use automated scripts to install the required Windows or Linux agents. 通过编写脚本,Contoso 可以将安装推送到 vCenter 文件夹中的 VM。By scripting, Contoso can push the installation to VMs within a vCenter folder.

    数据库工具Database tools

    除 Azure Migrate 外,Contoso 将重点关注如何使用专用于数据评估的工具。In addition to Azure Migrate, Contoso will focus on using tools specifically for database assessment. 数据迁移助手之类的工具将有助于评估要迁移的 SQL Server 数据库。Tools such as Data Migration Assistant will help assess SQL Server databases for migration.

    数据迁移助手有助于 Contoso 确定本地数据库是否与一系列 Azure 数据库解决方案兼容。Data Migration Assistant can help Contoso to figure out whether on-premises databases are compatible with a range of Azure database solutions. 这些解决方案包括 Azure SQL 数据库、SQL Server 在 Azure IaaS VM 和 Azure SQL 托管实例上运行。These solutions include Azure SQL Database, SQL Server running on an Azure IaaS VM, and Azure SQL Managed Instance.

    除了数据库迁移服务,Contoso 还提供了一些脚本用于发现和记录 SQL Server 数据库。In addition to Database Migration Service, Contoso has some scripts that it uses to discover and document the SQL Server databases. 这些脚本位于 GitHub 存储库中。These scripts are located in the GitHub repo.

    合作伙伴评估工具Partner assessment tools

    还有其他几个合作伙伴工具可帮助 Contoso 评估用于迁移到 Azure 的本地环境。There are several other partner tools that can help Contoso assess the on-premises environment for migration to Azure. 详细了解 Azure 迁移合作伙伴Learn more about Azure migration partners.

    步骤2:迁移Step 2: Migrate

    完成评估后,Contoso 需要确定将其应用程序、数据和基础结构移动到 Azure 的工具。With the assessment complete, Contoso needs to identify tools to move its applications, data, and infrastructure to Azure.

    迁移策略Migration strategies

    Contoso 可以考虑采用四种广泛的迁移策略。Contoso can consider four broad migration strategies.

    策略Strategy 详细信息Details 使用情况Usage
    重新托管Rehost
  • 是一种 无代码选项,用于将现有应用程序快速迁移到 Azure。Often called a lift-and-shift migration, this is a no-code option for migrating existing applications to Azure quickly.
  • 应用程序的迁移方式与云的优点相同,并且没有与代码更改相关的风险或成本。An application is migrated as is with the benefits of the cloud and without the risks or costs associated with code changes.
  • Contoso 可以 rehost 不需要更改代码的不太重要的应用程序。Contoso can rehost less-strategic applications that require no code changes.
  • 重构Refactor
  • 此策略也称为重新 打包,此策略需要最少的应用程序代码或配置更改,以将应用程序连接到 Azure PaaS,并更充分地利用云功能。Also called repackaging, this strategy requires minimal application code or configuration changes to connect the application to Azure PaaS, and take better advantage of cloud capabilities.
  • Contoso 可以重构战略应用程序以保留相同的基本功能,但将它们移到 Azure App Service 的 Azure 平台上运行。Contoso can refactor strategic applications to retain the same basic functionality, but move them to run on an Azure platform such as Azure App Service.
  • 这要求最少代码更改。This requires minimum code changes.
  • 另一方面,Contoso 将不得不维护 VM 平台,因为 Microsoft 不会对此进行管理。On the other hand, Contoso will have to maintain a VM platform because Microsoft won't manage this.
  • 重新架构Rearchitect
  • 此策略修改或扩展应用程序代码库,以优化云功能和规模的应用程序体系结构。This strategy modifies or extends an application code base to optimize the application architecture for cloud capabilities and scale.
  • 它将应用程序港务局为可灵活、高度可缩放且可单独部署的体系结构。It modernizes an application into a resilient, highly scalable, independently deployable architecture.
  • Azure 服务可以更快地加快处理速度、降低应用程序的规模,并轻松管理应用程序。Azure services can accelerate the process, scale applications with confidence, and manage applications with ease.
  • 重新生成Rebuild
  • 此方法使用云本机技术从头开始重新构建应用程序。This approach rebuilds an application from scratch by using cloud-native technologies.
  • Azure PaaS 在云中提供完整的开发和部署环境。Azure PaaS provides a complete development and deployment environment in the cloud. 它消除了一些软件许可证的费用和复杂性。It eliminates some expense and complexity of software licenses. 它还消除了对底层应用程序基础结构、中间件和其他资源的需求。It also removes the need for an underlying application infrastructure, middleware, and other resources.
  • Contoso 可以重写关键应用程序以利用云技术(如无服务器计算或微服务)。Contoso can rewrite critical applications to take advantage of cloud technologies such as serverless compute or microservices.
  • Contoso 将管理它所开发的应用程序和服务,Azure 将管理其他所有内容。Contoso will manage the application and services that it develops, and Azure will manage everything else.
  • 还必须考虑数据,尤其是 Contoso 的数据库卷。Data must also be considered, especially with the volume of databases that Contoso has. Contoso 的默认方法是使用 PaaS 服务(例如 Azure SQL 数据库)来充分利用云功能。Contoso's default approach is to use PaaS services such as Azure SQL Database to take full advantage of cloud features. 通过移动到数据库的 PaaS 服务,Contoso 仅需维护数据。By moving to a PaaS service for databases, Contoso will only have to maintain data. 它将使底层平台成为 Microsoft。It will leave the underlying platform to Microsoft.

    评估迁移工具Evaluate migration tools

    Contoso 主要使用以下 Azure 服务和工具进行迁移:Contoso is primarily using these Azure services and tools for the migration:

    Azure MigrateAzure Migrate

    Azure Migrate 是用于协调从 Azure 内部和从本地站点到 Azure 的迁移的主要 Azure 服务。Azure Migrate is the primary Azure service for orchestrating migration from within Azure and from on-premises sites to Azure.

    Azure Migrate 协调从本地位置复制到 Azure 的情况。Azure Migrate orchestrates replication from on-premises locations to Azure. 设置并运行复制后,本地计算机可故障转移到 Azure,从而完成迁移。When replication is set up and running, on-premises machines can be failed over to Azure, completing the migration.

    Contoso 已经 完成了 POC ,了解 Azure Migrate 如何帮助其迁移到云。Contoso already completed a POC to see how Azure Migrate can help it to migrate to the cloud.

    使用大规模 Azure MigrateUse Azure Migrate at scale

    Contoso 计划执行多个提升和移动迁移。Contoso plans to perform multiple lift-and-shift migrations. 为了确保其正常工作,Azure Migrate 会一次复制大约 100 Vm 的批次。To ensure that this works, Azure Migrate will replicate batches of around 100 VMs at a time. 为了确定此功能的工作原理,Contoso 必须为建议的迁移执行容量规划。To determine how this will work, Contoso must perform capacity planning for the proposed migration.

    Contoso 需要收集有关其流量卷的信息。Contoso needs to gather information about their traffic volumes. 具体而言:In particular:

    • 它需要确定要复制的 Vm 的更改速率。It needs to determine the rate of change for VMs that it wants to replicate.
    • 它需要从本地站点到 Azure 的网络连接。It needs to take network connectivity from the on-premises site to Azure into account.

    在响应容量和卷要求方面,Contoso 需要根据所需 VM 的每日数据更改率分配足够的带宽,以满足其恢复点目标 (RPO)。In response to capacity and volume requirements, Contoso will need to allocate sufficient bandwidth based on the daily data change rate for the required VMs, to meet its recovery point objective (RPO). 最后,必须确定运行 Azure Migrate 组件进行部署所需的服务器数量。Last, it must determine how many servers are needed to run the Azure Migrate components for the deployment.

    收集本地信息Gather on-premises information

    Contoso 可以使用 Azure Migrate:Contoso can use Azure Migrate:

    • 远程分析 Vm 而不影响生产环境。To remotely profile VMs without an impact on the production environment. 这有助于找出用于复制和故障转移的带宽和存储要求。This helps pinpoint bandwidth and storage requirements for replication and failover.
    • 无需在本地安装任何 Site Recovery 组件。Without installing any Site Recovery components on-premises.

    此工具将收集有关兼容的和不兼容 VM、每个 VM 的磁盘以及每个磁盘数据变化的信息。The tool gathers information about compatible and incompatible VMs, disks per VM, and data churn per disk. 它还确定了成功复制和故障转移所需的网络带宽要求和 Azure 基础结构。It also identifies network bandwidth requirements and the Azure infrastructure needed for successful replication and failover.

    Contoso 需要确保它在 Windows Server 计算机上运行 planner 工具,该计算机符合 Site Recovery 配置服务器的最低要求。Contoso needs to ensure that it runs the planner tool on a Windows Server machine that matches the minimum requirements for the Site Recovery configuration server. 配置服务器是复制本地 VMware Vm 所需的 Site Recovery 计算机。The configuration server is a Site Recovery machine that's needed to replicate on-premises VMware VMs.

    确定 Site Recovery 需求Identify Site Recovery requirements

    除了要复制的 VM 外,Site Recovery 还需要若干组件,用于进行 VMware 迁移。In addition to the VMs being replicated, Site Recovery requires several components for VMware migration.

    组件Component 详细信息Details
    配置服务器Configuration server
  • 通常是通过 OVF 模板配置的 VMware VM。Usually a VMware VM configured through an OVF template.
  • 配置服务器组件在本地与 Azure 之间协调通信,并管理数据复制。The configuration server component coordinates communications between on-premises and Azure, and it manages data replication.
  • 进程服务器Process server
  • 默认安装在配置服务器上。Installed by default on the configuration server.
  • 进程服务器组件接收复制数据;通过缓存、压缩和加密对其进行优化;并将其发送到 Azure 存储。The process server component receives replication data; optimizes it with caching, compression, and encryption; and sends it to Azure Storage.
  • 进程服务器还在要复制的 Vm 上安装 Azure Site Recovery 移动服务,并执行本地计算机的自动发现。The process server also installs the Azure Site Recovery Mobility service on VMs that you want to replicate, and performs automatic discovery of on-premises machines.
  • 缩放后的部署需要其他独立进程服务器才能处理大量的复制流量。Scaled deployments need additional, standalone process servers to handle large volumes of replication traffic.
  • 移动服务Mobility service
  • 移动服务代理安装在将与 Azure Site Recovery 一起迁移的每个 VMware VM 上。The Mobility service agent is installed on each VMware VM that will be migrated with Azure Site Recovery.
  • Contoso 需要了解如何根据容量注意事项部署这些组件。Contoso needs to figure out how to deploy these components, based on capacity considerations.


    组件Component 容量需求Capacity requirements
    最大每日更改率Maximum daily change rate
  • 单个进程服务器可处理的每日更改率最高可达 2 tb (TB) 。A single process server can handle a daily change rate up to 2 terabytes (TB). 由于 VM 只能使用一个进程服务器,因此,复制的 VM 支持的最大每日数据更改率为 2 TB。Because a VM can only use one process server, the maximum daily data change rate that's supported for a replicated VM is 2 TB.
  • 最大吞吐量Maximum throughput
  • 一个标准 Azure 存储帐户每秒最多可以处理 20,000 个请求。A standard Azure Storage account can handle a maximum of 20,000 requests per second. 每秒 i/o 操作数 (跨复制 VM) 的 IOPS 应超过此限制。I/O operations per second (IOPS) across a replicating VM should be within this limit. 例如,如果 VM 有5个磁盘,每个磁盘在 VM 上生成 120 IOPS (8K 大小) ,则在 Azure 每个磁盘的 IOPS 限制为500。For example, if a VM has 5 disks, and each disk generates 120 IOPS (8K size) on the VM, then it will be within the Azure per-disk IOPS limit of 500.
  • 所需的存储帐户数等于源计算机总 IOPS 除以20000。The number of storage accounts needed equals the total source machine IOPS divided by 20,000. 复制的计算机只能属于 Azure 中的单个存储帐户。A replicated machine can belong to only a single storage account in Azure.
  • 配置服务器Configuration server 根据 Contoso 估计将100复制到 200 Vm 以及 配置服务器大小要求,contoso 估计需要以下类型的服务器计算机配置:Based on Contoso's estimate of replicating 100 to 200 VMs together and the configuration server sizing requirements, Contoso estimates that it needs the following type of server machine configuration:
  • CPU:16个 vcpu (2 个套接字 × 8 个核心 @ 2.5 GHz) CPU: 16 vCPUs (2 sockets × 8 cores @ 2.5 GHz)
  • 内存:32 GBMemory: 32 GB
  • 缓存磁盘:1 TBCache disk: 1 TB
  • 数据更改率:1到 2 TBData change rate: 1 to 2 TB
    除调整规模要求以外,Contoso 还必须确保配置服务器在与要迁移的 Vm 相同的网络和 LAN 网段上都处于最佳状态。In addition to sizing requirements, Contoso must ensure that the configuration server is optimally located on the same network and LAN segment as the VMs to be migrated.
  • 进程服务器Process server Contoso 将部署独立的专用进程服务器,以便能够将100复制到 200 Vm:Contoso will deploy a standalone dedicated process server with the ability to replicate 100 to 200 VMs:
  • CPU:16个 vcpu (2 个套接字 × 8 个核心 @ 2.5 GHz) CPU: 16 vCPUs (2 sockets × 8 cores @ 2.5 GHz)
  • 内存:32 GBMemory: 32 GB
  • 缓存磁盘:1 TBCache disk: 1 TB
  • 数据更改率:1到 2 TBData change rate: 1 to 2 TB
    进程服务器会很难工作,因此它位于可以处理复制所需的磁盘 i/o、网络流量和 CPU 的 ESXi 主机上。The process server will be working hard, so it's located on an ESXi host that can handle the disk I/O, network traffic, and CPU required for the replication. 为此,Contoso 将考虑使用专用主机。Contoso will consider a dedicated host for this purpose.
  • 网络Networking
  • Contoso 已经查看了当前的站点到站点 VPN 基础结构,并决定实现 Azure ExpressRoute。Contoso has reviewed the current Site-to-Site VPN infrastructure and decided to implement Azure ExpressRoute. 实现非常重要,因为它会降低延迟并提高 Contoso 的主要 Azure 区域 () 的带宽 East US 2The implementation is critical because it will lower latency and improve bandwidth to Contoso's primary Azure region (East US 2).
  • Contoso 需要密切监视源自进程服务器的数据流。Contoso will need to carefully monitor data flowing from the process server. 如果数据重载网络带宽,Contoso 会考虑 限制进程服务器带宽If the data overloads the network bandwidth, Contoso will consider throttling the process server bandwidth.
  • Azure 存储Azure Storage
  • 对于迁移,Contoso 必须确定正确的目标 Azure 存储帐户类型和数量。For migration, Contoso must identify the right type and number of target Azure Storage accounts. Site Recovery 将 VM 数据复制到 Azure 存储。Site Recovery replicates VM data to Azure Storage.
  • Site Recovery 可以复制到标准或高级 SSD 存储帐户。Site Recovery can replicate to standard or premium SSD storage accounts.
  • 若要确定存储空间,Contoso 必须查看 存储限制 ,并考虑预计的增长和未来增加的使用量。To decide about storage, Contoso must review storage limits and consider expected growth and future increased usage. 由于迁移的速度和优先级,Contoso 决定使用高级 Ssd。Given the speed and priority of migrations, Contoso has decided to use premium SSDs.
  • Contoso 已决定将托管磁盘用于部署到 Azure 的所有 Vm。Contoso has decided to use managed disks for all VMs deployed to Azure. 所需的 IOPS 将帮助确定磁盘是标准 HDD、标准 SSD 还是高级 SSD。The IOPS required will help determine whether the disks will be standard HDD, standard SSD, or premium SSD.
  • Azure 数据库迁移服务Azure Database Migration Service

    Azure 数据库迁移服务是一项完全托管的服务,可实现从多个数据库源到 Azure 数据平台的无缝迁移,且停机时间最短。Azure Database Migration Service is a fully managed service that enables seamless migrations from multiple database sources to Azure data platforms with minimal downtime. 下面是有关服务的一些详细信息:Here are some details about the service:

    • 它集成了现有工具和服务的功能。It integrates functionality of existing tools and services. 它使用数据迁移助手来生成评估报告,以确定有关数据库兼容性和任何所需修改的建议。It uses Data Migration Assistant to generate assessment reports that pinpoint recommendations about database compatibility and any required modifications.
    • 它使用一种简单的自助引导式迁移过程,其中包含智能评估功能,可帮助在迁移前解决潜在问题。It uses a simple, self-guided migration process with intelligent assessment that helps address potential issues before the migration.
    • 它可以从多个源大规模迁移到目标 Azure 数据库。It can migrate at scale from multiple sources to the target Azure database.
    • 它从 SQL Server 2005 到 SQL Server 2017 提供支持。It provides support from SQL Server 2005 to SQL Server 2017.

    数据库迁移服务不是唯一的 Microsoft 数据库迁移工具。Database Migration Service isn't the only Microsoft database migration tool. 获取工具和服务比较Get a comparison of tools and services.

    大规模使用数据库迁移服务Use Database Migration Service at scale

    在从 SQL Server 迁移时,Contoso 将使用数据库迁移服务。Contoso will use Database Migration Service when migrating from SQL Server.

    预配数据库迁移服务时,Contoso 需要正确调整其大小,并将其设置为优化数据迁移的性能。When provisioning Database Migration Service, Contoso needs to size it correctly and set it to optimize performance for data migrations. Contoso 将选择具有四个 Vcore 的服务层业务关键。Contoso will select the Business Critical service tier with four vCores. 此选项允许服务利用多个个 vcpu 进行并行化和更快的数据传输。This option allows the service to take advantage of multiple vCPUs for parallelization and faster data transfer.

    显示数据库迁移服务缩放,并选中业务关键选项的屏幕截图。

    Contoso 可以使用的另一种缩放策略是在数据迁移过程中将 Azure SQL 数据库或 Azure Database for MySQL 目标实例暂时扩展到高级定价层。Another scaling tactic that Contoso can use is to temporarily scale up the Azure SQL Database or Azure Database for MySQL target instance to the Premium pricing tier during data migration. 这可以最大程度地减少在组织使用较低层时可能影响数据传输活动的数据库限制。This minimizes database throttling that might affect data transfer activities when an organization is using lower tiers.

    使用其他工具Use other tools

    除了数据库迁移服务,Contoso 还可以使用其他工具和服务来标识 VM 信息:In addition to Database Migration Service, Contoso can use other tools and services to identify VM information:

    • 用于帮助进行手动迁移的脚本。Scripts to help with manual migrations. 这些脚本在 GitHub 存储库中提供。These are available in the GitHub repo.
    • 用于迁移的各种 合作伙伴工具Various partner tools for migration.

    <--docutune:忽略 "成本管理工具"--><-- docutune:ignore "cost management tools" -->

    生产准备就绪Ready for production

    Contoso 将资源移动到 Azure 后,需要对其进行简化,以提高性能并最大限度地利用成本管理工具。After Contoso moves resources to Azure, it needs to streamline them to improve performance, and maximize ROI with cost management tools. 由于 Azure 是一种使用中的服务,因此 Contoso 需要了解系统的执行方式,并确保其大小正确。Because Azure is a pay-for-use service, it's critical for Contoso to understand how systems are performing and to ensure they're sized properly.

    Azure 成本管理 + 计费Azure Cost Management + Billing

    为了充分利用云投资,Contoso 将利用免费的 Azure 成本管理 + 计费工具。To make the most of their cloud investment, Contoso will take advantage of the free Azure Cost Management + Billing tool. 此解决方案可让 Contoso 管理透明性和准确性的云支出。This solution allows Contoso to manage cloud spending with transparency and accuracy. 它提供了许多用于监视、分配和降低云成本的工具。It provides tools to monitor, allocate, and trim cloud costs.

    Azure 成本管理 + 计费提供简单的仪表板报表,以帮助进行成本分摊、showback 和退款。Azure Cost Management + Billing provides simple dashboard reports to help with cost allocation, showbacks, and chargebacks. 该工具通过识别 Contoso 可以管理和调整的未充分利用的资源来帮助优化云支出。The tool can help optimize cloud spending by identifying underutilized resources that Contoso can then manage and adjust.

    有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 成本管理和计费You can learn more in an overview of Azure Cost Management + Billing.

    Azure 成本管理中的一段时间内成本示例图形的屏幕截图。

    本机工具Native tools

    Contoso 还将使用脚本来查找未使用的资源。Contoso will also use scripts to locate unused resources.

    在大型迁移过程中,通常会有剩余的数据片段,如虚拟硬盘驱动器,这会产生费用,但不会向公司提供任何价值。During large migrations, there are often leftover pieces of data such as virtual hard drives, which incur a charge but provide no value to the company. GitHub存储库中提供了脚本。Scripts are available in the GitHub repo.

    Contoso 将利用由 Microsoft IT 部门完成的工作,并考虑实现 Azure 资源优化 (ARO) 工具包。Contoso will take advantage of work done by Microsoft's IT department and consider implementing the Azure Resource Optimization (ARO) toolkit. 该工具包也位于 GitHub 存储库中。The toolkit is also in the GitHub repo.

    Contoso 可以将包含预配置 runbook 和计划的 Azure 自动化帐户部署到其订阅中,并开始省钱。Contoso can deploy an Azure Automation account with preconfigured runbooks and schedules to its subscription, and start saving money. 启用或创建计划后,将在订阅上自动执行资源优化,包括对新资源的优化。Resource optimization happens automatically on a subscription after a schedule is enabled or created, including optimization on new resources. 这可提供分散式自动化功能,以降低成本。This provides decentralized automation capabilities to reduce costs. 功能包括:Features include:

    • 基于 CPU 使用率较低的 Autosnooze Azure Vm。Autosnooze Azure VMs based on low CPU utilization.
    • 计划暂停或取消暂停 Azure VM。Schedule Azure VMs to snooze and unsnooze.
    • 使用 Azure 标记按升序和降序安排 Azure Vm 的暂停或 unsnooze。Schedule Azure VMs to snooze or unsnooze in ascending and descending order by using Azure tags.
    • 按需批量删除资源组。Bulk-delete resource groups on demand.

    合作伙伴优化工具Partner optimization tools

    Contoso 可以使用 HanuScalr等合作伙伴工具。Contoso can use partner tools such as Hanu and Scalr.

    步骤4:安全和管理Step 4: Secure and manage

    Contoso 使用 Azure 安全和管理资源执行此步骤来控制、保护和监视 Azure 中的云应用程序。Contoso uses Azure security and management resources during this step to govern, secure, and monitor cloud applications in Azure. 当使用 Azure 门户中提供的产品时,这些资源可帮助组织运行安全且管理良好的环境。These resources help an organization run a secure and well-managed environment while using products available in the Azure portal.

    Contoso 会在迁移过程中开始使用这些服务。Contoso begins using these services during migration. 使用 Azure 混合支持,Contoso 继续使用其中的许多方法,以实现跨混合云的一致体验。With Azure hybrid support, Contoso continues using many of them for a consistent experience across the hybrid cloud.

    安全性Security

    Contoso 将依赖 Azure 安全中心来实现统一的安全管理,并依赖于跨混合云工作负荷的 Microsoft Defender 标识。Contoso will rely on Azure Security Center for unified security management and Microsoft Defender for Identity across hybrid cloud workloads.

    安全中心提供对 Azure 中云应用程序的安全性的全面了解。Security Center provides full visibility into and control over the security of cloud applications in Azure. Contoso 能够启用具有适应性的威胁防护,快速检测威胁并采取应对措施,从而降低安全风险。Contoso can quickly detect and take action in response to threats, and reduce security exposure by enabling adaptive threat protection.

    了解有关 安全中心的详细信息。Learn more about Security Center.

    监视Monitoring

    Contoso 需要了解当前在 Azure 中运行的新迁移应用程序、基础结构和数据的运行状况和性能。Contoso needs visibility into the health and performance of the newly migrated applications, infrastructure, and data now running in Azure. Contoso 将使用内置的 Azure 云监视工具,例如 Azure Monitor、Log Analytics 工作区和 Application Insights。Contoso will use built-in Azure cloud monitoring tools such as Azure Monitor, a Log Analytics workspace, and Application Insights.

    Contoso 可以使用这些工具轻松地从源收集数据并获得见解。By using these tools, Contoso can easily collect data from sources and gain insights. 例如,Contoso 可测量 VM 的 CPU 磁盘和内存利用率,查看多个 VM 之间的应用程序和网络依赖项,并跟踪应用程序性能。For example, Contoso can gauge CPU disk and memory utilization for VMs, view applications and network dependencies across multiple VMs, and track application performance. Contoso 将使用这些云监视工具来执行操作并将其与服务解决方案集成。Contoso will use these cloud monitoring tools to take action and integrate with service solutions.

    了解有关 Azure 监视的详细信息。Learn more about Azure monitoring.

    业务连续性和灾难恢复Business continuity and disaster recovery

    Contoso 需要 BCDR 的业务连续性和灾难恢复 (的 Azure 资源) 策略。Contoso will need a business continuity and disaster recovery (BCDR) strategy for its Azure resources.

    Azure 提供 内置的 BCDR 功能 来帮助保护数据,并使应用程序和服务保持运行。Azure provides built-in BCDR features to help protect data and keep applications and services running.

    除内置功能外,Contoso 还希望确保其可以从故障中恢复,避免成本高昂的业务中断,满足符合性目标,并保护数据免受勒索软件和人为错误侵害。In addition to built-in features, Contoso wants to ensure that it can recover from failures, avoid costly business disruptions, meet compliance goals, and protect data against ransomware and human errors. 要执行此操作:To do this:

    • Contoso 将部署 Azure 备份作为 Azure 资源备份的经济解决方案。Contoso will deploy Azure Backup as a cost-efficient solution for backup of Azure resources. 由于它是内置的,Contoso 可以通过几个简单的步骤来设置云备份。Because it's built in, Contoso can set up cloud backups in a few simple steps.
    • Contoso 将使用用于复制、故障转移和指定的 Azure 区域之间的故障回复的 Azure Site Recovery 为 Azure Vm 设置灾难恢复。Contoso will set up disaster recovery for Azure VMs by using Azure Site Recovery for replication, failover, and failback between Azure regions that it specifies. 这可确保 Azure Vm 上运行的应用程序在 Contoso 选择的次要区域中仍可用,如果主要区域发生中断。This ensures that applications running on Azure VMs remain available in a secondary region of Contoso's choosing if an outage occurs in the primary region. 了解详细信息Learn more.

    结束语Conclusion

    在本文中,Contoso 计划大规模迁移到 Azure。In this article, Contoso planned for an Azure migration at scale. 它将迁移过程分为四个阶段。It divided the migration process into four stages. 迁移完成后,从评估和迁移中运行的阶段到优化、安全性和管理。The stages ran from assessment and migration, through to optimization, security, and management after migration was complete.

    组织必须将迁移项目规划为整个过程,并通过将集细分为业务的分类和数量来迁移其系统,这一点非常重要。It's important for an organization to plan a migration project as a whole process and to migrate its systems by breaking down sets into classifications and numbers that make sense for the business. 通过评估数据和应用分类,可以将项目分解为一系列较小的迁移,这些迁移可安全快速地运行。By assessing data and applying classifications, projects can be broken down into a series of smaller migrations, which can run safely and rapidly. 这些较小迁移的总和可以快速转变成指向 Azure 的大型成功迁移。The sum of these smaller migrations quickly turns into a large successful migration to Azure.