云采用框架迁移模型Cloud Adoption Framework migration model
云采用框架的这一部分介绍其迁移模型背后的原则。This section of the Cloud Adoption Framework explains the principles behind its migration model. 本内容尽可能保持供应商中立立场，同时指导你完成可应用于任何云迁移（不论选择哪个云供应商）的流程和活动。Wherever possible, this content attempts to maintain a vendor-neutral position while guiding you through the processes and activities that can be applied to any cloud migration, regardless of your chosen cloud vendor.
了解迁移动机Understand migration motivations
云迁移是巧妙伪装成技术实施的项目组合管理工作。Cloud migration is a portfolio management effort, cleverly disguised as a technical implementation. 迁移过程中，你将决定迁移部分资产、投资其他资产以及停用过时或未用资产。During the migration process, you will decide to move some assets, invest in others, and retire obsolete or unused assets. 在此过程中，将优化、重构或完全替换部分资产。Some assets will be optimized, refactored, or replaced entirely as part of this process. 所有决策都应与云迁移背后的动机保持一致。Each of these decisions should align with the motivations behind your cloud migration. 最成功的迁移还会更进一步，保持这些决策与所需业务成果一致。The most successful migrations also go a step further and align these decisions with desired business outcomes.
云采用框架迁移模型取决于你的组织是否已完成云采用的业务就绪流程。The Cloud Adoption Framework migration model depends on your organization having completed a process of business readiness for cloud adoption. 确保已查看云采用框架中的计划方法和就绪方法指南，确定云迁移的业务驱动因素或其他理由，以及在大规模执行迁移流程之前需要的任何必要的组织规划或培训。Make sure you have reviewed the Plan methodology and the Ready methodology guidance in the Cloud Adoption Framework to determine the business drivers or other justification for a cloud migration, as well as any required organizational planning or training required before executing a migration process at scale.
业务规划至关重要，而成长型思维也同样重要。While business planning is important, a growth mindset is equally important. 在云策略团队进行更为广泛的业务规划工作的同时，云采用团队应该开始迁移第一个工作负荷，作为更大规模迁移工作的先导。In parallel with broader business planning efforts by the cloud strategy team, it's suggested that the cloud adoption team begin migrating a first workload as a precursor to wider scale migration efforts. 团队可通过此初始迁移获取迁移过程中涉及的关于业务和技术问题的实践经验。This initial migration will allow the team to gain practical experience with the business and technical issues involved in a migration.
构想最终状态Envision an end state
开始迁移工作之前，务必建立对最终状态的大致了解。It's important to establish a rough vision of your end state before starting your migration efforts. 下图显示基础结构、应用程序和数据的本地起点，它定义了“数字资产”。The following diagram shows an on-premises starting point of infrastructure, applications, and data, which defines your digital estate. 迁移过程中，这些资产通过合理化的五个 R 中所述五个迁移策略中的一个进行转换。During the migration process, those assets are transitioned using one of the five migration strategies described in the five Rs of rationalization.
工作负载的迁移和现代化包括使用基础结构即服务 (IaaS) 功能的简单“重新托管”迁移（也称为“直接迁移”）（无需更改代码和应用程序）、“重构”（所需更改最少）、“重塑架构”（修改并扩展代码和应用程序功能以利用云技术） 。Migration and modernization of workloads range from simple rehost migrations (also called lift and shift migrations) using infrastructure as a service (IaaS) capabilities that don't require code and application changes, through refactoring with minimal changes, to rearchitecting to modify and extend code and application functionality to take advantage of cloud technologies.
云原生策略和平台即服务 (PaaS) 策略使用 Azure 平台产品/服务和托管服务重新生成本地工作负载。Cloud-native strategies and platform as a service (PaaS) strategies rebuild on-premises workloads using Azure platform offerings and managed services. 迁移过程中，通常会将具有基于云的等效完全托管软件即服务 (SaaS) 产品/服务的工作负载完全替换为这些服务。Workloads that have equivalent fully managed software as a service (SaaS) cloud-based offerings can often be fully replaced by these services as part of the migration process.
在云采用框架的公开预览期间，该框架的这一部分强调了主机转换迁移策略。During the public preview of the Cloud Adoption Framework, this section of the framework emphasizes a rehost migration strategy. 虽然将 PaaS 和 SaaS 解决方案作为合适情况下的替代方案进行了讨论，但使用 IaaS 功能的基于虚拟机的工作负载迁移才是主要关注对象。Although PaaS and SaaS solutions are discussed as alternatives when appropriate, the migration of virtual machine-based workloads using IaaS capabilities is the primary focus.
本内容的其他部分和未来迭代将扩展到其他方法。Other sections and future iterations of this content will expand on other approaches. 有关扩展迁移范围以包含更复杂迁移策略的高层次讨论，请参阅均衡项目组合一文。For a high-level discussion on expanding the scope of your migration to include more complicated migration strategies, see the article balancing the portfolio.
云采用框架迁移模型基于增量云转换过程。The Cloud Adoption Framework migration model is based on an incremental cloud transformation process. 它假定组织将从最初的范围有限的云迁移工作着手，我们通常将其称为第一个工作负载。It assumes that your organization will start with an initial, limited-scope, cloud migration effort, which we refer to commonly as the first workload. 随着运营团队调整和改进迁移流程，此工作将迭代扩展以包含更多工作负载。This effort will expand iteratively to include more workloads as your operations teams refine and improve your migration processes.
Azure Site Recovery 等云迁移工具可迁移包含上万个 VM 的整个数据中心。Cloud migrations tools like Azure Site Recovery can migrate entire datacenters consisting of tens of thousands of VMs. 但业务和现有 IT 运营很少能够应对如此高速的变化。However, the business and existing IT operations can seldom handle such a high pace of change. 因此，许多组织将迁移工作分解为多个迭代，每次迭代移动一个工作负载（或工作负载集合）。As such many organizations break up a migration effort into multiple iterations, moving one workload (or a collection of workloads) per iteration.
此增量模型背后的原则基于以下信息图中所引用的流程执行结果和先决条件。The principles behind this incremental model are based on the execution of processes and prerequisites referenced in the following infographic.
这些原则的一致应用表示云迁移流程的最终目标，而不应视为必需的起点。The consistent application of these principles represents an end goal for your cloud migration processes and should not be viewed as a required starting point. 随着迁移工作的完善，请参阅本部分的指导，帮助定义支持组织需求的最佳流程。As your migration efforts mature, refer to the guidance in this section to help define the best process to support your organizational needs.