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促销模型:单步、暂存或航班Promotion models: Single-step, staged, or flight

工作负荷迁移经常作为单个活动进行讨论。Workload migration is often discussed as a single activity. 在实践中,这是一系列较小活动的集合,有助于将数字资产移动到云。In practice, it's a collection of smaller activities that facilitate the movement of a digital asset to the cloud. 迁移中的最后一个活动是将资产提升到生产环境。One of the last activities in a migration is the promotion of an asset to production. 提升是生产系统为最终用户进行变更的节点。Promotion is the point at which the production system changes for end users. 它通常可以像更改网络路由一样简单,将最终用户重定向到新的生产资产。It can often be as simple as changing the network routing, redirecting end users to the new production asset. 提升也是 IT 运营部门或云运营部门将运营管理流程的重点从以前的生产系统转变为新的生产系统的关键点。Promotion is also the point at which IT operations or cloud operations change the focus of operational management processes from the previous production system to the new production systems.

有几种提升模型。There are several promotion models. 本文概述了云迁移中使用的三种最常见的模型。This article outlines three of the most common ones used in cloud migrations. 选择提升模型会更改迁移和优化过程中的活动。The choice of a promotion model changes the activities seen within the migrate and optimize processes. 因此,在发布早期就应决定提升模型。As such, promotion model should be decided early in a release.

提升模型对迁移和优化活动的影响Impact of promotion model on migrate and optimize activities

在以下每种提升模型中,所选迁移工具会复制和暂存构成工作负荷的资产。In each of the following promotion models, the chosen migration tool replicates and stages the assets that make up a workload. 在暂存后,每个模型对资产的处理方式略有不同。After staging, each model treats the asset a bit differently.

  • 单步提升。Single-step promotion. 在单步提升模型中,分阶段过程将代替提升过程。In a single-step promotion model, the staging process doubles as the promotion process. 在暂存所有资产后,将重新路由最终用户流量,分阶段过程将变为生产。After all assets are staged, end-user traffic is rerouted and staging becomes production. 在这种情况下,提升是迁移过程的一部分。In such a case, promotion is part of the migration process. 这是最快的迁移模型。This is the fastest migration model. 但是,这种方法使得集成稳健的测试或优化活动变得更加困难。However, this approach makes it more difficult to integrate robust testing or optimization activities. 此外,这种类型的模型假定迁移团队有权访问过渡环境和生产环境,这会损害某些环境中的职责分离。Further, this type of model assumes that the migration team has access to the staging and production environment, which compromises separation of duties in some environments.

    备注

    此站点的目录列出了优化过程中的提升活动。The table of contents for this site lists the promotion activity as part of the optimize process. 在单步模式下,在迁移阶段发生升级。In a single-step model, promotion occurs during the migration phase. 使用此模型时,应更新角色和职责以反映这一点。When using this model, roles and responsibilities should be updated to reflect this.

  • 分段.Staged. 在分阶段提升模型中,工作负荷在暂存后被视为已迁移,但尚未提升。In a staged promotion model, the workload is considered migrated after it is staged, but it is not yet promoted. 在提升之前,迁移的工作负荷会经历一系列性能测试、业务测试和优化更改。Prior to promotion, the migrated workload undergoes a series of performance tests, business tests, and optimization changes. 然后,它将在将来的某个日期与业务测试计划一起提升。It is then promoted at a future date in conjunction with a business test plan. 这种方法改善了成本和性能之间的平衡,同时使得更容易获得业务验证。This approach improves the balance between cost and performance, while making it easier to obtain business validation.
  • 发布外部测试版。Flight. 发布外部测试版提升模型结合了单步提升和分阶段提升模型。The flight promotion model combines single-step and staged models. 在发布外部测试版模型中,工作负荷中的资产在暂存完成后被视为生产。In a flight model, the assets in the workload are treated like production after landing in staging. 经过短时间的自动测试后,将生产流量路由到工作负荷。After a condensed period of automated testing, production traffic is routed to the workload. 不过,这是流量的子集。However, it is a subset of the traffic. 该流量充当生产和测试的第一个外部测试版。That traffic serves as the first flight of production and testing. 假定工作负荷从功能和性能的角度执行,则会迁移额外的流量。Assuming the workload performs from a feature and performance perspective, additional traffic is migrated. 将所有生产流量转移到新资产后,会将工作负荷视为完全提升。After all production traffic has been moved onto the new assets, the workload is considered fully promoted.

所选的提升模型将影响要执行的活动顺序。The chosen promotion model affects the sequence of activities to be performed. 它还会影响云采用团队的角色和职责。It also affects the roles and responsibilities of the cloud adoption team. 它甚至可能会影响冲刺 (sprint) 或多个冲刺 (sprint) 的组合。It may even impact the composition of a sprint or multiple sprints.

单步提升Single-step promotion

此模型使用迁移自动化工具来复制、暂存和提升资产。This model uses migration automation tools to replicate, stage, and promote assets. 资产将复制到由迁移工具控制的可用于存储的暂存环境中。The assets are replicated into a contained staging environment controlled by the migration tool. 复制所有资产后,工具可以执行自动化过程,以便在单个步骤中将资产提升到所选的订阅。After all assets have been replicated, the tool can execute an automated process to promote the assets into the chosen subscription in a single step. 在暂存期间,该工具会继续复制资产,从而最大限度地减少两个环境之间的数据丢失。While in staging, the tool continues to replicate the asset, minimizing loss of data between the two environments. 提升资产后,源系统与复制的系统之间的链接将会断开。After an asset is promoted, the linkage between the source system and the replicated system is severed. 在此方法中,如果初始源系统中发生了其他更改,则更改将丢失。In this approach, if additional changes occur in the initial source systems, the changes are lost.

专业人员.Pros. 此方法的优点包括:Positive benefits of this approach include:

  • 此模型引入的目标系统更改更少。This model introduces less change to the target systems.
  • 连续复制可最大限度地减少数据丢失。Continuous replication minimizes data loss.
  • 如果临时进程失败,可以快速删除并重复该过程。If a staging process fails, it can quickly be deleted and repeated.
  • 复制和重复的分阶段测试可实现渐进式脚本和测试过程。Replication and repeated staging tests enable an incremental scripting and testing process.

各有利弊.Cons. 此方法的缺点包括:Negative aspects of this approach include:

  • 在不依赖工具的沙盒内暂存的资产不允许使用复杂的测试模型。Assets staged within the tools-isolated sandbox don't allow for complex testing models.
  • 在复制过程中,迁移工具会消耗本地数据中心的带宽。During replication, the migration tool consumes bandwidth in the local datacenter. 在较长时间内暂存大量资产会对可用带宽产生指数影响,从而影响迁移过程,并可能影响本地环境中生产工作负荷的性能。Staging a large volume of assets over an extended duration has an exponential impact on available bandwidth, hurting the migration process and potentially affecting performance of production workloads in the on-premises environment.

分阶段提升Staged promotion

在此模型中,迁移工具管理的暂存沙盒用于有限范围的测试目的。In this model, the staging sandbox managed by the migration tool is used for limited testing purposes. 然后,已复制的资产将部署到云环境中,云环境可用作扩展暂存环境。The replicated assets are then deployed into the cloud environment, which serves as an extended staging environment. 迁移的资产在云中运行,同时复制、暂存和迁移其他资产。The migrated assets run in the cloud, while additional assets are replicated, staged, and migrated. 当完整工作负荷可用时,将启动更丰富的测试。When full workloads become available, richer testing is initiated. 迁移与订阅关联的所有资产后,订阅和所有托管的工作负荷将提升到生产环境。When all assets associated with a subscription have been migrated, the subscription and all hosted workloads are promoted to production. 在这种情况下,提升过程中不会对工作负荷进行任何更改。In this scenario, there is no change to the workloads during the promotion process. 相反,更改往往体现在网络和标识层,将用户路由到新环境,并撤消云采用团队的访问权限。Instead, the changes tend to be at the network and identity layers, routing users to the new environment and revoking access of the cloud adoption team.

专业人员.Pros. 此方法的优点包括:Positive benefits of this approach include:

  • 此模型可提供更准确的业务测试机会。This model provides more accurate business testing opportunities.
  • 可以更密切地研究工作负荷,从而更好地优化资产的性能和成本。The workload can be studied more closely to better optimize performance and cost of the assets.
  • 可以在类似的时间和带宽限制内复制更多数量的资产。A larger numbers of assets can be replicated within similar time and bandwidth constraints.

各有利弊.Cons. 此方法的缺点包括:Negative aspects of this approach include:

  • 迁移后,所选迁移工具无法加速正在进行的复制。The chosen migration tool can't facilitate ongoing replication after migration.
  • 在分阶段的时间框架内,需要通过辅助数据复制方式来同步数据平台。A secondary means of data replication is required to synchronize data platforms during the staged time frame.

发布外部测试版提升Flight promotion

此模型类似于分阶段提升模型。This model is similar to the staged promotion model. 不过,有一个根本差别。However, there is one fundamental difference. 当订阅准备好进行提升时,最终用户路由会通过分阶段或发布外部测试版提升方式进行。When the subscription is ready for promotion, end-user routing happens in stages or flights. 在每次发布外部测试版时,将其他用户重新路由到生产系统。At each flight, additional users are rerouted to the production systems.

专业人员.Pros. 此方法的优点包括:Positive benefits of this approach include:

  • 此模型可降低与大型迁移或提升活动相关的风险。This model mitigates the risks associated with a big migration or promotion activity. 可以识别迁移的解决方案中的错误,同时减少对业务流程的影响。Errors in the migrated solution can be identified with less impact to business processes.
  • 它允许在更长的时间内监视云环境中的工作负荷性能需求,从而提高资产调整决策的准确性。It allows for monitoring of workload performance demands in the cloud environment for an extended duration, increasing accuracy of asset-sizing decisions.
  • 可以在类似的时间和带宽限制内复制更多数量的资产。Larger numbers of assets can be replicated within similar time and bandwidth constraints.

各有利弊.Cons. 此方法的缺点包括:Negative aspects of this approach include:

  • 迁移后,所选迁移工具无法加速正在进行的复制。The chosen migration tool can't facilitate ongoing replication after migration.
  • 在分阶段的时间框架内,需要通过辅助数据复制方式来同步数据平台。A secondary means of data replication is required to synchronize data platforms during the staged time frame.

后续步骤Next steps

在云采用团队定义和接受提升模型后,就可以开始修正资产了。After a promotion model is defined and accepted by the cloud adoption team, remediation of assets can begin.