追溯如何帮助建立成长型思维模式？How do retrospectives help build a growth mindset?
“文化能把战略当早餐吃。”"Culture eats strategy for breakfast." 如果最佳迁移计划不具备实现支持和鼓励，则可以轻松撤消。The best migration plan can easily be undone, if it doesn't have executive support and encouragement from leadership. 学习、成长甚至失败都是成长型思维模式的核心。Learning, growing, and even failure are at the heart of a growth mindset. 它们也是任何转换工作的核心。They're also at the heart of any transformation effort.
Humility 和好奇心绝不会比在业务转换期间更重要。Humility and curiosity are never more important than during a business transformation. 实现数字化转型需要有足够的谦虚和好奇心。Embracing digital transformation requires both in ample supply. 这些品质通过常规自检和激励环境来增强。These traits are strengthened by regular introspection and an environment of encouragement. 鼓励员工勇于冒险时，他们会发现更好的解决方案。When employees are encouraged to take risks, they find better solutions. 如果允许员工失败并学习，则他们会成功。When employees are allowed to fail and learn, they succeed. 追溯有助于进行此类调查并得到成长。Retrospectives are an opportunity for such investigation and growth.
追溯强化了成长型思维模式的原则：试验、测试、学习、分享、成长和授权。Retrospectives reinforce the principles of a growth mindset: experimentation, testing, learning, sharing, growing, and empowering. 它们为团队成员提供安全的位置来分担当前冲刺 (sprint) 中面临的挑战。They provide a safe place for team members to share the challenges faced in the current sprint. 并且允许团队讨论并协商应对这些挑战的方法。And they allow the team to discuss and collaborate on ways to overcome those challenges. 追溯赋予团队实现可持续增长的权限。Retrospectives empower the team to create sustainable growth.
任何搜索引擎上的快速搜索将提供多种不同的方法和工具来运行追溯。A quick search on any search engine will offer many different approaches and tools for running a retrospective. 这可能被证明有用，具体取决于团队的文化成熟度和经验水平。Depending on the maturity of the culture and experience level of the team, these could prove useful. 但是，追溯的一般结构仍然大致相同。However, the general structure of a retrospective remains roughly the same. 在这些会议中，预计团队的每个成员会针对以下三个基本问题做出一些构想：During these meetings, each member of the team is expected to contribute a thought regarding three basic questions:
- 哪些进展顺利？What went well?
- 哪些可以做得更好？What could have been better?
- 我们学到了什么？What did we learn?
尽管这些问题在本质上很简单，但它们要求员工暂停并反映上一个迭代中的工作。Although these questions are simple in nature, they require employees to pause and reflect on their work over the last iteration. 短暂暂停进行自检是成长型思维模式的主要构建基块。This small pause for introspection is the primary building block of a growth mindset. 分享答案时表现出的谦虚和诚实在约定的追溯会议时间之外可能仍具感染力。The humility and honesty produced when sharing the answers can become infectious beyond the time contract for the retrospective meeting.
领导在追溯中的角色Leadership's role in a retrospective
领导参与追溯的主题饱受争议。The topic of leadership involvement in a retrospective is highly debated. 许多技术团队建议任何级别的领导都不应参与该过程，因为这样可能会阻碍透明度和开放式对话。Many technical teams suggest that leaders of any level should not be involved in the process, since it could discourage transparency and open dialogue. 其他人表明追溯适合领导保持联系并寻找提供其他支持的方法。Others suggest that retrospectives are a good place for leaders to stay connected and to find ways to provide additional support. 此决定最好还是留给团队及其领导结构。This decision is best left to the team and its leadership structure.
如果领导参与追溯，则强烈建议发挥一个作用：If leaders are involved in the retrospective, one role is highly encouraged. 领导在追溯中的主要职责是使团队感到安全。The leader's primary duty in a retrospective is to make the team feel safe. 在文化范围内建立成长型思维模式要求员工随意分享失败与成功，而不必担心责备。Creating a growth mindset within a culture requires employees to be free to share their failures and successes without fear of rebuke. 赞扬承认缺点所需的勇气和谦虚的领导更有可能在其团队中建立成长型思维模式。Leaders who applaud the courage and humility required to admit shortcomings are more likely to see a growth mindset established in their teams. 当领导人对追溯中共享的数据点执行操作时，可能会看到此工具已成为低效的形式性。When leaders take action on data points shared in a retrospective, they're likely to see this tool become an ineffective formality.
高效的团队不只是运行追溯会议。Highly effective teams don't just run retrospective meetings. 他们还会运行实时追溯流程。They live retrospective processes. 这些会议中学到并分享的经验可能会影响流程、塑造未来工作，并帮助团队更有效地执行。The lessons learned and shared in these meetings can influence process, shape future work, and help the team execute more effectively. 追溯中学到的经验应帮助团队自然而然地成长。Lessons learned in a retrospective should help the team grow organically. 追溯的主要副产品是增加试验并改进团队学到的经验。The primary byproducts of a retrospective are an increase in experimentation and a refinement of the lessons learned by the team.
这种新增长清楚地在发布或迭代积压工作 (backlog) 的更改中呈现。That new growth is most tangibly represented in changes to the release or iteration backlog.
追溯标志着发布或迭代的结束，因为团队获得了经验，并调整了调整发布和迭代积压工作 (backlog)来反映要测试的新流程和试验。The retrospective marks the end of a release or iteration, as teams gain experience and learn lessons, and they adjust the adjust the release and iteration backlog to reflect new processes and experiments to be tested. 这会在迁移过程中开始下一次迭代。This starts the next iteration through the migration processes.