了解云操作模型Understand cloud operating models
通过采用云，让你有机会重新审视你操作技术系统的方式。Adopting the cloud creates an opportunity to revisit how you operate technology systems. 该系列文章将阐释会影响你的云采用策略的云操作模型和注意事项。This article series will clarify cloud operating models and the considerations that impact your cloud adoption strategy. 但首先，让我们来阐明“云操作模型”这一术语。But first, let's clarify the term cloud operating model.
定义操作模型Define your operating model
在部署云体系结构之前，请务必了解你想在云中如何操作。Before deploying your cloud architecture, it's important to understand how you want to operate in the cloud. 了解你的战略方向、人员组织和管护、风险以及符合性 (GRC) 需求，这有助于定义你未来形态的云操作模型。Understanding your strategic direction, people organization, and governance, risk, and compliance (GRC) needs helps define your future state cloud operating model. 然后，Azure 登陆区域可提供各种体系结构和实现选项来支持你的操作模型。Then, Azure landing zones can provide a variety of architecture and implementation options to support your operating model. 接下来的几篇文章将分享一些基本术语，并提供示例来讲解基于实际客户体验的常见操作模型，这些可共同指导你决定适当的 Azure 登陆区域用于实现。The next few articles will share a few foundational terms and provide examples of common operating models based on actual customer experiences, which together can guide your decision about the right Azure landing zone to implement.
什么是操作模型？What is an operating model?
在云技术出现之前，技术团队建立了操作模型来定义技术如何为业务提供支持。Prior to the existence of cloud technologies, technology teams established operating models to define how technology would support the business. 任何公司的 IT 操作模型都有众多因素，但一些因素仍然保持一致，它们是符合业务策略、人员组织、变更管理（或采用过程）、操作管理、管理/符合性以及安全性。Any company's IT operating model has a number of factors, but a few remain consistent: alignment to business strategy, organization of people, change management (or adoption processes), operations management, governance/compliance, and security. 每个因素对长期技术操作都至关重要。Each factor is essential to long-term technology operations.
当技术操作转型到云端时，这些重要的过程仍保持相关，但它们在某些方面可能出现了变化。When technology operations shift to the cloud, these vital processes are still relevant, but they're likely to change in some ways. 当前的操作模型在很大程度上关注的是实际位置中的物理资产，这些资产主要通过资本支出周期获得资金投入。Current operating models focus heavily on physical assets in physical locations funded largely through capital expenditure cycles. 这些资产用于支持企业维护企业运营所需的工作负载。These assets are used to support the workloads that the business needs to maintain business operations. 大多数操作模型的任务都是在底层物理资产的稳定性方面投入，从而优先考虑工作负载稳定性。The mission of most operating models is to prioritize stability of the workloads by investing in the stability of the underlying physical assets.
云操作模型有何不同？How is a cloud operating model different?
硬件堆栈中的冗余是一个永无止境的循环。Redundancy in the hardware stack is a never-ending cycle. 物理硬件会出故障。Physical hardware breaks down. 性能会降级。Performance degrades. 硬件的降级很少与组织资本支出计划周期的可预测预算周期一致。The degradation of hardware rarely aligns with the predictable budgetary cycles of an organization's capital expenditure planning cycles. 在云中操作会将焦点向上游移到数字资产（操作系统、应用程序和数据），从而打破单调枯燥的硬件刷新和午夜修补任务。Operating in the cloud breaks the treadmill of hardware refreshes and midnight patches by shifting the focus upstream to the digital assets: operating systems, applications, and data. 这种从物理到数字的转变还使技术操作模型发生了变化。This shift from physical to digital also shifts the technology operating model.
当你的操作模型移到云端时，你仍需要之前的人员和流程，只是他们也变成专注于更高级别的操作。As your operating model shifts to the cloud, you still need the same people and processes, but they also shift to focus on a higher level of operations. 如果你的员工不再关注服务器上机时间，那么衡量他们成功的指标将发生变化。If your people no longer focus on server uptime, then their success metrics will change. 如果安全不再通过数据中心的四面墙得到保障，那么你的威胁状态也变化了。If security is no longer protected by the four walls of a datacenter, then your threat profile changes. 当采购不再是创新的障碍时，你管理变更内容的位置也发生了变化。When procurement is no longer a blocker to innovation, then the pace at which you manage change also changes.
云操作模型是进程和流程的集合，它们定义了你想要如何在云中操作技术。A cloud operating model is the collection of processes and procedures that define how you want to operate technology in the cloud.
云操作模型的用途Purpose of a cloud operating model
当硬件不再是最常见的操作单元时，中心就转移到了数字资产及其支持的工作负载上。When hardware is removed as the most common unit of operations, the focus shifts to the digital assets and the workloads they support. 因此，操作模型的用途从保证正常运行时间变成了确保操作一致。As such, the purpose of the operating model shifts from keeping the lights on to ensuring consistent operations.
Microsoft Azure 架构良好的框架发挥了很好的作用，它将工作负载方面需注意的事项分解成了一组常见的体系结构原则，那就是成本优化、卓越运营、性能效率、可靠性和安全性。The Microsoft Azure Well-Architected Framework does a great job of decomposing workload considerations into a set of common architectural principles: cost optimization, operational excellence, performance efficiency, reliability, and security.
移到更高级别的操作后，这些常见的体系结构原则可帮助重新塑造云操作模型的用途。When moving to a higher level of operations, these common architectural principles help reframe the purpose of the cloud operating model. 我们如何来确保项目组合中的所有资产和工作负载在这些体系结构原则方面达到平衡？How do we ensure that all assets and workloads in the portfolio balance these architecture principles? 要衡量这些原则的应用，需要哪些流程？What processes are needed to scale the application of those principles?
重塑操作模型Reimagine your operating model
如果你更新了操作模型，从而无需再求助于物理资产的采购、变更、运营或保护，那么剩下的还有什么？If you updated your operating model to remove every reference to the procurement, change, operations, or protection of physical assets, what's left? 对于某些组织来说，他们的操作模型现在干干净净。For some organizations, their operating model is now a clean slate. 对于大多数组织来说，多年来构建的约束现在也减少了。For most organizations, the constraints that have developed over the years are now reduced. 无论是哪一种情况，你都有机会思考一下要如何在云中操作。In either case, there is an opportunity to think about how you would like to operate in the cloud.
为了帮助你构想未来形态的操作模型，这些文章探索了以下主题：To help you imagine your future state operating model, these articles discuss the following subjects:
- 定义云操作模型Define your cloud operating model
- 比较常见的云操作模型Compare common cloud operating models
- 通过 Azure 登陆区域实现操作模型Implement your operating model with Azure landing zones
了解云采用框架如何帮助你定义操作模型。Learn how the Cloud Adoption Framework helps you define your operating model.