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查看数据选项Review your data options

为云采用准备登陆区域环境时,需要确定用于托管工作负荷的数据要求。When you prepare your landing zone environment for your cloud adoption, you need to determine the data requirements for hosting your workloads. Azure 数据库产品和服务支持各种数据存储方案和功能。Azure database products and services support a wide variety of data storage scenarios and capabilities. 如何配置登陆区域环境以支持数据要求取决于工作负荷的治理、技术和业务要求。How you configure your landing zone environment to support your data requirements depends on your workload governance, technical, and business requirements.

确定数据服务要求Identify data services requirements

作为登陆区域评估和准备的一部分,需要确定登陆区域需要支持的数据存储。As part of your landing zone evaluation and preparation, you need to identify the data stores that your landing zone needs to support. 此过程涉及评估构成工作负荷的每个应用程序和服务,以确定其数据存储和访问要求。The process involves assessing each of the applications and services that make up your workloads to determine their data storage and access requirements. 确定并记录这些要求后,可以为登陆区域创建策略,以便根据工作负荷需求控制允许的资源类型。After you identify and document these requirements, you can create policies for your landing zone to control allowed resource types based on your workload needs.

对于将要部署到登陆区域环境的每个应用程序或服务,请使用以下决策树作为起点来帮助确定要使用的相应数据存储服务:For each application or service you'll deploy to your landing zone environment, use the following decision tree as a starting point to help you determine the appropriate data store services to use:

Azure 数据库服务决策树 图1: azure 数据库服务决策树。Azure database services decision tree Figure 1: An Azure database services decision tree.

主要问题Key questions

请回答以下有关工作负荷的问题,这样有助于你根据 Azure 数据库服务决策树做出决策:Answer the following questions about your workloads to help you make decisions based on the Azure database services decision tree:

  • 你是否需要数据库软件或主机操作系统的完全控制权或所有权?Do you need full control or ownership of your database software or host OS? 在某些情况下,你需要对数据库工作负荷的软件配置和主机服务器拥有高度控制权或所有权。Some scenarios require you to have a high degree of control or ownership of the software configuration and host servers for your database workloads. 在这些情况下,你可以部署自定义基础结构即服务 (IaaS) 虚拟机,以完全控制数据服务的部署和配置。In these scenarios, you can deploy custom infrastructure as a service (IaaS) virtual machines to fully control the deployment and configuration of data services. 如果你没有这些要求,平台即服务 (PaaS) 数据库服务可能会降低管理和操作成本。If you don't have these requirements, platform as a service (PaaS) database services might reduce your management and operations costs.
  • 工作负荷是否使用关系数据库技术?Will your workloads use a relational database technology? 如果是,你计划使用哪种技术?If so, what technology do you plan to use? Azure 为 Azure SQL 数据库MySQLPostgreSQLMariaDB 提供托管 PaaS 数据库功能。Azure provides managed PaaS database capabilities for Azure SQL Database, MySQL, PostgreSQL, and MariaDB.
  • 工作负荷是否使用 SQL Server?Will your workloads use SQL Server? 在 Azure 中,你可以在基于 IaaS 的 Azure 虚拟机上的 SQL Server 中或基于 PaaS 的 Azure SQL 数据库托管服务上运行工作负荷。In Azure, you can have your workloads running in IaaS-based SQL Server on Azure Virtual Machines or on the PaaS-based Azure SQL Database hosted service. 选择使用哪种选项主要取决于你是要管理数据库、应用修补程序以及进行备份,还是要将这些操作委派给 Azure。Choosing which option to use is primarily a question of whether you want to manage your database, apply patches, and take backups, or if you want to delegate these operations to Azure. 在某些情况下,兼容性问题可能需要使用 IaaS 托管的 SQL Server。In some scenarios, compatibility issues might require the use of IaaS-hosted SQL Server. 有关如何为工作负荷选择正确选项的详细信息,请参阅在 Azure 中选择正确的 SQL Server 选项For more information about how to choose the correct option for your workloads, see Choose the right SQL Server option in Azure.
  • 工作负荷是否使用键/值数据库存储?Will your workloads use key/value database storage? 适用于 Redis 的 Azure 缓存提供了高性能缓存键/值数据存储解决方案,可支持快速、可扩展的应用程序。Azure Cache for Redis offers a high-performance cached key/value data storage solution that can power fast, scalable applications. Azure Cosmos DB 还提供通用键/值存储功能。Azure Cosmos DB also provides general-purpose key/value storage capabilities.
  • 工作负荷是否使用文档或图形数据?Will your workloads use document or graph data? Azure Cosmos DB 是支持多种数据类型和 API 的多模型数据库服务。Azure Cosmos DB is a multi-model database service that supports a wide variety of data types and APIs. Azure Cosmos DB 还提供文档和图形数据库功能。Azure Cosmos DB also provides document and graph database capabilities.
  • 工作负荷是否使用列系列数据?Will your workloads use column-family data? Azure HDInsight 中的 Apache HBase 基于 Apache Hadoop 构建。Apache HBase in Azure HDInsight is built on Apache Hadoop. 它支持按列系列组织的无架构数据库中的大量非结构化和半结构化数据。It supports large amounts of unstructured and semi-structured data in a schemaless database that's organized by column families.
  • 你的工作负荷是否需要高容量数据分析功能?Will your workloads require high-capacity data analytics capabilities? 可以使用 Azure SQL 数据仓库来有效存储和查询结构化 PB 级数据。You can use Azure SQL Data Warehouse to effectively store and query structured petabyte-scale data. 对于非结构化大数据工作负载,可以使用 Azure data lake 来存储和分析 pb 大小的文件和数万亿个的对象。For unstructured big data workloads, you can use Azure data lake to store and analyze petabyte-size files and trillions of objects.
  • 工作负荷是否需要搜索引擎功能?Will your workloads require search engine capabilities? 可以使用 Azure 认知搜索 生成可集成到应用程序中的 AI 增强的基于云的搜索索引。You can use Azure Cognitive Search to build AI-enhanced cloud-based search indexes that can be integrated into your applications.
  • 工作负荷是否使用时序数据?Will your workloads use time series data? Azure 时序见解用于存储、可视化和查询大量时序数据(例如 IoT 设备所生成的数据)。Azure Time Series Insights is built to store, visualize, and query large amounts of time series data, such as data generated by IoT devices.

备注

Azure 应用程序体系结构指南中了解有关如何评估每个应用程序或服务的数据库选项的更多信息。Learn more about how to assess database options for each of your application or services in the Azure application architecture guide.

常见数据库方案Common database scenarios

下表介绍了几种常见的使用方案要求和用于处理这些方案的建议数据库服务:The following table illustrates a few common use scenario requirements and the recommended database services for handling them:

方案Scenario 数据服务Data service
我需要一种全球分布的多模型数据库,包含对 NoSQL 选项的支持。I need a globally distributed, multi-model database with support for NoSQL choices. Azure Cosmos DBAzure Cosmos DB
我需要一种完全托管的关系数据库,可快速动态预配和扩展,具有内置智能和安全性。I need a fully managed relational database that provisions quickly, scales on the fly, and includes built-in intelligence and security. Azure SQL 数据库Azure SQL Database
我需要一种完全托管的可扩展 MySQL 关系数据库,其具有高可用性和安全性,且不收取额外费用。I need a fully managed, scalable MySQL relational database that has high availability and security built in at no extra cost. Azure Database for MySQLAzure Database for MySQL
我需要一种完全托管的可扩展 PostgreSQL 关系数据库,其具有高可用性和安全性,且不收取额外费用。I need a fully managed, scalable PostgreSQL relational database that has high availability and security built in at no extra cost. Azure Database for PostgreSQLAzure Database for PostgreSQL
我计划在云中托管企业 SQL Server 应用程序,并对服务器操作系统具有完全控制。I plan to host enterprise SQL Server applications in the cloud and have full control over the server OS. 虚拟机上的 SQL ServerSQL Server on virtual machines
我需要一种完全托管的弹性数据仓库,每个规模级别均提供安全性,且不收取额外费用。I need a fully managed elastic data warehouse that has security at every level of scale at no extra cost. Azure SQL 数据仓库Azure SQL Data Warehouse
我需要 Data Lake Storage 资源,这些资源支持 Hadoop 群集或 HDFS 数据。I need Data Lake Storage resources that are capable of supporting Hadoop clusters or HDFS data. Azure data lakeAzure data lake
我需要高吞吐量且一致的低延迟数据访问,以支持快速、可扩展应用程序。I need high throughput and consistent, low-latency access for my data to support fast, scalable applications. 用于 Redis 的 Azure 缓存Azure Cache for Redis
我需要一种完全托管的可扩展 MariaDB 关系数据库,其具有高可用性和安全性,且不收取额外费用。I need a fully managed, scalable MariaDB relational database that has high availability and security built in at no extra cost. Azure Database for MariaDBAzure Database for MariaDB

区域可用性Regional availability

借助 Azure,你可以在 任何位置 提供服务,以满足你的客户和合作伙伴的需求。Azure lets you deliver services at the scale you need to reach your customers and partners, wherever they are. 规划云部署的一个关键因素是确定哪些 Azure 区域将托管工作负荷资源。A key factor in planning your cloud deployment is to determine what Azure region will host your workload resources.

大多数数据库服务在大多数 Azure 区域中已正式发布。Most database services are generally available in most Azure regions. 但是,有几个区域(主要面向政府客户)仅支持这些产品的一个子集。But there are a few regions, mostly targeting governmental customers, that support only a subset of these products. 在确定要将数据库资源部署到的区域之前,建议你参阅 " 区域" 页 ,以检查区域可用性的最新状态。Before you decide which regions you will deploy your database resources to, we recommend that you refer to the regions page to check the latest status of regional availability.

若要详细了解 Azure 全球基础结构,请参阅“Azure 区域”页To learn more about Azure global infrastructure, see the Azure regions page. 你还可以查看 按区域提供的产品 ,获取有关每个 Azure 区域中可用的总体服务的特定详细信息。You can also view products available by region for specific details about the overall services that are available in each Azure region.

数据驻留和合规性要求Data residency and compliance requirements

你的工作负荷通常需要遵守与数据存储相关的法律和合同要求。Legal and contractual requirements that are related to data storage often will apply to your workloads. 这些要求可能因组织位置、托管数据存储的物理资产的管辖权以及适用的业务部门而异。These requirements might vary based on the location of your organization, the jurisdiction of the physical assets that host your data stores, and your applicable business sector. 需要考虑的数据义务组成部分包括:数据分类、数据位置和责任共担模型下各自的数据保护责任。Components of data obligations to consider include data classification, data location, and the respective responsibilities for data protection under the shared responsibility model. 有关了解这些要求的帮助,请参阅 通过 Azure 实现符合性数据派驻服务和安全性的白皮书。For help with understanding these requirements, see the white paper achieving compliant data residency and security with Azure.

合规性工作的一部分可能包括控制数据库资源的物理位置。Part of your compliance efforts might include controlling where your database resources are physically located. Azure 区域分为多个组,称为地理位置。Azure regions are organized into groups called geographies. Azure 地理位置可确保在地理和政治边界内遵守数据驻留、主权、合规性和复原能力要求。An Azure geography ensures that data residency, sovereignty, compliance, and resiliency requirements are honored within geographical and political boundaries. 如果你的工作负荷需要遵守数据主权或其他合规性要求,你必须将存储资源部署到合规 Azure 地理位置中的区域。If your workloads are subject to data sovereignty or other compliance requirements, you must deploy your storage resources to regions in a compliant Azure geography.

为数据库服务建立控件Establish controls for database services

准备登陆区域环境时,可以建立用于限制数据存储用户可以部署的资源的控件。When you prepare your landing zone environment, you can establish controls that limit what data stores users can deploy. 控件可帮助您管理成本和限制安全风险,同时仍允许开发人员和 IT 团队部署和配置支持工作负荷所需的资源。Controls can help you manage costs and limit security risks while still allowing developers and IT teams to deploy and configure resources that are needed to support your workloads.

确定并记录登陆区域的要求后,可以使用 Azure Policy 来控制允许用户创建的数据库资源。After you identify and document your landing zone's requirements, you can use Azure Policy to control the database resources that you allow users to create. 控件可以采用允许或拒绝创建数据库资源类型的形式。Controls can take the form of allowing or denying the creation of database resource types. 例如,可以将用户限制为仅创建 Azure SQL 数据库资源。For example, you might restrict users to creating only Azure SQL Database resources. 你还可以使用策略来控制创建资源时允许的选项,例如 限制可以预配的 SQL 数据库 sku ,或者仅允许在 IaaS VM 上安装 特定版本的 SQL ServerYou can also use policy to control the allowable options when a resource is created, like restricting what SQL Database SKUs can be provisioned or allowing only specific versions of SQL Server to be installed on an IaaS VM.

策略可划分为资源、资源组、订阅和管理组。Policies can be scoped to resources, resource groups, subscriptions, and management groups. 你可以在 Azure 蓝图 定义中包含策略,并将其重复应用到整个云场所。You can include your policies in Azure blueprint definitions and apply them repeatedly throughout your cloud estate.