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什么是 Azure 成本管理和计费?What is Azure Cost Management + Billing?

通过使用 Microsoft 云,可以显著提高业务工作负载的技术性能。By using the Microsoft cloud, you can significantly improve the technical performance of your business workloads. 还可以降低管理组织资产所需的成本和开销。It can also reduce your costs and the overhead required to manage organizational assets. 不过,该业务机遇会带来风险,因为云部署中引入了潜在的浪费和效率低下因素。However, the business opportunity creates a risk because of the potential for waste and inefficiencies that are introduced into your cloud deployments. Azure 成本管理和计费是 Microsoft 提供的一套工具,有助于分析、管理和优化工作负载的成本。Azure Cost Management + Billing is a suite of tools provided by Microsoft that help you analyze, manage, and optimize the costs of your workloads. 使用此套件有助于确保组织充分利用云提供的权益。Using the suite helps ensure that your organization is taking advantage of the benefits provided by the cloud.

可以将 Azure 工作负载视为你家中的灯。You can think of your Azure workloads like the lights in your home. 如果你某天要出门,你会不关灯就走吗?When you leave to go out for the day, are you leaving the lights on? 你能否使用不同的更节能的灯泡来帮助减少每月能源开销?Could you use different bulbs that are more efficient to help reduce your monthly energy bill? 某个房间内的灯光是否比所需的灯光更多?Do you have more lights in one room than are needed? 可以使用 Azure 成本管理和计费功能,将类似的思维过程应用于组织使用的工作负载。You can use Azure Cost Management + Billing to apply a similar thought process to the workloads used by your organization.

使用 Azure 产品和服务,只需为你使用的部分付费。With Azure products and services, you only pay for what you use. 创建和使用 Azure 资源时,需要为资源付费。As you create and use Azure resources, you’re charged for the resources. 由于新资源易于部署,因此如果没有恰当的分析和监视,工作负载的成本可能会显著变化。Because of the deployment ease for new resources, the costs of your workloads can jump significantly without proper analysis and monitoring. 使用 Azure 成本管理和计费功能可以:You use Azure Cost Management + Billing features to:

  • 执行计费管理任务,例如支付帐单Conduct billing administrative tasks such as paying your bill
  • 管理对成本的计费访问权限Manage billing access to costs
  • 下载用于生成月度发票的成本和使用情况数据Download cost and usage data that was used to generate your monthly invoice
  • 主动将数据分析应用于成本Proactively apply data analysis to your costs
  • 设置支出阈值Set spending thresholds
  • 确定可优化支出的工作负载更改机会Identify opportunities for workload changes that can optimize your spending

若要详细了解如何作为组织来处理成本管理,请参阅 Azure 成本管理最佳做法一文。To learn more about how to approach cost management as an organization, take a look at the Azure Cost Management best practices article.

了解 Azure 计费Understand Azure Billing

Azure 计费功能用于查看已开票成本并管理对计费信息的访问。Azure Billing features are used to review your invoiced costs and manage access to billing information. 在较大的组织中,采购和财务团队通常执行计费任务。In larger organizations, procurement and finance teams usually conduct billing tasks.

当你注册使用 Azure 时,系统将为你创建计费帐户。A billing account is created when you sign up to use Azure. 可以使用计费帐户管理发票、付款并跟踪成本。You use your billing account to manage your invoices, payments, and track costs. 可以访问多个计费帐户。You can have access to multiple billing accounts. 例如,可以为个人项目注册 Azure。For example, you might have signed up for Azure for your personal projects. 因此,你可能有一个带有计费帐户的单独的 Azure 订阅。So, you might have an individual Azure subscription with a billing account. 也可通过组织的企业协议或 Microsoft 客户协议进行访问。You could also have access through your organization's Enterprise Agreement or Microsoft Customer Agreement. 对于每个方案,你将有一个单独的计费帐户。For each scenario, you would have a separate billing account.

计费帐户Billing accounts

Azure 门户当前支持以下类型的计费帐户:The Azure portal currently supports the following types of billing accounts:

  • Microsoft Online Services 计划:当你通过 Azure 网站注册 Azure 时,将创建 Microsoft Online Services 计划的个人计费帐户。Microsoft Online Services Program: An individual billing account for a Microsoft Online Services Program is created when you sign up for Azure through the Azure website. 例如,当你注册 Azure 免费帐户、采用即用即付费率的帐户或作为 Visual Studio 订阅者时。For example, when you sign up for an Azure Free Account, account with pay-as-you-go rates or as a Visual studio subscriber.

  • 企业协议:当组织签署使用 Azure 的企业协议 (EA) 时,将为企业协议创建一个计费帐户。Enterprise Agreement: A billing account for an Enterprise Agreement is created when your organization signs an Enterprise Agreement (EA) to use Azure.

  • Microsoft 客户协议:当组织与 Microsoft 代表一起签署 Microsoft 客户协议时,将会为 Microsoft 客户协议创建一个计费帐户。Microsoft Customer Agreement: A billing account for a Microsoft Customer Agreement is created when your organization works with a Microsoft representative to sign a Microsoft Customer Agreement. 特定区域的某些客户通过 Azure 网站注册采用即用即付费率的帐户或者升级其 Azure 免费帐户,这些客户可能也有一个适用于 Microsoft 客户协议的计费帐户。Some customers in select regions, who sign up through the Azure website for an account with pay-as-you-go rates or upgrade their Azure Free Account may have a billing account for a Microsoft Customer Agreement as well.

计费帐户的范围Scopes for billing accounts

范围是计费帐户中的一个节点,可使用该节点查看和管理计费。A scope is a node in a billing account that you use to view and manage billing. 可以在其中管理计费数据、付款、发票,以及执行常规的帐户管理。It's where you manage billing data, payments, invoices, and conduct general account management.

Microsoft Online Services 计划Microsoft Online Services Program

范围Scope 定义Definition
计费帐户Billing account 表示一个或多个 Azure 订阅的单个所有者(帐户管理员)。Represents a single owner (Account administrator) for one or more Azure subscriptions. 帐户管理员有权执行各种计费任务,例如创建订阅、查看发票或更改订阅的账单。An Account Administrator is authorized to do various billing tasks like create subscriptions, view invoices or change the billing for subscriptions.
订阅Subscription 表示 Azure 资源的分组。Represents a grouping of Azure resources. 发票是在订阅范围内生成的。An invoice is generated at the subscription scope. 它自带付款方式,用于发票付款。It has its own payment methods that are used to pay its invoice.

企业协议Enterprise Agreement

范围Scope 定义Definition
计费帐户Billing account 表示企业协议注册。Represents an Enterprise Agreement enrollment. 发票是在计费帐户范围内生成的。Invoice is generated at the billing account scope. 它是使用部门和注册帐户构建的。It's structured using departments and enrollment accounts.
部门Department 对注册帐户进行的可选分组。Optional grouping of enrollment accounts.
注册帐户Enrollment account 表示单个帐户所有者。Represents a single account owner. Azure 订阅是在注册帐户范围内创建的。Azure subscriptions are created under the enrollment account scope.

Microsoft 客户协议Microsoft Customer Agreement

范围Scope 任务Tasks
计费帐户Billing account 表示针对多个 Microsoft 产品和服务的客户协议。Represents a customer agreement for multiple Microsoft products and services. 计费帐户使用计费对象信息和发票科目构建。The billing account is structured using billing profiles and invoice sections.
计费配置文件Billing profile 表示发票及其付款方式。Represents an invoice and its payment methods. 发票在此范围生成。Invoice is generated at this scope. 计费对象信息可以有多个发票科目。The billing profile can have multiple invoice sections.
发票科目Invoice section 表示发票中的一组成本。Represents a group of costs in an invoice. 订阅和其他购买项将关联到此发票科目范围。Subscriptions and other purchases are associated to the invoice section scope.

了解 Azure 成本管理Understand Azure Cost Management

虽然与计费相关,但计费不等同于成本管理。Although related, billing differs from cost management. 计费是为客户开具商品或服务的发票及管理商业关系的过程。Billing is the process of invoicing customers for goods or services and managing the commercial relationship.

成本管理会借助高级分析显示组织的成本和使用模式。Cost Management shows organizational cost and usage patterns with advanced analytics. 成本管理中的报告显示 Azure 服务和第三方市场产品/服务所消耗的基于使用情况的成本。Reports in Cost Management show the usage-based costs consumed by Azure services and third-party Marketplace offerings. 成本基于协商价格和预留因素以及 Azure 混合权益折扣。Costs are based on negotiated prices and factor in reservation and Azure Hybrid Benefit discounts. 总的来说,这些报表显示了内部和外部使用成本以及 Azure 市场费用。Collectively, the reports show your internal and external costs for usage and Azure Marketplace charges. 报告中尚未显示其他费用,例如预订购买费用、支持费用和税费。Other charges, such as reservation purchases, support, and taxes aren't yet shown in reports. 报表可以帮助用户了解支出和资源使用情况,并帮助查找支出异常情况。The reports help you understand your spending and resource use and can help find spending anomalies. 另外,还可以进行预测分析。Predictive analytics are also available. 成本管理使用 Azure 管理组、预算和建议来清楚地显示费用规划情况,以及如何能够降低成本。Cost Management uses Azure management groups, budgets, and recommendations to show clearly how your expenses are organized and how you might reduce costs.

你可以使用 Azure 门户或各种 API 执行自动导出,从而将成本数据与外部系统和过程进行整合。You can use the Azure portal or various APIs for export automation to integrate cost data with external systems and processes. 另外,还可自动导出计费数据和计划的报表。Automated billing data export and scheduled reports are also available.

观看 Azure 成本管理概述视频来快速了解 Azure 成本管理如何帮助你在 Azure 中节省金钱。Watch the Azure Cost Management overview video for a quick overview about how Azure Cost Management can help you save money in Azure. 若要观看其他视频,请访问成本管理 YouTube 频道To watch other videos, visit the Cost Management YouTube channel.

计划和控制支出Plan and control expenses

成本管理帮助你规划和控制成本的方式包括:成本分析、预算、建议和导出成本管理数据。The ways that Cost Management help you plan for and control your costs include: Cost analysis, budgets, recommendations, and exporting cost management data.

可以通过成本分析来了解和分析组织成本。You use cost analysis to explore and analyze your organizational costs. 可以按组织查看合计成本,了解哪些方面持续产生成本并确定支出趋势。You can view aggregated costs by organization to understand where costs are accrued and to identify spending trends. 此外,还可以查看一段时间的累计成本,根据预算预估每月、每季度,甚至每年的成本趋势。And you can see accumulated costs over time to estimate monthly, quarterly, or even yearly cost trends against a budget.

预算可帮助你规划并满足组织中的财务责任。Budgets help you plan for and meet financial accountability in your organization. 它们有助于防止超出成本阈值或限制。They help prevent cost thresholds or limits from being surpassed. 而且,预算还可以帮助你通知他人有关他们的支出,实现主动管理成本。Budgets can also help you inform others about their spending to proactively manage costs. 随着时间的推移,你可以看到支出的进展情况。And with them, you can see how spending progresses over time.

建议说明如何通过识别闲置和未充分利用的资源来优化和提高效率。Recommendations show how you can optimize and improve efficiency by identifying idle and underutilized resources. 或者,它们可以显示价格更优惠的资源选项。Or, they can show less expensive resource options. 根据建议采取措施时,可以更改资源使用方式以节省资金。When you act on the recommendations, you change the way you use your resources to save money. 为此,首先查看成本优化建议,以查看潜在的低效使用情况。To act, you first view cost optimization recommendations to view potential usage inefficiencies. 接下来,根据建议将 Azure 资源使用修改为更具成本效益的选择。Next, you act on a recommendation to modify your Azure resource use to a more cost-effective option. 然后,验证操作以确保所做的更改成功。Then you verify the action to make sure that the change you make is successful.

如果你使用外部系统来访问或查看成本管理数据,则可以轻松地从 Azure 导出数据。If you use external systems to access or review cost management data, you can easily export the data from Azure. 你可以设置一个每日计划导出,将数据文件以 CSV 格式导出并存储在 Azure 存储中。And you can set a daily scheduled export in CSV format and store the data files in Azure storage. 然后,即可从外部系统访问数据。Then, you can access the data from your external system.

Cloudyn 弃用Cloudyn deprecation

Cloudyn 是与成本管理相关的 Azure 服务,将在 2020 年底弃用。Cloudyn is an Azure service related to Cost Management that is being deprecated by the end of 2020. 在可能的情况下,我们会将现有的 Cloudyn 功能直接集成到 Azure 门户中。Existing Cloudyn features are being integrated directly into the Azure portal wherever possible. 暂时不会登记任何新客户,但对 Cloudyn 的支持将保持到该产品完全被弃用为止。No new customers are being onboarded at this time, but support will remain for the product until it is fully deprecated.

其他 Azure 工具Additional Azure tools

Azure 还包含其他一些工具,虽然这些工具不属于 Azure 成本管理和计费功能集,Azure has other tools that aren't a part of the Azure Cost Management + Billing feature set. 但它们在成本管理过程中都发挥着重要作用。However, they play an important role in the cost management process. 若要详细了解这些工具,请参阅以下链接。To learn more about these tools, see the following links.

  • Azure 定价计算器 - 使用此工具可估计前期云成本。Azure Pricing Calculator - Use this tool to estimate your up-front cloud costs.
  • Azure Migrate - 评估当前数据中心的工作负载,获取有关 Azure 替代解决方案所需内容的见解。Azure Migrate - Assess your current datacenter workload for insights about what's needed from an Azure replacement solution.
  • Azure 顾问 - 识别未使用的 VM,并获得有关 Azure 预留实例购买的建议。Azure Advisor - Identify unused VMs and receive recommendations about Azure reserved instance purchases.
  • Azure 混合权益 - 使用当前用于 Azure 中 VM 的本地 Windows Server 或 SQL Server 许可证来实现成本节省。Azure Hybrid Benefit - Use your current on-premises Windows Server or SQL Server licenses for VMs in Azure to save.

后续步骤Next steps

至此,你已熟悉成本管理和计费,接下来将了解如何使用该服务。Now that you're familiar with Cost Management + Billing, the next step is to start using the service.