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什么是 Azure 预留项?What are Azure Reservations?

Azure 预留项通过承诺多种产品的一年期或三年期计划,帮助你节省资金。Azure Reservations help you save money by committing to one-year or three-year plans for multiple products. 通过承诺预付,能够以折扣价购买所用资源。Committing allows you to get a discount on the resources you use. 预留可显著将资源的成本,最多减少至即用即付价格的 72%。Reservations can significantly reduce your resource costs up to 72% on pay-as-you-go prices. 预订提供计费折扣,并且不会影响资源的运行时状态。Reservations provide a billing discount and don't affect the runtime state of your resources. 购买预留项后,折扣会自动应用于匹配的资源。After you purchase a reservation, the discount automatically applies to matching resources.

可以提前或每月为预留项付费。You can pay for a reservation up front or monthly. 预付和每月预留的总费用相同,选择每月支付不会产生额外的费用。The total cost of up-front and monthly reservations is the same and you don't pay any extra fees when you choose to pay monthly. 每月付款适用于 Azure 预留项,而不适用于第三方产品。Monthly payment is available for Azure reservations, not third-party products.

可以在 Azure 门户 (https://portal.azure.com/#blade/Microsoft_Azure_Reservations/ReservationsBrowseBlade) 中购买预留项。You can buy a reservation in the Azure portal at https://portal.azure.com/#blade/Microsoft_Azure_Reservations/ReservationsBrowseBlade.

为何购买预留项?Why buy a reservation?

如果你持续产生的资源用量可以享受预留权益,则购买预留项便有机会降低成本。If you have consistent resource usage that supports reservations, buying a reservation gives you the option to reduce your costs. 例如,如果持续运行某个服务实例,在不购买预留项的情况下,需按即用即付费率付费。For example, when you continuously run instances of a service without a reservation, you're charged at pay-as-you-go rates. 如果购买预留项,则将立即获得预留折扣。When you buy a reservation, you immediately get the reservation discount. 这些资源不再按即用即付费率收费。The resources are no longer charged at the pay-as-you-go rates.

如何应用预留折扣How reservation discount is applied

购买后,预留折扣会自动应用于与购买预留项时所选的属性匹配的资源用量。After purchase, the reservation discount automatically applies to the resource usage that matches the attributes you select when you buy the reservation. 属性包括 SKU、区域(如果适用)和范围。Attributes include the SKU, regions (where applicable), and scope. 预留范围选择预留节省的应用场合。Reservation scope selects where the reservation savings apply.

有关折扣应用方式的详细信息,请参阅预留实例折扣的应用For more information about how discount is applied, see Reserved instance discount application.

有关预留范围工作原理的详细信息,请参阅范围预留For more information about how reservation scope works, see Scope reservations.

确定要购买的内容Determine what to purchase

除 Azure Databricks 以外的所有预留项都是按小时应用的。All reservations, except Azure Databricks, are applied on an hourly basis. 请根据一贯的基本用量考虑如何购买预留项。Consider reservation purchases based on your consistent base usage. 可以通过分析用量数据或使用预留建议,来确定要购买哪种预留项。You can determine which reservation to purchase by analyzing your usage data or by using reservation recommendations. 以下位置提供了建议:Recommendations are available in:

  • Azure 顾问(仅限 VM)Azure advisor (VMs only)
  • Azure 门户中的预留项购买体验Reservation purchase experience in the Azure portal
  • 成本管理 Power BI 应用Cost Management Power BI app
  • APIAPIs

有关详细信息,请参阅 确定要购买哪种预留项For more information, see Determine what reservation to purchase

购买预留项Buying a reservation

可以通过 Azure 门户、API、PowerShell 和 CLI 购买预留项。You can purchase reservations from the Azure portal, APIs, PowerShell, and CLI.

转到 Azure 门户购买预留项 (https://ms.portal.azure.com/#blade/Microsoft_Azure_Reservations/CreateBlade/referrer/Docs)Go to Azure portal to purchase (https://ms.portal.azure.com/#blade/Microsoft_Azure_Reservations/CreateBlade/referrer/Docs)

有关详细信息,请参阅 购买预留项For more information, see Buy a reservation

预留如何计费?How is a reservation billed?

预留通过与订阅绑定的付款方式付款。The reservation is charged to the payment method tied to the subscription. 预留成本将从货币承诺余额中扣除(如果可用)。The reservation cost is deducted from your monetary commitment balance, if available. 如果货币承诺余额不足以支付虚拟机预留实例的费用,则还会向你收取所欠费用。When your monetary commitment balance doesn't cover the cost of the reservation, you're billed the overage. 如果你的订阅来自采用即用即付费率的单个计划,将立即从你帐户中的信用卡提前扣取购买费。If you have a subscription from an individual plan with pay-as-you-go rates, the credit card you have on your account is billed immediately for up-front purchases. 每月付款额将显示在发票上,并且每月将从你的信用卡扣费。Monthly payments appear on your invoice and your credit card is charged monthly. 如果采用按发票计费的方式,则费用将显示在下一份发票上。When you're billed by invoice, you see the charges on your next invoice.

预留项的查看和管理权限Permissions to view and manage reservations

购买预留项的用户,以及用于计收预留项费用的订阅的帐户管理员,将获得预留订单和预留项的“所有者”角色。The user who purchases a reservation and the account administrator of the subscription used for billing the reservation get the Owner role on the reservation order and the reservation.

可以通过将用户添加到预留订单或预留的角色来委托预留管理。You can delegate reservation management by adding people to roles on the reservation order or the reservation. 可以在 Azure 门户中或使用 API 和 PowerShell 分配角色。You assign the roles in the Azure portal or by using APIs and PowerShell.

有关详细信息,请参阅 添加或更改可以管理预留项的用户For more information, see Add or change users who can manage a reservation

购买后获取预留项详细信息和利用率Get reservation details and utilization after purchase

如果你有权查看某个预留项,可以在 Azure 门户中查看该预留项及其用量。If you have permission to view to the reservation, you can see it and its use in the Azure portal. 也可以使用 API 获取这些数据。You can get the data using APIs, as well.

有关如何在 Azure 门户中查看预留项的详细信息,请参阅 在 Azure 门户中查看预留项For more information on how to see reservations in Azure portal, see View reservations in the Azure portal

购买后管理预留项Manage reservations after purchase

购买某个 Azure 预留项后,可将该预留项的应用范围更新为不同的订阅、更改可以管理该预留项的人员、将预留项拆分为较小的部分,或更改实例大小灵活性。After you buy an Azure reservation, you can update the scope to apply reservation to a different subscription, change who can manage the reservation, split a reservation into smaller parts, or change instance size flexibility.

有关详细信息,请参阅 管理 Azure 资源的预留项For more information, see Manage Reservations for Azure resources

Azure 预留项的灵活性Flexibility with Azure reservations

Azure 预留可以灵活地满足你不断变化的需求。Azure Reservations provide flexibility to help meet your evolving needs. 可以用一个预留来交换同一类型的另一个预留。You can exchange a reservation for another reservation of the same type. 如果你不再需要某个预留项,也可以申请退款,在 12 个月的滚动期限内最多可以退回 50,000 美元。You can also refund a reservation, up to $50,000 USD in a 12 month rolling window, if you no longer need it. 退款最大上限应用于与 Microsoft 签订的协议范围内的所有预留。The maximum limit of the refund applies to all reservations in the scope of your agreement with Microsoft.

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 预留项的自助交换和退款For more information, see Self-service exchanges and refunds for Azure Reservations

预留项涵盖的费用Charges covered by reservation

  • 虚拟机预留实例 - 预留项仅涵盖虚拟机和云服务的计算成本。Reserved Virtual Machine Instance - A reservation only covers the virtual machine and cloud services compute costs. 它不涵盖其他软件、Windows、网络或存储费用。It doesn't cover additional software, Windows, networking, or storage charges.
  • Azure 存储预留容量 - 该预留项涵盖用于 Blob 存储或 Azure Data Lake Gen2 存储的标准存储帐户的存储容量。Azure Storage reserved capacity - A reservation covers storage capacity for standard storage accounts for Blob storage or Azure Data Lake Gen2 storage. 不涵盖带宽或事务费率。The reservation doesn't cover bandwidth or transaction rates.
  • Azure Cosmos DB 预留容量 - 预留项涵盖为资源预配的吞吐量的费用。Azure Cosmos DB reserved capacity - A reservation covers throughput provisioned for your resources. 但它不涵盖存储和网络费用。It doesn't cover the storage and networking charges.
  • SQL 数据库预留 vCore - 预留项仅包含计算成本。SQL Database reserved vCore - Only the compute costs are included with a reservation. SQL 许可证单独计费。The SQL license is billed separately.
  • Azure Synapse Analytics - 预留项涵盖 cDWU 使用量。Azure Synapse Analytics - A reservation covers cDWU usage. 它不涵盖与 Azure Synapse Analytics 使用量相关的存储或网络费用。It doesn't cover storage or networking charges associated with the Azure Synapse Analytics usage.
  • Azure Databricks - 预留项仅涵盖 DBU 使用费。Azure Databricks - A reservation covers only the DBU usage. 计算、存储和网络等其他费用单独计收。Other charges, such as compute, storage, and networking, are applied separately.
  • 应用服务印花费 - 预留项涵盖印花使用费。App Service stamp fee - A reservation covers stamp usage. 它不适用于辅助角色,因此与印花相关的任何其他资源将单独收费。It doesn't apply to workers, so any other resources associated with the stamp are charged separately.
  • Azure Database for MySQL - 预留项仅包含计算费用。Azure Database for MySQL - Only the compute costs are included with a reservation. 预留容量不包括与 MySQL 数据库服务器关联的软件、网络或存储费用。A reservation doesn't cover software, networking, or storage charges associated with the MySQL Database server.
  • Azure Database for PostgreSQL - 预留项仅包含计算费用。Azure Database for PostgreSQL - Only the compute costs are included with a reservation. 预留容量不包括与 PostgreSQL 数据库服务器关联的软件、网络或存储费用。A reservation doesn't cover software, networking, or storage charges associated with the PostgreSQL Database servers.
  • Azure Database for MariaDB - 预留项仅包含计算费用。Azure Database for MariaDB - Only the compute costs are included with a reservation. 预留容量不包括与 MariaDB 数据库服务器关联的软件、网络或存储费用。A reservation doesn't cover software, networking, or storage charges associated with the MariaDB Database server.
  • Azure 数据资源管理器 - 预留项涵盖标记费用。Azure Data Explorer - A reservation covers the markup charges. 预留项不适用于与群集关联的计算、网络或存储费用。A reservation doesn't apply to compute, networking, or storage charges associated with the clusters.
  • Azure Cache for Redis - 预留仅包括计算费用。Azure Cache for Redis - Only the compute costs are included with a reservation. 预留不包括与 Redis 缓存实例相关联的网络或存储费用。A reservation doesn't cover networking or storage charges associated with the Redis cache instances.
  • Azure 专用主机 - 专用主机仅包括计算成本。Azure Dedicated Host - Only the compute costs are included with the Dedicated host.
  • Azure 磁盘存储预留项 - 预留项仅包括大小为 P30 或更高级别的高级 SSD。Azure Disk Storage reservations - A reservation only covers premium SSDs of P30 size or greater. 它不涵盖小于 P30 的任何其他磁盘类型或大小。It doesn't cover any other disk types or sizes smaller than P30.

软件计划:Software plans:

  • SUSE Linux - 预留项涵盖软件计划费用。SUSE Linux - A reservation covers the software plan costs. 折扣仅适用于 SUSE 计量,而不适用于虚拟机的使用。The discounts apply only to SUSE meters and not to the virtual machine usage.
  • Red Hat 计划 - 预留项涵盖软件计划费用。Red Hat Plans - A reservation covers the software plan costs. 折扣仅适用于 RedHat 计量,而不适用于虚拟机的使用。The discounts apply only to RedHat meters and not to the virtual machine usage.
  • Azure VMware Solution by CloudSimple - 预留项涵盖 VMWare CloudSimple 节点。Azure VMware Solution by CloudSimple - A reservation covers the VMWare CloudSimple Nodes. 仍会收取额外的软件费用。Additional software costs still apply.
  • Azure Red Hat OpenShift - 预留项适用于 OpenShift 费用,而不适用于 Azure 基础结构费用。Azure Red Hat OpenShift - A reservation applies to the OpenShift costs, not to Azure infrastructure costs.

对于 Windows 虚拟机和 SQL 数据库,预留折扣不适用于软件费用。For Windows virtual machines and SQL Database, the reservation discount doesn't apply to the software costs. 可以通过 Azure 混合权益来涵盖许可费用。You can cover the licensing costs with Azure Hybrid Benefit.

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后续步骤Next steps