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Azure 物联网 (IoT) 是什么?What is Azure Internet of Things (IoT)?

Azure 物联网 (IoT) 是 Microsoft 托管的云服务的集合,这些服务用于连接、监视和控制数十亿项 IoT 资产。The Azure Internet of Things (IoT) is a collection of Microsoft-managed cloud services that connect, monitor, and control billions of IoT assets. 更简单地讲,IoT 解决方案由一个或多个 IoT 设备构成,这些设备与云中托管的一个或多个后端服务通信。In simpler terms, an IoT solution is made up of one or more IoT devices that communicate with one or more back-end services hosted in the cloud.

IoT 设备IoT devices

IoT 设备通常包括一块装有传感器的电路板,这些传感器使用 WiFi 连接到 Internet。An IoT device is typically made up of a circuit board with sensors attached that use WiFi to connect to the internet. 例如:For example:

  • 远程油泵上的压力传感器。A pressure sensor on a remote oil pump.
  • 空调设备中的温度和湿度传感器。Temperature and humidity sensors in an air-conditioning unit.
  • 电梯中的加速计。An accelerometer in an elevator.
  • 房间中的感测器。Presence sensors in a room.

不同的制造商提供多种设备用于构建解决方案。There's a wide variety of devices available from different manufacturers to build your solution. 有关经认证可与 Azure IoT 中心配合使用的设备列表,请参阅 Azure IoT 认证设备目录For a list of devices certified to work with Azure IoT Hub, see the Azure Certified for IoT device catalog. 对于原型制作,可以使用 MXChip IoT DevKitRaspberry Pi 等设备。For prototyping, you can use devices such as an MXChip IoT DevKit or a Raspberry Pi. Devkit 包含内置的温度、压力、湿度传感器,以及陀螺仪、加速度传感器和磁力计。The Devkit has built-in sensors for temperature, pressure, humidity, and a gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetometer. Raspberry Pi 允许连接多种不同类型的传感器。The Raspberry Pi lets you attach many different types of sensor.

Microsoft 提供开源设备 SDK 用于构建在设备上运行的应用。Microsoft provides open-source Device SDKs that you can use to build the apps that run on your devices. 这些 SDK 可以简化并加速 IoT 解决方案的开发。These SDKs simplify and accelerate the development of your IoT solutions.

通信Communication

通常,IoT 设备将来自传感器的遥测数据发送到云中的后端服务。Typically, IoT devices send telemetry from the sensors to back-end services in the cloud. 但是,也可以实现其他类型的通信,例如,在后端服务中将命令发送到设备。However, other types of communication are possible such as a back-end service sending commands to your devices. 下面是设备到云和云到设备的通信的一些示例:The following are some examples of device-to-cloud and cloud-to-device communication:

  • 流动冷藏货车每隔 5 分钟向 IoT 中心发送温度数据。A mobile refrigeration truck sends temperature every 5 minutes to an IoT Hub.

  • 后端服务向设备发送一条命令,以更改设备发送遥测数据的频率来帮助诊断问题。The back-end service sends a command to a device to change the frequency at which it sends telemetry to help diagnose a problem.

  • 设备根据其传感器读数值发送警报。A device sends alerts based on the values read from its sensors. 例如,监视化学工厂中间歇式反应器的设备在温度超出特定值时发送警报。For example, a device monitoring a batch reactor in a chemical plant, sends an alert when the temperature exceeds a certain value.

  • 设备发送信息并在仪表板上显示,供操作人员查看。Your devices send information to display on a dashboard for viewing by human operators. 例如,精炼厂的控制室可以显示每个管道中的温度、压力和流量,使操作员能够监视设施。For example, a control room in a refinery may show the temperature, pressure, and flow volumes in each pipe, enabling operators to monitor the facility.

IoT 设备 SDK 和 IoT 中心支持常用的通信协议,例如 HTTP、MQTT 和 AMQP。The IoT Device SDKs and IoT Hub support common communication protocols such as HTTP, MQTT, and AMQP.

相比于其他客户端(例如浏览器和移动应用),IoT 设备有不同的特征。IoT devices have different characteristics when compared to other clients such as browsers and mobile apps. 设备 SDK 可帮助解决以安全可靠的方式将设备连接到后端服务的难题。The device SDKs help you address the challenges of connecting devices securely and reliably to your back-end service. 具体而言,IoT 设备具有以下特征:Specifically, IoT devices:

  • 通常是无人操作的嵌入式系统(与电话不同)。Are often embedded systems with no human operator (unlike a phone).
  • 可以部署到物理访问昂贵的远程位置。Can be deployed in remote locations, where physical access is expensive.
  • 可能只能通过解决方案后端来访问。May only be reachable through the solution back end.
  • 能力和处理资源可能都有限。May have limited power and processing resources.
  • 网络连接可能不稳定、缓慢或昂贵。May have intermittent, slow, or expensive network connectivity.
  • 可能需要使用专属、自定义或行业特定的应用程序协议。May need to use proprietary, custom, or industry-specific application protocols.

后端服务Back-end services

在 IoT 解决方案中,后端服务提供如下功能:In an IoT solution, the back-end service provides functionality such as:

  • 接收大规模的来自设备的遥测数据,并确定如何处理和存储该数据。Receiving telemetry at scale from your devices, and determining how to process and store that data.
  • 通过分析遥测数据为用户提供见解,不管是实时的还是事后的。Analyzing the telemetry to provide insights, either in real time or after the fact.
  • 从云向特定设备发送命令。Sending commands from the cloud to a specific device.
  • 预配设备并控制哪些设备可以连接到基础结构。Provisioning devices and controlling which devices can connect to your infrastructure.
  • 控制设备状态并监视设备活动。Controlling the state of your devices and monitoring their activities.
  • 管理设备上安装的固件。Managing the firmware installed on your devices.

例如,在输油站的远程监视解决方案中,云后端使用来自油泵的遥测数据来识别异常行为。For example, in a remote monitoring solution for an oil pumping station, the cloud back end uses telemetry from the pumps to identify anomalous behavior. 当后端服务识别到异常时,可以自动将一条命令发回给设备,以采取纠正措施。When the back-end service identifies an anomaly, it can automatically send a command back to the device to take a corrective action. 此过程在设备和云之间产生一个自动反馈循环,大大提高了解决方案效率。This process generates an automated feedback loop between the device and the cloud that greatly increases the solution efficiency.

Azure IoT 示例Azure IoT examples

有关演示组织如何使用 Azure IoT 的现实示例,请参阅 Microsoft IoT 技术案例研究For real-life examples of how organizations use Azure IoT, see Microsoft Technical Case Studies for IoT.

后续步骤Next steps

如果需要一些使用过的实际商业用例和体系结构,请参阅 Microsoft Azure IoT 技术案例研究For some actual business cases and the architecture used, see the Microsoft Azure IoT Technical Case Studies.

如果需要一些可以通过 IoT DevKit 来试用的示例项目,请参阅 IoT DevKit 项目目录For some sample projects that you can try out with an IoT DevKit, see the IoT DevKit Project Catalog.

有关不同服务的更详细说明及其用法,请参阅 Azure IoT 服务和技术For a more comprehensive explanation of the different services and how they're used, see Azure IoT services and technologies.

有关 IoT 体系结构的深入介绍,请参阅 Microsoft Azure IoT 参考体系结构For an in-depth discussion of IoT architecture, see the Microsoft Azure IoT Reference Architecture.