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Azure Blob 存储:热、冷、存档访问层Azure Blob storage: hot, cool, and archive access tiers

Azure 存储提供了不同的访问层,允许以最具成本效益的方式存储 Blob 对象数据。Azure storage offers different access tiers, which allow you to store blob object data in the most cost-effective manner. 可用的访问层包括:The available access tiers include:

  • :适用于存储经常访问的数据。Hot - Optimized for storing data that is accessed frequently.
  • :适用于存储不常访问且存储时间至少为 30 天的数据。Cool - Optimized for storing data that is infrequently accessed and stored for at least 30 days.
  • 存档:适用于存储极少访问、存储时间至少为 180 天且延迟要求(以小时计)不严格的数据。Archive - Optimized for storing data that is rarely accessed and stored for at least 180 days with flexible latency requirements (on the order of hours).

以下注意事项适用于不同的访问层:The following considerations apply to the different access tiers:

  • 存档访问层仅在 Blob 级别提供,在存储帐户级别不提供。The archive access tier is available only at the blob level and not at the storage account level.
  • 冷访问层中的数据可容许略低的可用性,但仍需要像热数据一样的高持续性和类似的访问时间以及吞吐量特征。Data in the cool access tier can tolerate slightly lower availability, but still requires high durability and similar time-to-access and throughput characteristics as hot data. 对于冷数据,略低的可用性服务级别协议 (SLA) 和较高的访问成本(与热数据相比)对于更低的存储成本而言是可接受的折衷。For cool data, a slightly lower availability service-level agreement (SLA) and higher access costs compared to hot data are acceptable trade-offs for lower storage costs.
  • 存档存储是脱机的,其存储成本最低,但访问成本最高。Archive storage is offline and offers the lowest storage costs but also the highest access costs.
  • 在帐户级别只能设置热和冷访问层。Only the hot and cool access tiers can be set at the account level.
  • 可在对象级别设置热、冷和存档层。Hot, cool, and archive tiers can be set at the object level.

存储在云中的数据以指数速度增长。Data stored in the cloud grows at an exponential pace. 若要针对不断增加的存储需求来管理成本,可以根据属性(如访问频率和计划保留期)整理数据以优化成本。To manage costs for your expanding storage needs, it's helpful to organize your data based on attributes like frequency-of-access and planned retention period to optimize costs. 存储在云中的数据在其生成方式、处理方式以及在生存期内的访问方式等方面会不相同。Data stored in the cloud can be different in terms of how it's generated, processed, and accessed over its lifetime. 某些数据在其整个生存期中都会受到积极的访问和修改。Some data is actively accessed and modified throughout its lifetime. 某些数据则在生存期早期会受到频繁的访问,随着数据变旧,访问会极大地减少。Some data is accessed frequently early in its lifetime, with access dropping drastically as the data ages. 某些数据在云中保持空闲状态,并且在存储后很少(如果有)被访问。Some data remains idle in the cloud and is rarely, if ever, accessed after it's stored.

这些数据访问方案的每一个都受益于针对特定访问模式进行了优化的差异化访问层。Each of these data access scenarios benefits from a different access tier that is optimized for a particular access pattern. Azure Blob 存储采用热、冷、存档访问层,通过单独的定价模型来满足对差异化访问层的这种需要。With hot, cool, and archive access tiers, Azure Blob storage addresses this need for differentiated access tiers with separate pricing models.

支持分层的存储帐户Storage accounts that support tiering

在 Blob 存储或常规用途 v2 (GPv2) 帐户中,只能将对象存储数据分到热层、冷层或存档层。You may only tier your object storage data to hot, cool, or archive in Blob storage and General Purpose v2 (GPv2) accounts. 常规用途 v1 (GPv1) 帐户不支持分层。General Purpose v1 (GPv1) accounts do not support tiering. 不过,可以轻松地将现有的 GPv1 或 Blob 存储帐户转换为 GPv2 帐户,只需在 Azure 门户中单击一下即可。However, you can easily convert existing GPv1 or Blob storage accounts to GPv2 accounts through a one-click process in the Azure portal. GPv2 为 Blob、文件和队列提供新的定价结构,可以访问各种其他的全新存储功能。GPv2 provides a new pricing structure for blobs, files, and queues, and access to a variety of other new storage features. 以后只对 GPv2 帐户提供某些新功能和价格折扣。Going forward, some new features and prices cuts will be offered only in GPv2 accounts. 因此,应使用 GPv2 帐户进行评估,但只应在查看所有服务的定价以后再使用此类帐户。Therefore, you should evaluate using GPv2 accounts but only use them after reviewing the pricing for all services. 某些工作负荷的价格在 GPv2 中可能比在 GPv1 中更高。Some workloads can be more expensive on GPv2 than GPv1. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 存储帐户概述For more information, see Azure storage account overview.

Blob 存储和 GPv2 帐户在帐户级别公开“访问层”属性 。Blob storage and GPv2 accounts expose the Access Tier attribute at the account level. 此属性可方便你将存储帐户中任何 Blob 的默认访问层指定为热层或冷层,前提是该 Blob 尚未在对象级别设置显式层。This attribute allows you to specify the default access tier as hot or cool for any blob in the storage account that doesn't have an explicit tier set at the object level. 对于已在对象级别设置该层的对象,不会应用帐户层。For objects with the tier set at the object level, the account tier will not apply. 存档层仅适用于对象级别。The archive tier can be applied only at the object level. 可以随时在这些访问层之间进行切换。You can switch between these access tiers at any time.

高级性能数据块 blob 存储Premium performance block blob storage

高级性能数据块 blob 存储经常访问的数据通过将提供高性能硬件。Premium performance block blob storage makes frequently accessed data available via high-performance hardware. 此性能层中的数据存储在固态驱动器 (Ssd),针对低和一致延迟进行了优化。Data in this performance tier is stored on solid-state drives (SSDs), which are optimized for low and consistent latency. SSDs 提供更高的事务率和吞吐量,相比传统硬盘驱动器。SSDs provide higher transactional rates and throughput compared to traditional hard drives.

高级性能数据块 blob 存储非常适合于需要快速且一致的响应时间的工作负荷。Premium performance block blob storage is ideal for workloads that require fast and consistent response times. 最好是用于执行许多小事务,例如捕获遥测数据、 消息和数据转换的工作负荷。It's best for workloads that perform many small transactions, such as capturing telemetry data, messaging, and data transformation. 涉及最终用户,如交互式视频编辑、 静态 web 内容和在线交易的数据也是很好的候选。Data that involves end users, such as interactive video editing, static web content, and online transactions are also good candidates.

高级性能数据块 blob 存储可仅通过块 blob 存储帐户类型,并且当前不支持分层热、 冷或存档访问层。Premium performance block blob storage is available only via the block blob storage account type, and does not currently support tiering to hot, cool, or archive access tiers.

热访问层Hot access tier

热访问层的存储成本高于冷存储和存档层,但访问成本最低。The hot access tier has higher storage costs than cool and archive tiers, but the lowest access costs. 热访问层的示例使用方案包括:Example usage scenarios for the hot access tier include:

  • 处于活跃使用状态或预期会频繁访问(读取和写入)的数据。Data that's in active use or expected to be accessed (read from and written to) frequently.
  • 分阶段进行处理,并最终迁移至冷访问层的数据。Data that's staged for processing and eventual migration to the cool access tier.

冷访问层Cool access tier

与热存储相比,冷访问层的存储成本较低,访问成本较高。The cool access tier has lower storage costs and higher access costs compared to hot storage. 此层适用于将要保留在冷层中至少 30 天的数据。This tier is intended for data that will remain in the cool tier for at least 30 days. 冷访问层的示例使用方案包括:Example usage scenarios for the cool access tier include:

  • 短期备份和灾难恢复数据集。Short-term backup and disaster recovery datasets.
  • 不再经常查看、但访问时应立即可用的较旧的媒体内容。Older media content not viewed frequently anymore but is expected to be available immediately when accessed.
  • 在收集更多数据以便将来处理时需要经济高效地存储的大型数据集。Large data sets that need to be stored cost effectively while more data is being gathered for future processing. ( 例如,长期存储的科学数据、来自制造设施的原始遥测数据)(For example, long-term storage of scientific data, raw telemetry data from a manufacturing facility)

存档访问层Archive access tier

与热层和冷层相比,存档访问层的存储成本最低,但数据检索成本较高。The archive access tier has the lowest storage cost and higher data retrieval costs compared to hot and cool tiers. 此层适用于可以容忍数小时的检索延迟且会保留在存档层至少 180 天的数据。This tier is intended for data that can tolerate several hours of retrieval latency and will remain in the archive tier for at least 180 days.

如果 Blob 位于存档存储中,则 Blob 数据处于脱机状态,不能读取、复制、覆盖或修改。While a blob is in archive storage, the blob data is offline and cannot be read, copied, overwritten, or modified. 不能创建存档存储中 Blob 的快照。You can't take snapshots of a blob in archive storage. 但是,Blob 元数据会保持联机和可用状态,因而可列出 Blob 及其属性。However, the blob metadata remains online and available, allowing you to list the blob and its properties. 对于存档中的 Blob,仅以下操作有效:GetBlobProperties、GetBlobMetadata、ListBlobs、SetBlobTier 和 DeleteBlob。For blobs in archive, the only valid operations are GetBlobProperties, GetBlobMetadata, ListBlobs, SetBlobTier, and DeleteBlob.

存档访问层的示例使用方案包括:Example usage scenarios for the archive access tier include:

  • 长期备份、辅助备份和存档数据集Long-term backup, secondary backup, and archival datasets
  • 必须保留的原始数据,即使它已被处理为最终可用的形式。Original (raw) data that must be preserved, even after it has been processed into final usable form. ( 例如,转码为其他格式后的原始媒体文件)(For example, Raw media files after transcoding into other formats)
  • 需要长时间存储并且几乎不访问的合规性和存档数据。Compliance and archival data that needs to be stored for a long time and is hardly ever accessed. ( 例如,安全监控录像、医保组织的旧 X 光/MRI 资料、音频记录、金融服务机构的客户呼叫记录)(For example, security camera footage, old X-Rays/MRIs for healthcare organizations, audio recordings, and transcripts of customer calls for financial services)

Blob 解除冻结Blob rehydration

若要读取存档存储中的数据,必须先将 Blob 的层更改为热层或冷层。To read data in archive storage, you must first change the tier of the blob to hot or cool. 此过程称为解除冻结,可能需要长达 15 小时才能完成。This process is known as rehydration and can take up to 15 hours to complete. 为获得最佳性能,建议使用大型 Blob。Large blob sizes are recommended for optimal performance. 同时解冻多个小型 Blob 可能导致该时间延长。Rehydrating several small blobs concurrently may add additional time.

在解除冻结期间,可以通过查看“存档状态”Blob 属性来确认该层是否已更改。 During rehydration, you may check the Archive Status blob property to confirm if the tier has changed. 状态显示为“rehydrate-pending-to-hot”或“rehydrate-pending-to-cool”,具体取决于目标层。The status reads "rehydrate-pending-to-hot" or "rehydrate-pending-to-cool" depending on the destination tier. 完成后,“存档状态”属性会被删除,“访问层”Blob 属性会反映出新层是热层还是冷层。 Upon completion, the archive status property is removed, and the Access Tier blob property reflects the new hot or cool tier.

Blob 级别分层Blob-level tiering

使用 Blob 级分层功能即可通过名为设置 Blob 层的单一操作在对象级别更改数据的层。Blob-level tiering allows you to change the tier of your data at the object level using a single operation called Set Blob Tier. 可以在使用模式更改时轻松地在热、冷或存档层之间更改 Blob 的访问层,不需在帐户之间移动数据。You can easily change the access tier of a blob among the hot, cool, or archive tiers as usage patterns change, without having to move data between accounts. 所有层级更改都会立即执行。All tier changes happen immediately. 但是,从存档层中解除冻结 blob 可能需要几个小时。However, rehydrating a blob from archive can take several hours.

上次 Blob 层更改的时间通过 Blob 属性“访问层更改时间” 公开。The time of the last blob tier change is exposed via the Access Tier Change Time blob property. 如果 Blob 位于存档层中,则无法被覆盖,因此在这种情况下,不允许上传相同的 Blob。If a blob is in the archive tier, it can't be overwritten, so uploading the same blob is not permitted in this scenario. 可以覆盖热层和冷层中的 Blob,在这种情况下,新的 Blob 会继承被覆盖的 Blob 的层。You can overwrite a blob in a hot or cool tier, in which case the new blob inherits the tier of the blob that was overwritten.

所有三个访问层中的 Blob 可以在同一帐户中共存。Blobs in all three access tiers can coexist within the same account. 如果 Blob 没有显式分配的层,则会从帐户访问层设置推断相应的层。Any blob that does not have an explicitly assigned tier infers the tier from the account access tier setting. 如果访问层是从帐户推断出来的,则可看到 Blob 属性“推断的访问层”已设置为“true”,且 Blob 属性“访问层”与帐户层匹配。 If the access tier is inferred from the account, you see the Access Tier Inferred blob property set to "true", and the blob Access Tier blob property matches the account tier. 在 Azure 门户中,推断属性的访问层与 Blob 访问层(例如,热(推断)或冷(推断))一起显示 。In the Azure portal, the access tier inferred property is displayed with the blob access tier (for example, Hot (inferred) or Cool (inferred)).

备注

存档存储和 Blob 级别分层仅支持块 Blob。Archive storage and blob-level tiering only support block blobs. 也不能更改包含快照的块 Blob 的层。You also cannot change the tier of a block blob that has snapshots.

备注

当前无法分层块 blob 存储帐户中存储的数据热、 冷或存档使用设置 Blob 层或使用 Azure Blob 存储生命周期管理。Data stored in a block blob storage account cannot currently be tiered to hot, cool, or archive using Set Blob Tier or using Azure Blob Storage lifecycle management. 若要移动数据,您必须以同步方式将 blob 复制从块 blob 存储帐户到在不同的帐户中使用热访问层放置 URL API 从块或 AzCopy 支持此 API 版本。To move data, you must synchronously copy blobs from the block blob storage account to the hot access tier in a different account using the Put Block From URL API or a version of AzCopy that supports this API. 通过 URL 放置块 API 同步复制服务器上的数据,这意味着只有在所有数据都从原服务器位置移动到目标位置后,调用才会完成。The Put Block From URL API synchronously copies data on the server, meaning the call completes only once all the data is moved from the original server location to the destination location.

Blob 生命周期管理Blob lifecycle management

Blob 存储生命周期管理提供了一个丰富的、 基于规则的策略,可以使用转换到最佳的访问层数据并使其生命周期结束时的数据过期。Blob Storage lifecycle management offers a rich, rule-based policy that you can use to transition your data to the best access tier and to expire data at the end of its lifecycle. 请参阅管理 Azure Blob 存储生命周期来了解详细信息。See Manage the Azure Blob storage lifecycle to learn more.

Blob 级别分层计费Blob-level tiering billing

将 blob 移到更冷的层(热->冷、热->存档或冷->存档)时,操作按目标层写入操作计费,具体说来就是按目标层的写入操作次数(以 10,000 次为单位)和数据写入量(以 GB 为单位)收费。When a blob is moved to a cooler tier (hot->cool, hot->archive, or cool->archive), the operation is billed as a write operation to the destination tier, where the write operation (per 10,000) and data write (per GB) charges of the destination tier apply.

将 Blob 移到更暖的层(存档->冷、存档->热或冷->热)时,操作按从源层读取计费,具体说来就是按源层的读取操作次数(以 10,000 次为单位)和数据检索量(以 GB 为单位)收费。When a blob is moved to a warmer tier (archive->cool, archive->hot, or cool->hot), the operation is billed as a read from the source tier, where the read operation (per 10,000) and data retrieval (per GB) charges of the source tier apply. 下表总结了如何对层更改进行计费。The following table summarizes how tier changes are billed.

写入费用(操作 + 访问)Write Charges (Operation + Access) 读取费用(操作 + 访问)Read Charges (Operation + Access)
SetBlobTier 方向SetBlobTier Direction 热->冷、热->存档、冷->存档hot->cool, hot->archive, cool->archive 存档->冷、存档->热、冷->热archive->cool, archive->hot, cool->hot

如果将帐户层从热切换为冷,则只按 GPv2 帐户中没有设置层的所有 Blob 的写入操作次数(以 10,000 次为单位)收费。If you toggle the account tier from hot to cool, you will be charged for write operations (per 10,000) for all blobs without a set tier in GPv2 accounts only. 不会在 Blob 存储帐户中对此更改收费。There is no charge for this change in Blob storage accounts. 如果将 Blob 存储或 GPv2 帐户从冷切换为热,则会按读取操作次数(以 10,000 次为单位)和数据检索量(以 GB 为单位)收费。You will be charged for both read operations (per 10,000) and data retrieval (per GB) if you toggle your Blob storage or GPv2 account from cool to hot. 也可能还会收取从池或存档层移出的任何 Blob 的早期删除费用。Early deletion charges for any blob moved out of the cool or archive tier may apply as well.

“冷”层和“存档”层提前删除Cool and archive early deletion

除了按 GB 和按月收费,移到冷层(仅限 GPv2 帐户)中的 Blob 会有一个 30 天的冷层早期删除期限,移到存档层中的 Blob 会有一个 180 天的存档层早期删除期限。In addition to the per GB, per month charge, any blob that is moved into the cool tier (GPv2 accounts only) is subject to a cool early deletion period of 30 days, and any blob that is moved into the archive tier is subject to an archive early deletion period of 180 days. 此项费用按比例计算。This charge is prorated. 例如,如果将某个 Blob 移到存档层,然后在 45 天后将其删除或移到热层,则需支付相当于将该 Blob 存储在存档层中 135(180 减 45)天的早期删除费用。For example, if a blob is moved to archive and then deleted or moved to the hot tier after 45 days, you will be charged an early deletion fee equivalent to 135 (180 minus 45) days of storing that blob in archive.

如果没有访问层更改,则可以使用 blob 属性“creation-time”来计算早期删除费用 。You may calculate the early deletion by using the blob property, creation-time, if there has been no access tier changes. 否则,可以通过查看 Blob 属性(即“access-tier-change-time”)来使用最后一次将访问层修改为“冷”或“存档”的时间 。Otherwise you can use when the access tier was last modified to cool or archive by viewing the blob property: access-tier-change-time. 有关 Blob 属性的详细信息,请参阅获取 Blob 属性For more information on blob properties, see Get Blob Properties.

比较块 Blob 存储选项Comparing block blob storage options

下表显示了一个比较的高级性能数据块 blob 存储,并在热、 冷和存档访问层。The following table shows a comparison of premium performance block blob storage, and the hot, cool, and archive access tiers.

高级性能Premium performance 热存储层Hot tier 冷存储层Cool tier 存档存储层Archive tier
可用性Availability 99.9%99.9% 99.9%99.9% 99%99% 不适用N/A
可用性Availability
(RA-GRS 读取) (RA-GRS reads)
不适用N/A 99.99%99.99% 99.9%99.9% 不适用N/A
使用费 Usage charges 存储成本较高、 较低的访问和事务成本Higher storage costs, lower access and transaction cost 存储费用较高,访问和事务费用较低Higher storage costs, lower access, and transaction costs 存储费用较低,访问和事务费用较高Lower storage costs, higher access, and transaction costs 存储费用最低,访问和事务费用最高Lowest storage costs, highest access, and transaction costs
最小对象大小Minimum object size 不适用N/A 不适用N/A 不适用N/A 不适用N/A
最短存储持续时间Minimum storage duration 不适用N/A 不适用N/A 30 天(仅 GPv2)30 days (GPv2 only) 180 天180 days
延迟Latency
(距第一字节时间) (Time to first byte)
个位数毫秒Single-digit milliseconds 毫秒milliseconds 毫秒milliseconds < 15 小时< 15 hrs

备注

有关可伸缩性和性能目标,请参阅存储帐户的 Azure 存储可伸缩性和性能目标For scalability and performance targets, see Azure Storage scalability and performance targets for storage accounts

快速入门方案Quickstart scenarios

本部分使用 Azure 门户演示以下方案:In this section, the following scenarios are demonstrated using the Azure portal:

  • 如何更改 GPv2 或 Blob 存储帐户的默认帐户访问层。How to change the default account access tier of a GPv2 or Blob storage account.
  • 如何更改 GPv2 或 Blob 存储帐户中 Blob 的层。How to change the tier of a blob in a GPv2 or Blob storage account.

更改 GPv2 或 Blob 存储帐户的默认帐户访问层Change the default account access tier of a GPv2 or Blob storage account

  1. 登录到 Azure 门户Sign in to the Azure portal.

  2. 要导航到存储帐户,请先选择“所有资源”,然后选择存储帐户。To navigate to your storage account, select All Resources, then select your storage account.

  3. 在“设置”边栏选项卡中,单击“ 配置 ”以查看和/或更改帐户配置。In the Settings blade, click Configuration to view and/or change the account configuration.

  4. 根据需求选择合适的访问层:将“访问层”设置为“冷”或“热” 。Select the right access tier for your needs: Set the Access tier to either Cool or Hot.

  5. 单击边栏选项卡顶部的“保存” 。Click Save at the top of the blade.

更改 GPv2 或 Blob 存储帐户中 Blob 的层Change the tier of a blob in a GPv2 or Blob storage account

  1. 登录到 Azure 门户Sign in to the Azure portal.

  2. 若要导航到存储帐户中的 Blob:请依次选择“所有资源”、存储帐户、容器、Blob 。To navigate to your blob in your storage account, select All Resources, select your storage account, select your container, and then select your blob.

  3. 在“Blob 属性”边栏选项卡中选择“访问层”下拉菜单,选择“热”、“冷”或“存档”访问层 。In the Blob properties blade, select the Access tier dropdown menu to select the Hot, Cool, or Archive access tier.

  4. 单击边栏选项卡顶部的“保存” 。Click Save at the top of the blade.

定价和计费Pricing and billing

所有存储帐户使用的定价模型都适用于 Blob 存储,具体取决于每个 blob 的层。All storage accounts use a pricing model for Blob storage based on the tier of each blob. 请紧记以下计费注意事项:Keep in mind the following billing considerations:

  • 存储成本:除了存储的数据量,存储数据的成本将因访问层而异。Storage costs: In addition to the amount of data stored, the cost of storing data varies depending on the access tier. 层越冷,单 GB 成本越低。The per-gigabyte cost decreases as the tier gets cooler.
  • 数据访问成本:层越冷,数据访问费用越高。Data access costs: Data access charges increase as the tier gets cooler. 对于冷访问层和存档访问层中的数据,需要按 GB 支付读取方面的数据访问费用。For data in the cool and archive access tier, you are charged a per-gigabyte data access charge for reads.
  • 事务成本:层越冷,每个层的按事务收费越高。Transaction costs: There is a per-transaction charge for all tiers that increases as the tier gets cooler.
  • 异地复制数据传输成本:此费用仅适用于配置了异地复制的帐户,包括 GRS 和 RA-GRS。Geo-Replication data transfer costs: This charge only applies to accounts with geo-replication configured, including GRS and RA-GRS. 异地复制数据传输会产生每 GB 费用。Geo-replication data transfer incurs a per-gigabyte charge.
  • 出站数据传输成本:出站数据传输(传出 Azure 区域的数据)会按每 GB 产生带宽使用费,与通用存储帐户一致。Outbound data transfer costs: Outbound data transfers (data that is transferred out of an Azure region) incur billing for bandwidth usage on a per-gigabyte basis, consistent with general-purpose storage accounts.
  • 更改访问层:将帐户访问层从“冷”更改为“热”会产生费用,费用等于读取存储帐户中存在的所有数据的费用。Changing the access tier: Changing the account access tier from cool to hot incurs a charge equal to reading all the data existing in the storage account. 但是,将帐户访问层从“热”更改为“冷”产生的费用则相当于将所有数据写入冷层(仅限 GPv2 帐户)。However, changing the account access tier from hot to cool incurs a charge equal to writing all the data into the cool tier (GPv2 accounts only).

备注

有关 Blob 存储帐户的详细定价信息,请参阅 Azure 存储定价页。For more information about pricing for Blob storage accounts, see Azure Storage Pricing page. 有关出站数据传输收费的详细信息,请参阅数据传输定价详细信息页。For more information on outbound data transfer charges, see Data Transfers Pricing Details page.

常见问题解答FAQ

如果要对数据分层,是应该使用 Blob 存储帐户还是 GPv2 帐户?Should I use Blob storage or GPv2 accounts if I want to tier my data?

建议使用 GPv2 帐户而非 Blob 存储帐户进行分层。We recommend you use GPv2 instead of Blob storage accounts for tiering. GPv2 支持 Blob 存储帐户支持的所有功能,以及许多其他功能。GPv2 support all the features that Blob storage accounts support plus a lot more. Blob 存储和 GPv2 的定价几乎相同,但某些新功能和价格折扣只提供给 GPv2 帐户。Pricing between Blob storage and GPv2 is almost identical, but some new features and price cuts will only be available on GPv2 accounts. GPv1 帐户不支持分层。GPv1 accounts do not support tiering.

GPv1 和 GPv2 帐户的定价结构不同,客户在决定使用 GPv2 帐户之前,应仔细评估这二者。Pricing structure between GPv1 and GPv2 accounts is different and customers should carefully evaluate both before deciding to use GPv2 accounts. 只需单击一下,即可轻松地将现有的 Blob 存储或 GPv1 帐户转换为 GPv2 帐户。You can easily convert an existing Blob storage or GPv1 account to GPv2 through a simple one-click process. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 存储帐户概述For more information, see Azure storage account overview.

是否可以将对象存储在同一帐户的所有三个访问层(热、冷和存档)中?Can I store objects in all three (hot, cool, and archive) access tiers in the same account?

是的。Yes. 在帐户级别设置的“访问层”属性 是一个默认层,适用于该帐户中没有显式设置层的所有对象。The Access Tier attribute set at the account level is the default tier that applies to all objects in that account without an explicit set tier. 但是,Blob 级别分层允许在对象级别设置访问层,不管该帐户上的访问层设置如何。However, blob-level tiering allows you to set the access tier on at the object level regardless of what the access tier setting on the account is. 这三个访问层(热、冷或存档)中任何一层的 Blob 都可以存在于同一帐户中。Blobs in any of the three access tiers (hot, cool, or archive) may exist within the same account.

是否可以更改 Blob 或 GPv2 存储帐户的默认访问层?Can I change the default access tier of my Blob or GPv2 storage account?

是的,可以通过设置存储帐户上的“访问层”属性来更改默认访问层。 Yes, you can change the default access tier by setting the Access tier attribute on the storage account. 更改访问层适用于存储在帐户中的所有对象,前提是该帐户没有显式设置层。Changing the access tier applies to all objects stored in the account that do not have an explicit tier set. 将访问层从热切换为冷只对 GPv2 帐户中没有设置层的所有 Blob 产生写入操作次数(以 10,000 次为单位)收费,而从冷切换为热则会对 Blob 存储和 GPv2 帐户中的所有 Blob 产生读取操作次数(以 10,000 次为单位)和数据检索量(以 GB 为单位)收费。Toggling the access tier from hot to cool incurs write operations (per 10,000) for all blobs without a set tier in GPv2 accounts only and toggling from cool to hot incurs both read operations (per 10,000) and data retrieval (per GB) charges for all blobs in Blob storage and GPv2 accounts.

能否将默认帐户访问层设置为存档层?Can I set my default account access tier to archive?

不。No. 只能将默认帐户访问层设置为热访问层或冷访问层。Only hot and cool access tiers may be set as the default account access tier. 只能在对象级别设置存档层。Archive can only be set at the object level.

哪些区域提供了热、冷、存档访问层?In which regions are the hot, cool, and archive access tiers available in?

所有区域均提供热访问层和冷访问层以及 Blob 级别的分层。The hot and cool access tiers along with blob-level tiering are available in all regions. 存档存储一开始只会在选定区域提供。Archive storage will initially only be available in select regions. 如需完整列表,请参阅 Azure 产品(按区域)For a complete list, see Azure products available by region.

冷访问层中 Blob 的行为方式是否与热访问层中的不同?Do the blobs in the cool access tier behave differently than the ones in the hot access tier?

热访问层中 Blob 的延迟与 GPv1、GPv2 和 Blob 存储帐户中 Blob 的延迟相同。Blobs in the hot access tier have the same latency as blobs in GPv1, GPv2, and Blob storage accounts. 冷访问层中 Blob 的延迟(以毫秒为单位)与 GPv1、GPv2 和 Blob 存储帐户中 Blob 的延迟类似。Blobs in the cool access tier have a similar latency (in milliseconds) as blobs in GPv1, GPv2, and Blob storage accounts. 存档访问层中的 Blob 在 GPv1、GPv2 和 Blob 存储帐户中有数小时的延迟。Blobs in the archive access tier have several hours of latency in GPv1, GPv2, and Blob storage accounts.

冷访问层中的 Blob 具有的可用性服务级别 (SLA) 比存储在热访问层中的 Blob 略低。Blobs in the cool access tier have a slightly lower availability service level (SLA) than the blobs stored in the hot access tier. 有关详细信息,请参阅存储的 SLAFor more information, see SLA for storage.

热层、冷层和存档层中的操作是否相同?Are the operations among the hot, cool, and archive tiers the same?

是的。Yes. 热层和冷层中的所有操作 100% 一致。All operations between hot and cool are 100% consistent. 热层和冷层中所有有效的存档操作(包括删除、列出、获取 Blob 属性/元数据,以及设置 Blob 层)100% 一致。All valid archive operations including delete, list, get blob properties/metadata, and set blob tier are 100% consistent with hot and cool. 存档层中的 Blob 无法读取或修改。A blob cannot be read or modified while in the archive tier.

通过解冻方式将 Blob 从存档层移到热层或冷层时,如何确定解除冻结操作何时完成?When rehydrating a blob from archive tier to the hot or cool tier, how will I know when rehydration is complete?

在解除冻结期间,可以使用“获取 Blob 属性”操作来轮询“存档状态”属性,确认层更改的完成时间。 During rehydration, you may use the get blob properties operation to poll the Archive Status attribute to confirm when the tier change is complete. 状态显示为“rehydrate-pending-to-hot”或“rehydrate-pending-to-cool”,具体取决于目标层。The status reads "rehydrate-pending-to-hot" or "rehydrate-pending-to-cool" depending on the destination tier. 完成后,“存档状态”属性会被删除,“访问层”Blob 属性会反映出新层是热层还是冷层。 Upon completion, the archive status property is removed, and the Access Tier blob property reflects the new hot or cool tier.

设置 Blob 的层以后,何时开始按相应费率收费?After setting the tier of a blob, when will I start getting billed at the appropriate rate?

每个 blob 始终按其“访问层”属性指示的层收费 。Each blob is always billed according to the tier indicated by the blob's Access Tier property. 为 blob 设置新层后,“访问层”属性会立即为所有转换显示该新层 。When you set a new tier for a blob, the Access Tier property immediately reflects the new tier for all transitions. 但是,将 blob 从存档层解除冻结到热层或冷层可能需要几个小时。However, rehydrating a blob from the archive tier to a hot or cool tier can take several hours. 在这种情况下,仍按存档层费率计费,直至解除冻结操作完成。解冻后“访问层”属性会反映该新层 。In this case, you are billed at archive rates until rehydration is complete, at which point the Access Tier property reflects the new tier. 那时便按热层或冷层费率对该 blob 收费。At that point you are billed for that blob at the hot or cool rate.

如何确定在删除或移出冷层或存档层的 Blob 时是否会产生早期删除费用?How do I determine if I will incur an early deletion charge when deleting or moving a blob out of the cool or archive tier?

在删除或移出冷层(仅限 GPv2 帐户)或存档层的任何 Blob 时,如果相应的存储时间不足 30 天(冷层)和 180 天(存档层),则会产生按比例计费的早期删除费用。Any blob that is deleted or moved out of the cool (GPv2 accounts only) or archive tier before 30 days and 180 days respectively will incur a prorated early deletion charge. 若要确定 blob 已在冷层或存档层中存储了多长时间,可以查看“访问层更改时间”blob 属性,该属性提供上次进行层更改的戳记 。You can determine how long a blob has been in the cool or archive tier by checking the Access Tier Change Time blob property, which provides a stamp of the last tier change. 有关详细信息,请参阅冷层和存档层的早期删除For more information, see Cool and archive early deletion.

哪些 Azure 工具和 SDK 支持 Blob 级别的分层和存档存储?Which Azure tools and SDKs support blob-level tiering and archive storage?

Azure 门户、PowerShell 和 CLI 工具以及 .NET、Java、Python 和 Node.js 客户端库都支持 Blob 级别的分层和存档存储。Azure portal, PowerShell, and CLI tools and .NET, Java, Python, and Node.js client libraries all support blob-level tiering and archive storage.

可以在热层、冷层和存档层中存储多少数据?How much data can I store in the hot, cool, and archive tiers?

数据存储和其他限制在帐户级别设置,不是按访问层设置。Data storage along with other limits are set at the account level and not per access tier. 因此,可以选择在一个层中用完所有存储配额,也可以分散用于三个层。Therefore, you can choose to use all of your limit in one tier or across all three tiers. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 存储可伸缩性和性能目标For more information, see Azure Storage scalability and performance targets.

后续步骤Next steps

评估 GPv2 Blob 存储帐户中的热层、冷层和存档层Evaluate hot, cool, and archive in GPv2 Blob storage accounts

按区域查看热层、冷层和存档层Check availability of hot, cool, and archive by region

管理 Azure Blob 存储生命周期Manage the Azure Blob storage lifecycle

通过启用 Azure 存储度量值来评估当前存储帐户的使用情况Evaluate usage of your current storage accounts by enabling Azure Storage metrics

按区域查看 Blob 存储帐户和 GPv2 帐户中的热层、冷层和存档层定价Check hot, cool, and archive pricing in Blob storage and GPv2 accounts by region

检查数据传输定价Check data transfers pricing