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存储帐户的 Azure 存储可伸缩性和性能目标Azure Storage scalability and performance targets for storage accounts

本文详细介绍了 Azure 存储帐户的可伸缩性和性能目标。This article details the scalability and performance targets for Azure storage accounts. 以下所列的可伸缩性和性能目标为高端目标,但却是能够实现的。The scalability and performance targets listed here are high-end targets, but are achievable. 在任何情况下,存储帐户实现的请求速率和带宽取决于存储对象大小、使用的访问模式、应用程序执行的工作负荷类型。In all cases, the request rate and bandwidth achieved by your storage account depends upon the size of objects stored, the access patterns utilized, and the type of workload your application performs.

请务必测试服务,以确定其性能是否达到要求。Be sure to test your service to determine whether its performance meets your requirements. 如果可能,应避免流量速率突发峰值,并确保流量在各个分区上均匀分布。If possible, avoid sudden spikes in the rate of traffic and ensure that traffic is well-distributed across partitions.

当应用程序达到分区能够处理的工作负荷极限时,Azure 存储将开始返回错误代码 503(服务器忙)或错误代码 500(操作超时)响应。When your application reaches the limit of what a partition can handle for your workload, Azure Storage begins to return error code 503 (Server Busy) or error code 500 (Operation Timeout) responses. 如果发生 503 错误,请考虑修改应用程序以使用指数退避策略进行重试。If 503 errors are occurring, consider modifying your application to use an exponential backoff policy for retries. 使用指数退让策略,可以减少分区上的负载,缓解该分区的流量高峰。The exponential backoff allows the load on the partition to decrease, and to ease out spikes in traffic to that partition.

存储帐户规模限制Storage account scale limits

下表介绍 Azure 常规用途 v1、v2 和 Blob 存储帐户的默认限制。The following table describes default limits for Azure general-purpose v1, v2, and Blob storage accounts. “传入”限制是指请求中发送到存储帐户的所有数据。The ingress limit refers to all data from requests that are sent to a storage account. “传出”限制是指响应中从存储帐户接收的所有数据。The egress limit refers to all data from responses that are received from a storage account.

ResourceResource 默认限制Default limit
每个订阅每个区域的存储帐户数,包括标准帐户和高级帐户Number of storage accounts per region per subscription, including both standard and premium accounts 250250
最大存储帐户容量Maximum storage account capacity 2 PiB 用于美国和欧洲,500 TiB 适用于所有其他地区(包括英国)12 PiB for US and Europe, and 500 TiB for all other regions (including the UK)1
每个存储帐户的 Blob 容器、Blob、文件共享、表、队列、实体或消息数上限Maximum number of blob containers, blobs, file shares, tables, queues, entities, or messages per storage account 无限制No limit
每个存储帐户的最大请求速率1Maximum request rate1 per storage account 每秒 20,000 个请求20,000 requests per second
每个存储帐户的最大入口1 (美国, 欧洲区域)Maximum ingress1 per storage account (US, Europe regions) 25 Gbps25 Gbps
每个存储帐户的最大入口1 (美国和欧洲区域除外)Maximum ingress1 per storage account (regions other than US and Europe) 如果启用了 GRS/GRS, 则为 5 gbps; 对于 LRS/ZRS2为 10 gbps5 Gbps if RA-GRS/GRS is enabled, 10 Gbps for LRS/ZRS2
常规用途 v2 和 Blob 存储帐户的最大出口 (所有区域)Maximum egress for general-purpose v2 and Blob storage accounts (all regions) 50 Gbps50 Gbps
常规用途 v1 存储帐户的最大出口 (美国区域)Maximum egress for general-purpose v1 storage accounts (US regions) 如果启用了 GRS/GRS, 则为 20 gbps; 对于 LRS/ZRS2 , 则为 30 gbps20 Gbps if RA-GRS/GRS is enabled, 30 Gbps for LRS/ZRS2
常规用途 v1 存储帐户的最大出口 (非美国区域)Maximum egress for general-purpose v1 storage accounts (non-US regions) 如果启用了 GRS/GRS, 则为 10 gbps; 对于 LRS/ZRS2 , 则为 15 gbps10 Gbps if RA-GRS/GRS is enabled, 15 Gbps for LRS/ZRS2

1Azure 标准存储帐户支持更高的容量限制和更高的请求入口限制。1Azure Standard Storage accounts support higher capacity limits and higher limits for ingress by request. 若要请求提高帐户入口上限,请与 Azure 支持联系。To request an increase in account limits for ingress, contact Azure Support. 有关详细信息, 请参阅宣布更大、更大规模的存储帐户For more information, see Announcing larger, higher scale storage accounts.

2如果已启用读取访问权限(GRS/GZRS),则辅助位置的传出目标与主位置相同。2 If you have Read-access enabled (RA-GRS/RA-GZRS), the egress targets for the secondary location are identical to those of the primary location. Azure 存储复制选项包括:- 本地冗余存储 (LRS)Locally redundant storage (LRS) - 区域冗余存储 (ZRS)Zone-redundant storage (ZRS) - 异地冗余存储 (GRS)Geo-redundant storage (GRS) - 读取访问异地冗余存储 (RA-GRS)Read-access geo-redundant storage (RA-GRS) - 区域冗余存储(GZRS)Geo-zone-redundant storage (GZRS) - 读取访问区域冗余存储(GZRS)Read-access geo-zone-redundant storage (RA-GZRS)Azure Storage replication options include: - 本地冗余存储 (LRS)Locally redundant storage (LRS) - 区域冗余存储 (ZRS)Zone-redundant storage (ZRS) - 异地冗余存储 (GRS)Geo-redundant storage (GRS) - 读取访问异地冗余存储 (RA-GRS)Read-access geo-redundant storage (RA-GRS) - 区域冗余存储(GZRS)Geo-zone-redundant storage (GZRS) - 读取访问区域冗余存储(GZRS)Read-access geo-zone-redundant storage (RA-GZRS)

备注

大多数情况下,建议使用常规用途 v2 存储帐户。We recommend that you use a general-purpose v2 storage account for most scenarios. 可以轻松将常规用途 v1 或 Azure Blob 存储帐户升级到常规用途 v2 帐户,无需停机且无需复制数据。You can easily upgrade a general-purpose v1 or an Azure Blob storage account to a general-purpose v2 account with no downtime and without the need to copy data.

有关 Azure 存储帐户的详细信息,请参阅存储帐户概述For more information on Azure Storage accounts, see Storage account overview.

如果应用程序的需求超过单个存储帐户的伸缩性目标,则可以构建使用多个存储帐户的应用程序。If the needs of your application exceed the scalability targets of a single storage account, you can build your application to use multiple storage accounts. 然后,可以将数据对象分布到这些存储帐户中。You can then partition your data objects across those storage accounts. 有关批量定价的信息,请参阅 Azure 存储定价For information on volume pricing, see Azure Storage pricing.

所有存储帐户都在扁平网络拓扑上运行,无论它们创建于何时,都支持本文所述的可伸缩性和性能目标。All storage accounts run on a flat network topology and support the scalability and performance targets outlined in this article, regardless of when they were created. 有关 Azure 存储的扁平网络体系结构和可伸缩性的详细信息,请参阅 Microsoft Azure 存储:具有非常一致性的高可用云存储服务For more information on the Azure Storage flat network architecture and on scalability, see Microsoft Azure Storage: A Highly Available Cloud Storage Service with Strong Consistency.

高级性能存储帐户缩放限制Premium performance storage account scale limits

高级性能数据块 blob 存储Premium performance block blob storage

高级性能块 blob 存储帐户是使用较小,千字节范围,对象的应用程序进行了优化。A premium performance block blob storage account is optimized for applications that use smaller, kilobyte range, objects. 它非常适合需要高事务率或一致的低延迟存储的应用程序。It's ideal for applications that require high transaction rates or consistent low-latency storage. 高级性能数据块 blob 存储被设计为与你的应用程序扩展。Premium performance block blob storage is designed to scale with your applications. 如果你打算部署需要数以百计的千位每秒的请求或千万亿字节的存储容量的应用程序,请与我们联系通过提交支持请求Azure 门户If you plan to deploy application(s) that require hundreds of thousands of requests per second or petabytes of storage capacity, please contact us by submitting a support request in the Azure portal.

文件存储的高级性能Premium performance FileStorage

高级文件使用一个名为唯一的存储帐户文件存储Premium files use a unique storage account called FileStorage. 此帐户类型专为 IOPS 较高的工作负荷、 高吞吐量且一致的低滞后时间。This account type is designed for workloads with high IOPS, high throughput with consistent low-latency. 高级文件存储的可伸缩性与预配的共享大小。Premium file storage scales with the provisioned share size.

区域Area 确定目标Target
最大预配大小Max provisioned size 100 TiB100 TiB
共享Shares 不受限制Unlimited
IOPSIOPS 100,000100,000
流入量Ingress 4,136 MiB/s4,136 MiB/s
流出量Egress 6,204 MiB/s6,204 MiB/s

对于高级文件共享规模目标,请参阅高级文件缩放目标部分。For premium file share scale targets, see the Premium files scale targets section.

高级性能页 blob 存储Premium performance page blob storage

高级性能、常规用途 v1 或 v2 存储帐户有以下可伸缩性目标:Premium performance, general-purpose v1, or v2 storage accounts have the following scalability targets:

总帐户容量Total account capacity 本地冗余存储帐户的总带宽Total bandwidth for a locally redundant storage account
磁盘容量:35 TBDisk capacity: 35 TB
快照容量:10 TBSnapshot capacity: 10 TB
为入站1 和出站2 流量提供最高 50 Gbps 的带宽Up to 50 gigabits per second for inbound1 + outbound2

1 发送到存储帐户的所有数据(请求)1 All data (requests) that are sent to a storage account

2 从存储帐户接收的所有数据(响应)2 All data (responses) that are received from a storage account

如果要对非托管磁盘使用高级性能存储帐户并且应用程序超过了单个存储帐户的可伸缩性目标,可以考虑迁移到托管磁盘。If you are using premium performance storage accounts for unmanaged disks and your application exceeds the scalability targets of a single storage account, you might want to migrate to managed disks. 如果不想要迁移到托管磁盘,请将应用程序构建为使用多个存储帐户。If you don't want to migrate to managed disks, build your application to use multiple storage accounts. 然后,将数据分布到这些存储帐户中。Then, partition your data across those storage accounts. 例如,如果要将 51-TB 的磁盘附加到多个 VM,请将这些磁盘分散在两个存储帐户中。For example, if you want to attach 51-TB disks across multiple VMs, spread them across two storage accounts. 35 TB 是单个高级存储帐户的限制。35 TB is the limit for a single premium storage account. 请确保单个高级性能存储帐户永远不会超过 35 TB 的预配磁盘。Make sure that a single premium performance storage account never has more than 35 TB of provisioned disks.

存储资源提供程序缩放限制Storage resource provider scale limits

仅当使用 Azure 资源管理器对 Azure 存储执行管理操作时,以下限制才适用。The following limits apply only when you perform management operations by using Azure Resource Manager with Azure Storage.

ResourceResource 默认限制Default limit
存储帐户管理操作数(读取)Storage account management operations (read) 每 5 分钟 800 次800 per 5 minutes
存储帐户管理操作数(写入)Storage account management operations (write) 每小时 200 次200 per hour
存储帐户管理操作数(列出)Storage account management operations (list) 每 5 分钟 100 次100 per 5 minutes

Azure Blob 存储缩放目标Azure Blob storage scale targets

ResourceResource 目标Target
单个 Blob 容器的最大大小Maximum size of single blob container 与最大存储帐户容量相同Same as maximum storage account capacity
块 Blob 或附加 Blob 中的块数上限Maximum number of blocks in a block blob or append blob 50,000 块50,000 blocks
块 Blob 中块的最大大小Maximum size of a block in a block blob 100 MiB100 MiB
块 Blob 的最大大小Maximum size of a block blob 50,000 X 100 MiB(大约 4.75 TiB)50,000 X 100 MiB (approximately 4.75 TiB)
附加 Blob 中块的最大大小Maximum size of a block in an append blob 4 MiB4 MiB
附加 Blob 的最大大小Maximum size of an append blob 50,000 x 4 MiB(大约 195 GiB)50,000 x 4 MiB (approximately 195 GiB)
页 Blob 的最大大小Maximum size of a page blob 8 TiB8 TiB
每个 Blob 容器存储的访问策略的最大数目Maximum number of stored access policies per blob container 55
单个 Blob 的目标吞吐量Target throughput for single blob 上限为存储帐户的传入/传出限制1Up to storage account ingress/egress limits1

1 单一对象吞吐量取决于多个因素,包括但不限于:并发性、请求大小、性能层、源上传速度和目标下载速度。1 Single object throughput depends on several factors, including, but not limited to: concurrency, request size, performance tier, speed of source for uploads, and destination for downloads. 若要利用高吞吐量块 blob性能增强功能,请使用 > 4 MiB (> 256 KiB 的 put Blob 或 put 块请求大小,以实现高级性能块 blob 存储或 Data Lake Storage Gen2)。To take advantage of high-throughput block blob performance enhancements, use a Put Blob or Put Block request size of > 4 MiB (> 256 KiB for premium-performance block blob storage or for Data Lake Storage Gen2).

Azure 文件规模目标Azure Files scale targets

有关 Azure 文件和 Azure 文件同步的缩放和性能目标的详细信息,请参阅 Azure 文件可伸缩性和性能目标For more information on the scale and performance targets for Azure Files and Azure File Sync, see Azure Files scalability and performance targets.

重要

存储帐户限制适用于所有共享。Storage account limits apply to all shares. 仅当每个存储帐户只有一个共享时, 才可以实现最大存储帐户数。Scaling up to the max for storage accounts is only achievable if there is only one share per storage account.

超过 5 TiB 的标准文件共享处于预览阶段, 具有某些限制。Standard file shares larger than 5 TiB are in preview and have certain limitations. 若要获取限制列表并加入到这些更大文件共享大小的预览中, 请参阅 Azure 文件规划指南的标准文件共享部分。For a list of limitations and to onboard to the preview of these larger file share sizes, see the Standard file shares section of the Azure Files planning guide.

ResourceResource 标准文件共享Standard file shares 高级文件共享Premium file shares
文件共享的最小大小Minimum size of a file share 无最小值;即付即用No minimum; pay as you go 100 GiB;配100 GiB; provisioned
文件共享的最大大小Maximum size of a file share 5 TiB (GA),100 TiB (预览版)5 TiB (GA), 100 TiB (preview) 100 TiB100 TiB
文件共享中文件的最大大小Maximum size of a file in a file share 1 TiB1 TiB 1 TiB1 TiB
文件共享中的文件数上限Maximum number of files in a file share 无限制No limit 无限制No limit
每个共享的最大 IOPSMaximum IOPS per share 1000 IOPS (GA),10000 IOPS (预览版)1,000 IOPS (GA), 10,000 IOPS (preview) 100,000 IOPS100,000 IOPS
每个文件共享的存储的访问策略的最大数目Maximum number of stored access policies per file share 55 55
单个文件共享的目标吞吐量Target throughput for a single file share 最高 60 MiB/秒(GA),最大为 300 MiB/秒(预览)Up to 60 MiB/sec (GA), up to 300 MiB/sec (preview) 请参阅高级文件共享入口和出口值See premium file share ingress and egress values
单个文件共享的最大出口数Maximum egress for a single file share 请参阅标准文件共享目标吞吐量See standard file share target throughput 最多 6204 MiB/秒Up to 6,204 MiB/s
单个文件共享的最大入口Maximum ingress for a single file share 请参阅标准文件共享目标吞吐量See standard file share target throughput 最多 4136 MiB/秒Up to 4,136 MiB/s
每个文件打开图柄的最大数目Maximum open handles per file 2,000 个打开句柄2,000 open handles 2,000 个打开句柄2,000 open handles
共享快照的最大数目Maximum number of share snapshots 200 个共享快照200 share snapshots 200 个共享快照200 share snapshots
最大对象(目录和文件)名称长度Maximum object (directories and files) name length 2,048 个字符2,048 characters 2,048 个字符2,048 characters
最大路径名组成部分(在路径 \A\B\C\D 中,每个字母是一个组成部分)Maximum pathname component (in the path \A\B\C\D, each letter is a component) 255 个字符255 characters 255 个字符255 characters

高级文件缩放目标Premium files scale targets

对于高级文件, 有三种类别的限制: 存储帐户、共享和文件。There are three categories of limitations to consider for premium files: storage accounts, shares, and files.

例如:单个共享可以实现 100000 IOPS, 一个文件最多可以扩展到 5000 IOPS。For example: A single share can achieve 100,000 IOPS and a single file can scale up to 5,000 IOPS. 例如, 如果一个共享中有三个文件, 则可以从该共享获取的最大 IOPs 为15000。So, for example, if you have three files in one share, the max IOPs you can get from that share is 15,000.

高级文件共享限制Premium file share limits

更多高级文件共享级别限制Additional premium file share level limits

区域Area 确定目标Target
最小大小增大/减少Minimum size increase/decrease 1 GiB1 GiB
基线 IOPSBaseline IOPS 每 GiB,多达 100,000 个 1 IOPS1 IOPS per GiB, up to 100,000
爆发的 IOPSIOPS bursting 3 个 x IOPS 每 GiB,多达 100,000 个3x IOPS per GiB, up to 100,000
出口率Egress rate 60 MiB/秒 + 0.06 * 预配 GiB60 MiB/s + 0.06 * provisioned GiB
入口速率Ingress rate 40 MiB/秒 + 0.04 * 预配 GiB40 MiB/s + 0.04 * provisioned GiB

文件级别的限制File level limits

区域Area 高级文件Premium file 标准文件Standard file
SizeSize 1 TiB1 TiB 1 TiB1 TiB
每个文件的最大 IOPSMax IOPS per file 5,0005,000 1,0001,000
并发句柄Concurrent handles 2,0002,000 2,0002,000
流入量Ingress 300 MiB/sec300 MiB/sec 请参阅标准文件吞吐量值See standard file throughput values
流出量Egress 200 Mib/sec200 Mib/sec 请参阅标准文件吞吐量值See standard file throughput values
ThroughputThroughput 请参阅高级文件入口/出口值See premium file ingress/egress values 最多 60 MiB/秒Up to 60 MiB/sec

Azure 文件同步规模目标Azure File Sync scale targets

Azure 文件同步的设计目标是无限使用,但并非总是可以无限使用。Azure File Sync has been designed with the goal of limitless usage, but limitless usage is not always possible. 下表指示了 Microsoft 测试的边界,还指出了哪些目标是硬限制:The following table indicates the boundaries of Microsoft's testing and also indicates which targets are hard limits:

ResourceResource 目标Target 硬限制Hard limit
每个区域的存储同步服务数Storage Sync Services per region 20 个存储同步服务20 Storage Sync Services Yes
每个存储同步服务的同步组数Sync groups per Storage Sync Service 100 个同步组100 sync groups Yes
每个存储同步服务的已注册服务器Registered servers per Storage Sync Service 99 台服务器99 servers Yes
每个同步组的云终结点数Cloud endpoints per sync group 1 个云终结点1 cloud endpoint Yes
每个同步组的服务器终结点数Server endpoints per sync group 50 个服务器终结点50 server endpoints No
每个服务器的服务器终结点数Server endpoints per server 30 个服务器终结点30 server endpoints Yes
每个同步组的文件系统对象数(目录和文件)File system objects (directories and files) per sync group 50000000对象50 million objects No
目录中的最大文件系统对象(目录和文件)数Maximum number of file system objects (directories and files) in a directory 5000000对象5 million objects Yes
最大对象(目录和文件)安全描述符大小Maximum object (directories and files) security descriptor size 64 KiB64 KiB Yes
文件大小File size 100 GiB100 GiB No
要进行分层的文件的最小文件大小Minimum file size for a file to be tiered 64 KiB64 KiB Yes
并发同步会话Concurrent sync sessions V4 代理及更高版本:限制因可用系统资源而异。V4 agent and later: The limit varies based on available system resources.
V3 代理:每个处理器两个活动的同步会话,或每个服务器最多八个活动的同步会话。V3 agent: Two active sync sessions per processor or a maximum of eight active sync sessions per server.
Yes

备注

Azure 文件同步终结点可以纵向扩展到 Azure 文件共享的大小。An Azure File Sync endpoint can scale up to the size of an Azure file share. 如果达到 Azure 文件共享大小限制,同步将无法运行。If the Azure file share size limit is reached, sync will not be able to operate.

Azure 队列存储缩放目标Azure Queue storage scale targets

ResourceResource 目标Target
单个队列的最大大小Maximum size of a single queue 500 TiB500 TiB
队列中消息的最大大小Maximum size of a message in a queue 64 KiB64 KiB
每个队列存储的访问策略的最大数目Maximum number of stored access policies per queue 55
每个存储帐户的最大请求速率Maximum request rate per storage account 每秒 20,000 条消息,假定消息大小为 1-KiB20,000 messages per second, which assumes a 1-KiB message size
单个队列的目标吞吐量(1-KiB 消息)Target throughput for a single queue (1-KiB messages) 每秒最多 2,000 条消息Up to 2,000 messages per second

Azure 表存储缩放目标Azure Table storage scale targets

ResourceResource 目标Target
单个表的最大大小Maximum size of a single table 500 TiB500 TiB
表实体的最大大小Maximum size of a table entity 1 MiB1 MiB
表实体中属性的最大数目Maximum number of properties in a table entity 255,包含三个系统属性:PartitionKey、RowKey 和 Timestamp255, which includes three system properties: PartitionKey, RowKey, and Timestamp
实体中属性值的最大总大小Maximum total size of property values in an entity 1 MiB1 MiB
实体中单个属性的最大总大小Maximum total size of an individual property in an entity 根据属性类型而变化。Varies by property type. 有关详细信息,请参阅了解表服务数据模型中的属性类型For more information, see Property Types in Understanding the Table Service Data Model.
每个表存储的访问策略的最大数目Maximum number of stored access policies per table 55
每个存储帐户的最大请求速率Maximum request rate per storage account 20,000 事务/秒,假定实体大小为 1-KiB20,000 transactions per second, which assumes a 1-KiB entity size
单个表分区的目标吞吐量(1 KiB 实体)Target throughput for a single table partition (1 KiB-entities) 每秒最多 2,000 个实体Up to 2,000 entities per second

请参阅See also