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Azure 存储可伸缩性和性能目标Azure Storage Scalability and Performance Targets


本文介绍 Azure 存储的可伸缩性和性能主题。This article describes the scalability and performance topics for Azure Storage. 有关其他 Azure 限制的摘要,请参阅 Azure 订阅和服务限制、配额与约束For a summary of other Azure limits, see Azure Subscription and Service Limits, Quotas, and Constraints.


所有存储帐户都在新的扁平网络拓扑上运行,无论它们创建于何时,都支持本文所述的可伸缩性和性能目标。All storage accounts run on the new flat network topology and support the scalability and performance targets outlined in this article, regardless of when they were created. 有关 Azure 存储的扁平网络体系结构和可伸缩性的详细信息,请参阅 Microsoft Azure Storage: A Highly Available Cloud Storage Service with Strong Consistency(Microsoft Azure 存储:具有高度一致性的高可用云存储服务)。For more information on the Azure Storage flat network architecture and on scalability, see Microsoft Azure Storage: A Highly Available Cloud Storage Service with Strong Consistency.


以下所列的可伸缩性和性能目标为高端目标,但却是能够实现的。The scalability and performance targets listed here are high-end targets, but are achievable. 在任何情况下,存储帐户实现的请求速率和带宽取决于存储对象大小、使用的访问模式、应用程序执行的工作负荷类型。In all cases, the request rate and bandwidth achieved by your storage account depends upon the size of objects stored, the access patterns utilized, and the type of workload your application performs. 请务必测试服务,以确定其性能是否达到要求。Be sure to test your service to determine whether its performance meets your requirements. 如果可能,应避免流量速率突发峰值,并确保流量在各个分区上均匀分布。If possible, avoid sudden spikes in the rate of traffic and ensure that traffic is well-distributed across partitions.

当应用程序达到分区能够处理的工作负荷极限时,Azure 存储将开始返回错误代码 503(服务器忙)或错误代码 500(操作超时)响应。When your application reaches the limit of what a partition can handle for your workload, Azure Storage begins to return error code 503 (Server Busy) or error code 500 (Operation Timeout) responses. 如果发生这些错误,则应用程序应使用指数回退策略进行重试。If these errors are occurring, then your application should use an exponential backoff policy for retries. 使用指数退让策略,可以减少分区上的负载,缓解该分区的流量高峰。The exponential backoff allows the load on the partition to decrease, and to ease out spikes in traffic to that partition.

如果应用程序的需求超过单个存储帐户的伸缩性目标,则可以构建使用多个存储帐户的应用程序。If the needs of your application exceed the scalability targets of a single storage account, you can build your application to use multiple storage accounts. 然后,可以将数据对象分布到这些存储帐户中。You can then partition your data objects across those storage accounts. 有关批量定价的信息,请参阅 Azure 存储定价See Azure Storage Pricing for information on volume pricing.

存储帐户的可伸缩性目标Scalability targets for a storage account

下表介绍 Azure 存储的默认限制。The following table describes default limits for Azure Storage. “传入”限制是指发送到存储帐户的所有数据(请求)。The ingress limit refers to all data (requests) being sent to a storage account. “传出”限制是指从存储帐户接收的所有数据(响应)。The egress limit refers to all data (responses) being received from a storage account.

资源Resource 默认限制Default Limit
每个订阅每个区域的存储帐户数,包括标准帐户和高级帐户Number of storage accounts per region per subscription, including both standard and premium accounts 200200
最大存储帐户容量1Max storage account capacity1 500 TiB500 TiB
每个存储帐户的 Blob 容器、Blob、文件共享、表、队列、实体或消息数上限Max number of blob containers, blobs, file shares, tables, queues, entities, or messages per storage account 无限制No limit
每个存储帐户的最大请求速率1Maximum request rate1 per storage account 每秒 20,000 个请求20,000 requests per second
每个存储帐户的最大入口 1(美国区域)Max ingress1 per storage account (US Regions) 如果已启用 RA-GRS/GRS,则为 10 Gbps;对于 LRS/ZRS,为 20 Gbps210 Gbps if RA-GRS/GRS enabled, 20 Gbps for LRS/ZRS2
每个存储帐户的最大出口 1(美国区域)Max egress1 per storage account (US Regions) 如果已启用 RA-GRS/GRS,则为 20 Gbps;对于 LRS/ZRS,为 30 Gbps20 Gbps if RA-GRS/GRS enabled, 30 Gbps for LRS/ZRS
每个存储帐户的最大入口1(非美国区域)Max ingress1 per storage account (Non-US regions) 如果已启用 RA-GRS/GRS,则为 5 Gbps;对于 LRS/ZRS,为 10 Gbps25 Gbps if RA-GRS/GRS enabled, 10 Gbps for LRS/ZRS2
每个存储帐户的最大出口1(非美国区域)Max egress1 per storage account (Non-US regions) 如果已启用 RA-GRS/GRS,则为 10 Gbps;对于 LRS/ZRS,为 15 Gbps10 Gbps if RA-GRS/GRS enabled, 15 Gbps for LRS/ZRS

1 Azure 存储帐户根据请求支持更高的容量、请求率、入口和出口限制。1 Azure storage accounts support higher limits for capacity, request rate, ingress, and egress by request. 有关增加的限制的详细信息,请参阅宣布推出更大、更高规模的存储帐户For more information about the increased limits, see Announcing larger, higher scale storage accounts. 若要请求增加帐户限制,请与 Azure 支持联系。To request an increase in account limits, contact Azure Support.

2Azure 存储复制选项包括:2Azure Storage replication options include:

  • RA-GRS:读取访问异地冗余存储。RA-GRS: Read-access geo-redundant storage. 如果已启用 RA-GRS,辅助位置的出口目标与主要位置的出口目标相同。If RA-GRS is enabled, egress targets for the secondary location are identical to those for the primary location.
  • GRS:异地冗余存储。GRS: Geo-redundant storage.
  • ZRS:区域冗余存储。ZRS: Zone-redundant storage.
  • LRS:本地冗余存储。LRS: Locally redundant storage.

存储资源提供程序限制Storage resource provider limits

只使用 Azure 资源管理器执行管理操作时,以下限制适用。The following limits apply when performing management operations using the Azure Resource Manager only.

资源Resource 默认限制Default Limit
存储帐户管理操作数(读取)Storage account management operations (read) 每 5 分钟 800 次800 per 5 minutes
存储帐户管理操作数(写入)Storage account management operations (write) 每小时 200 次200 per hour
存储帐户管理操作数(列出)Storage account management operations (list) 每 5 分钟 100 次100 per 5 minutes

Azure Blob 存储缩放目标Azure Blob storage scale targets

资源Resource 目标Target
单个 blob 容器的最大大小Max size of single blob container 等同于最大存储帐户容量Same as max storage account capacity
块 Blob 或附加 Blob 中的块数上限Max number of blocks in a block blob or append blob 50,000 块50,000 blocks
块 Blob 中块的最大大小Max size of a block in a block blob 100 MiB100 MiB
块 Blob 的最大大小Max size of a block blob 50,000 X 100 MiB(约 4.75 TiB)50,000 X 100 MiB (approx. 4.75 TiB)
追加 Blob 中块的最大大小Max size of a block in an append blob 4 MiB4 MiB
追加 Blob 的最大大小Max size of an append blob 50,000 X 4 MiB(约 195 GiB)50,000 x 4 MiB (approx. 195 GiB)
页 Blob 的最大大小Max size of a page blob 8 TiB8 TiB
每个 blob 容器存储的访问策略的最大数目Max number of stored access policies per blob container 55
单个 Blob 的目标吞吐量Target throughput for single blob 每秒最多 60 MiB,或每秒最多 500 个请求Up to 60 MiB per second, or up to 500 requests per second

Azure 文件规模目标Azure Files scale targets

有关 Azure 文件和 Azure 文件同步的缩放和性能目标的详细信息,请参阅 Azure 文件可伸缩性和性能目标For more information on the scale and performance targets for Azure Files and Azure File Sync, see Azure Files scalability and performance targets.

资源Resource 目标Target
文件共享的最大大小Max size of a file share 5 TiB5 TiB
文件共享中文件的最大大小Max size of a file in a file share 1 TiB1 TiB
文件共享中的文件数上限Max number of files in a file share 无限制No limit
每个共享的最大 IOPSMax IOPS per share 1000 IOPS1000 IOPS
每个文件共享的存储的访问策略的最大数目Max number of stored access policies per file share 55
每个存储帐户的最大请求速率Maximum request rate per storage account 对于任何有效大小的文件,每秒 20,000 个请求320,000 requests per second for files of any valid size3
单个文件共享的目标吞吐量Target throughput for single file share 最高每秒 60 MiBUp to 60 MiB per second
每个文件打开图柄的最大数目Maximum open handles per file 2000 个打开图柄2000 open handles
共享快照的最大数目Maximum number of share snapshots 200 个共享快照200 share snapshots

Azure 文件同步规模目标Azure File Sync scale targets

对于 Azure 文件同步,在设计时我们已尽最大努力来实现不受限的使用,但这并非始终可能。With Azure File Sync, we have tried as much as possible to design for limitless usage, however this is not always possible. 下表指明了我们的测试边界以及哪些目标实际上是硬性限制:The below table indicates the boundaries of our testing and which targets are actually hard limits:

资源Resource 目标Target 硬限制Hard limit
每个订阅的存储同步服务数Storage Sync Services per subscription 15 个存储同步服务15 Storage Sync Services No
每个存储同步服务的同步组数Sync groups per Storage Sync Service 100 个同步组100 sync groups Yes
每个存储同步服务的已注册服务器Registered servers per Storage Sync Service 99 台服务器99 servers Yes
每个同步组的云终结点数Cloud endpoints per Sync Group 1 个云终结点1 cloud endpoint Yes
每个同步组的服务器终结点数Server endpoints per Sync Group 50 个服务器终结点50 server endpoints No
每个服务器的服务器终结点数Server endpoints per server 33 到 99 个服务器终结点33-99 server endpoints 是,但根据配置(CPU、内存、卷、文件改动项、文件计数等)而有所不同Yes, but varies based on configuration (CPU, memory, volumes, file churn, file count, etc.)
终结点大小Endpoint size 4 TiB4 TiB No
每个同步组的文件系统对象数(目录和文件)File system objects (directories and files) per sync group 2500 万个对象25 million objects No
目录中的最大文件系统对象(目录和文件)数Maximum number of file system objects (directories and files) in a directory 200,000 个对象200,000 objects Yes
最大对象(目录和文件)名称长度Maximum object (directories and files) name length 255 个字符255 characters Yes
最大对象(目录和文件)安全描述符大小Maximum object (directories and files) security descriptor size 4 KiB4 KiB Yes
文件大小File size 100 GiB100 GiB No
要进行分层的文件的最小文件大小Minimum file size for a file to be tiered 64 KiB64 KiB Yes

Azure 队列存储缩放目标Azure Queue storage scale targets

资源Resource 目标Target
单个队列的最大大小Max size of single queue 500 TiB500 TiB
队列中消息的最大大小Max size of a message in a queue 64 KiB64 KiB
每个队列存储的访问策略的最大数目Max number of stored access policies per queue 55
每个存储帐户的最大请求速率Maximum request rate per storage account 每秒 20,000 条消息,假定消息大小为 1 KiB20,000 messages per second assuming 1 KiB message size
单个队列的目标吞吐量(1 KiB 消息)Target throughput for single queue (1 KiB messages) 每秒最多 2000 条消息Up to 2000 messages per second

Azure 表存储缩放目标Azure Table storage scale targets

资源Resource 目标Target
单个表的最大大小Max size of single table 500 TiB500 TiB
表实体的最大大小Max size of a table entity 1 MiB1 MiB
表实体中属性的最大数目Max number of properties in a table entity 255(包括 3 个系统属性:PartitionKey、RowKey 和 Timestamp)255 (including 3 system properties: PartitionKey, RowKey and Timestamp)
每个表存储的访问策略的最大数目Max number of stored access policies per table 55
每个存储帐户的最大请求速率Maximum request rate per storage account 20,000 事务/秒(假定实体大小为 1 KiB)20,000 transactions per second (assuming 1 KiB entity size)
单个表分区的目标吞吐量(1 KiB 实体)Target throughput for single table partition (1 KiB entities) 每秒最多 2000 个实体Up to 2000 entities per second

另请参阅See Also