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Azure 文件可伸缩性和性能目标Azure Files scalability and performance targets

Azure 文件在云中提供完全托管的文件共享,这些共享项可通过行业标准 SMB 协议进行访问。Azure Files offers fully managed file shares in the cloud that are accessible via the industry standard SMB protocol. 本文讨论了 Azure 文件和 Azure 文件同步的可伸缩性和性能目标。This article discusses the scalability and performance targets for Azure Files and Azure File Sync.

此处列出的可伸缩性和性能目标是高端目标,但可能会受部署中的其他变量影响。The scalability and performance targets listed here are high-end targets, but may be affected by other variables in your deployment. 例如,除了受限于托管着 Azure 文件服务的服务器之外,针对文件的吞吐量还可能会受限于可变的网络带宽。For example, the throughput for a file may also be limited by your available network bandwidth, not just the servers hosting the Azure Files service. 强烈建议你对使用模式进行测试,以确定 Azure 文件的可伸缩性和性能是否满足你的要求。We strongly recommend testing your usage pattern to determine whether the scalability and performance of Azure Files meet your requirements. 随着时间的推移,我们也一直在努力提高这些限制。We are also committed to increasing these limits over time. 如果希望我们提高某些限制,请尽管通过下面的评论或者通过 Azure 文件 UserVoice 向我们提供反馈。Please don't hesitate to give us feedback, either in the comments below or on the Azure Files UserVoice, about which limits you would like to see us increase.

Azure 存储帐户规模目标Azure storage account scale targets

Azure 文件共享的父资源是 Azure 存储帐户。The parent resource for an Azure file share is an Azure storage account. 存储帐户表示 Azure 中的一个存储池,该存储池可供包括 Azure 文件在内多个存储服务用来存储数据。A storage account represents a pool of storage in Azure that can be used by multiple storage services, including Azure Files, to store data. 在存储帐户中存储数据的其他服务有 Azure Blob 存储、Azure 队列存储和 Azure 表存储。Other services that store data in storage accounts are Azure Blob storage, Azure Queue storage, and Azure Table storage. 以下目标适用于在存储帐户中存储数据的所有存储服务:The following targets apply all storage services storing data in a storage account:

下表描述了 Azure 常规用途 v1、v2、Blob 存储和块 blob 存储帐户的默认限制。The following table describes default limits for Azure general-purpose v1, v2, Blob storage, and block blob storage accounts. “流入量”限制是指针对发送到存储帐户的所有数据的限制。The ingress limit refers to all data that is sent to a storage account. “流出量”限制是指针对从存储帐户接收的所有数据的限制。The egress limit refers to all data that is received from a storage account.

备注

你可以请求更高的容量和流入量限制。You can request higher capacity and ingress limits. 要请求提高限制,请联系 Azure 支持To request an increase, contact Azure Support.

资源Resource 限制Limit
每个订阅每个区域的存储帐户数,包括标准存储帐户和高级存储帐户。Number of storage accounts per region per subscription, including standard, and premium storage accounts. 250250
最大存储帐户容量Maximum storage account capacity 5 PiB 15 PiB 1
每个存储帐户的 Blob 容器、Blob、文件共享、表、队列、实体或消息数目上限Maximum number of blob containers, blobs, file shares, tables, queues, entities, or messages per storage account 无限制No limit
每个存储帐户的最大请求速率1Maximum request rate1 per storage account 每秒 20,000 个请求20,000 requests per second
每个存储帐户的最大流入量1(美国、欧洲区域)Maximum ingress1 per storage account (US, Europe regions) 10 Gbps10 Gbps
每个存储帐户的最大流入量1(美国和欧洲之外的区域)Maximum ingress1 per storage account (regions other than US and Europe) 如果已启用 RA-GRS/GRS,则为 5 Gbps;对于 LRS/ZRS,为 10 Gbps25 Gbps if RA-GRS/GRS is enabled, 10 Gbps for LRS/ZRS2
常规用途 v2 存储帐户和 Blob 存储帐户的最大流出量(所有区域)Maximum egress for general-purpose v2 and Blob storage accounts (all regions) 50 Gbps50 Gbps
常规用途 v1 存储帐户的最大流出量(美国区域)Maximum egress for general-purpose v1 storage accounts (US regions) 如果已启用 RA-GRS/GRS,则为 20 Gbps;对于 LRS/ZRS,为 30 Gbps220 Gbps if RA-GRS/GRS is enabled, 30 Gbps for LRS/ZRS2
常规用途 v1 存储帐户的最大流出量(非美国区域)Maximum egress for general-purpose v1 storage accounts (non-US regions) 如果已启用 RA-GRS/GRS,则为 10 Gbps;对于 LRS/ZRS,为 15 Gbps210 Gbps if RA-GRS/GRS is enabled, 15 Gbps for LRS/ZRS2
每个存储帐户的虚拟网络规则数目上限Maximum number of virtual network rules per storage account 200200
每个存储帐户的最大 IP 地址规则数Maximum number of IP address rules per storage account 200200

1 Azure 存储标准帐户根据请求支持更高的容量上限和更高的流入量上限。1 Azure Storage standard accounts support higher capacity limits and higher limits for ingress by request. 若要请求增加帐户限制,请与 Azure 支持联系。To request an increase in account limits, contact Azure Support.

2 如果存储帐户具有启用了读取访问权限的异地冗余存储 (RA-GRS) 或异地区域冗余存储 (RA-GZRS),则辅助位置的流出量目标与主位置的流出量目标相同。2 If your storage account has read-access enabled with geo-redundant storage (RA-GRS) or geo-zone-redundant storage (RA-GZRS), then the egress targets for the secondary location are identical to those of the primary location. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 存储复制For more information, see Azure Storage replication.

备注

Microsoft 建议对大多数方案使用常规用途 v2 存储帐户。Microsoft recommends that you use a general-purpose v2 storage account for most scenarios. 可以轻松将常规用途 v1 或 Azure Blob 存储帐户升级到常规用途 v2 帐户,无需停机且无需复制数据。You can easily upgrade a general-purpose v1 or an Azure Blob storage account to a general-purpose v2 account with no downtime and without the need to copy data. 有关详细信息,请参阅升级到常规用途 v2 存储帐户For more information, see Upgrade to a general-purpose v2 storage account.

所有存储帐户都在平面网络拓扑上运行,而无论它们是何时创建的。All storage accounts run on a flat network topology regardless of when they were created. 有关 Azure 存储的扁平网络体系结构和可伸缩性的详细信息,请参阅 Microsoft Azure 存储:具有非常一致性的高可用云存储服务For more information on the Azure Storage flat network architecture and on scalability, see Microsoft Azure Storage: A Highly Available Cloud Storage Service with Strong Consistency.

仅当使用 Azure 资源管理器对 Azure 存储执行管理操作时,以下限制才适用。The following limits apply only when you perform management operations by using Azure Resource Manager with Azure Storage.

资源Resource 限制Limit
存储帐户管理操作数(读取)Storage account management operations (read) 每 5 分钟 800 次800 per 5 minutes
存储帐户管理操作数(写入)Storage account management operations (write) 每秒 10 次/每小时 1200 次10 per second / 1200 per hour
存储帐户管理操作数(列出)Storage account management operations (list) 每 5 分钟 100 次100 per 5 minutes

重要

其他存储服务的常规用途存储帐户利用率会影响存储帐户中的 Azure 文件共享。General purpose storage account utilization from other storage services affects your Azure file shares in your storage account. 例如,如果由于 Azure Blob 存储而达到了最大存储帐户容量,则将无法在 Azure 文件共享上创建新文件,即使 Azure 文件共享低于最大共享大小。For example, if you reach the maximum storage account capacity with Azure Blob storage, you will not be able to create new files on your Azure file share, even if your Azure file share is below the maximum share size.

Azure 文件规模目标Azure Files scale targets

对于 Azure 文件存储,需要考虑三类限制:存储帐户、共享和文件。There are three categories of limitations to consider for Azure Files: storage accounts, shares, and files.

例如:使用高级文件共享时,单个共享可以达到 100,000 IOPS,单个文件最多可以扩展到 5,000 IOPS。For example: With premium file shares, a single share can achieve 100,000 IOPS and a single file can scale up to 5,000 IOPS. 因此,如果一个共享中有三个文件,则可以从该共享获取的最大 IOPS 为 15,000。So, if you have three files in one share, the maximum IOPS you can get from that share is 15,000.

标准存储帐户限制Standard storage account limits

有关这些限制,请参阅 Azure 存储帐户规模目标部分。See the Azure storage account scale targets section for these limits.

高级 FileStorage 帐户限制Premium FileStorage account limits

高级文件使用名为“FileStorage” 的唯一存储帐户。Premium files use a unique storage account called FileStorage. 此帐户类型适用于具有高 IOPS、高吞吐量和一致低延迟的工作负荷。This account type is designed for workloads with high IOPS, high throughput with consistent low-latency. 高级文件存储使用预配的共享大小进行缩放。Premium file storage scales with the provisioned share size.

区域Area 目标Target
最大预配大小Max provisioned size 100 TiB100 TiB
共享Shares 无限制Unlimited
IOPSIOPS 100,000100,000
流入量Ingress 4,136 MiB/秒4,136 MiB/s
流出量Egress 6,204 MiB/秒6,204 MiB/s

重要

存储帐户限制适用于所有共享。Storage account limits apply to all shares. 仅当每个 FileStorage 帐户只有一个共享时,才能实现 FileStorage 帐户的最大扩展。Scaling up to the max for FileStorage accounts is only achievable if there is only one share per FileStorage account.

文件共享和文件缩放目标File share and file scale targets

备注

超过 5 TiB 的标准文件共享具有某些限制。Standard file shares larger than 5 TiB have certain limitations. 有关启用较大文件共享大小的限制和说明的列表,请参阅规划指南的在标准文件共享上启用较大文件共享部分。For a list of limitations and instructions to enable larger file share sizes, see the enable larger file shares on standard file shares section of the planning guide.

资源Resource 标准文件共享*Standard file shares* 高级文件共享Premium file shares
文件共享的最小大小Minimum size of a file share 没有最小值;即用即付No minimum; pay as you go 100 GiB;未预配100 GiB; provisioned
文件共享的最大大小Maximum size of a file share 100 TiB**,5 TiB100 TiB**, 5 TiB 100 TiB100 TiB
文件共享中文件的最大大小Maximum size of a file in a file share 1 TiB1 TiB 4 TiB4 TiB
文件共享中的文件数上限Maximum number of files in a file share 无限制No limit 无限制No limit
每个共享的最大 IOPSMaximum IOPS per share 10,000 IOPS**,1,000 IOPS 或 100 毫秒内 100 个请求10,000 IOPS**, 1,000 IOPS or 100 requests in 100ms 100,000 IOPS100,000 IOPS
每个文件共享的存储的访问策略的最大数目Maximum number of stored access policies per file share 55 55
单个文件共享的目标吞吐量Target throughput for a single file share 最高 300 MiB/秒**,最高 60 MiB/秒,up to 300 MiB/sec**, Up to 60 MiB/sec , 查看高级文件共享流入量和流出量值See premium file share ingress and egress values
单个文件共享的最大流出量Maximum egress for a single file share 查看标准文件共享目标吞吐量See standard file share target throughput 最多 6,204 MiB/秒Up to 6,204 MiB/s
单个文件共享的最大流入量Maximum ingress for a single file share 查看标准文件共享目标吞吐量See standard file share target throughput 最多 4,136 MiB/秒Up to 4,136 MiB/s
每个文件或目录打开图柄的最大数目Maximum open handles per file or directory 2,000 个打开句柄2,000 open handles 2,000 个打开句柄2,000 open handles
共享快照的最大数目Maximum number of share snapshots 200 个共享快照200 share snapshots 200 个共享快照200 share snapshots
最大对象(目录和文件)名称长度Maximum object (directories and files) name length 2,048 个字符2,048 characters 2,048 个字符2,048 characters
最大路径名组成部分(在路径 \A\B\C\D 中,每个字母是一个组成部分)Maximum pathname component (in the path \A\B\C\D, each letter is a component) 255 个字符255 characters 255 个字符255 characters
硬链接限制(仅限 NFS)Hard link limit (NFS only) 不可用N/A 178178
SMB 多路通道的最大数量Maximum number of SMB Multichannel channels 不适用N/A 44

* 标准文件共享的限制适用于标准文件共享可用的所有三个层:事务优化层、热层和冷层。* The limits for standard file shares apply to all three of the tiers available for standard file shares: transaction optimized, hot, and cool.

** 标准文件共享的默认值为 5 TiB,请参阅启用和创建大型文件共享,了解有关如何将标准文件共享规模增加到最高 100 TiB 的详细信息。** Default on standard file shares is 5 TiB, see Enable and create large file shares for the details on how to increase the standard file shares scale up to 100 TiB.

其他高级文件共享级别限制Additional premium file share level limits

区域Area 目标Target
最小大小增加/减少Minimum size increase/decrease 1 GiB1 GiB
基线 IOPSBaseline IOPS 每个 GiB 1 IOPS,最高 100,0001 IOPS per GiB, up to 100,000
IOPS 突发IOPS bursting 每个 GiB 3倍 IOPS,最高 100,0003x IOPS per GiB, up to 100,000
出口速率Egress rate 60 MiB/秒 + 0.06 * 预配 GiB60 MiB/s + 0.06 * provisioned GiB
入口速率Ingress rate 40 MiB/秒 + 0.04 * 预配 GiB40 MiB/s + 0.04 * provisioned GiB

文件级别限制File level limits

区域Area 标准文件Standard file 高级文件Premium file
大小Size 1 TiB1 TiB 4 TiB4 TiB
每个文件的最大 IOPSMax IOPS per file 1,0001,000 最高 8000 *Up to 8,000*
并发句柄数Concurrent handles 2,0002,000 2,0002,000
流出量Egress 查看标准文件吞吐量值See standard file throughput values 300 MiB/秒 (最多1个 GiB/s,具有 SMB 多通道预览版) * *300 MiB/sec (Up to 1 GiB/s with SMB Multichannel preview)**
流入量Ingress 查看标准文件吞吐量值See standard file throughput values 200 MiB/秒 (最多1个 GiB/s,具有 SMB 多通道预览版) * *200 MiB/sec (Up to 1 GiB/s with SMB Multichannel preview)**
吞吐量Throughput 最多 60 MiB/秒Up to 60 MiB/sec 查看高级文件流入量/流出量值See premium file ingress/egress values

*适用于读取和写入 io (通常较小的 io 大小 <= 64k) 。除读取和写入之外的元数据操作可能较低。* Applies to read and write IOs (typically smaller IO sizes <=64K). Metadata operations, other than reads and writes, may be lower.

**取决于计算机网络限制、可用带宽、IO 大小、队列深度和其他因素。有关详细信息,请参阅SMB 多通道性能** Subject to machine network limits, available bandwidth, IO sizes, queue depth, and other factors. For details see SMB Multichannel performance.

Azure 文件同步规模目标Azure File Sync scale targets

Azure 文件同步的设计目标是无限使用,但并非总是可以无限使用。Azure File Sync has been designed with the goal of limitless usage, but limitless usage is not always possible. 下表指示了 Microsoft 测试的边界,还指出了哪些目标是硬限制:The following table indicates the boundaries of Microsoft's testing and also indicates which targets are hard limits:

资源Resource 目标Target 硬限制Hard limit
每个区域的存储同步服务数Storage Sync Services per region 100 个存储同步服务100 Storage Sync Services Yes
每个存储同步服务的同步组数Sync groups per Storage Sync Service 200 个同步组200 sync groups Yes
每个存储同步服务的已注册服务器Registered servers per Storage Sync Service 99 台服务器99 servers Yes
每个同步组的云终结点数Cloud endpoints per sync group 1 个云终结点1 cloud endpoint Yes
每个同步组的服务器终结点数Server endpoints per sync group 100 个服务器终结点100 server endpoints Yes
每个服务器的服务器终结点数Server endpoints per server 30 个服务器终结点30 server endpoints Yes
每个同步组的文件系统对象数(目录和文件)File system objects (directories and files) per sync group 1 亿个对象100 million objects No
目录中的最大文件系统对象(目录和文件)数Maximum number of file system objects (directories and files) in a directory 500 万个对象5 million objects Yes
最大对象(目录和文件)安全描述符大小Maximum object (directories and files) security descriptor size 64 KiB64 KiB Yes
文件大小File size 100 GiB100 GiB No
要进行分层的文件的最小文件大小Minimum file size for a file to be tiered V9 及更高版本:基于文件系统群集大小(双文件系统群集大小)。V9 and newer: Based on file system cluster size (double file system cluster size). 例如,如果文件系统群集大小为 4kb,则最小文件大小为 8kb。For example, if the file system cluster size is 4kb, the minimum file size will be 8kb.
V8 和更早版本:64 KiBV8 and older: 64 KiB
Yes

备注

Azure 文件同步终结点可以纵向扩展到 Azure 文件共享的大小。An Azure File Sync endpoint can scale up to the size of an Azure file share. 如果达到 Azure 文件共享大小限制,同步将无法运行。If the Azure file share size limit is reached, sync will not be able to operate.

Azure 文件同步性能指标Azure File Sync performance metrics

因为 Azure 文件同步代理在连接到 Azure 文件共享的 Windows Server 计算机上运行,所以实际的同步性能取决于基础结构中的许多元素:Windows Server 和基础磁盘配置、服务器与 Azure 存储之间的网络带宽、文件大小、总数据集大小以及数据集上的活动。Since the Azure File Sync agent runs on a Windows Server machine that connects to the Azure file shares, the effective sync performance depends upon a number of factors in your infrastructure: Windows Server and the underlying disk configuration, network bandwidth between the server and the Azure storage, file size, total dataset size, and the activity on the dataset. 由于 Azure 文件同步在文件级别工作,因此可以更好地通过每秒处理的对象数(文件和目录)这一指标来度量基于 Azure 文件同步的解决方案的性能特征。Since Azure File Sync works on the file level, the performance characteristics of an Azure File Sync-based solution is better measured in the number of objects (files and directories) processed per second.

对于 Azure 文件同步,性能在两个阶段至关重要:For Azure File Sync, performance is critical in two stages:

  1. 初始一次性预配:若要优化初始预配的性能,请参阅使用 Azure 文件同步进行载入来了解最佳部署详细信息。Initial one-time provisioning: To optimize performance on initial provisioning, refer to Onboarding with Azure File Sync for the optimal deployment details.
  2. 持续同步:在 Azure 文件同步中初次植入数据后,Azure 文件同步会使多个终结点保持同步。Ongoing sync: After the data is initially seeded in the Azure file shares, Azure File Sync keeps multiple endpoints in sync.

为帮助你计划每个阶段的部署,下面提供了在采用某个配置的系统上进行内部测试期间观察到的结果To help you plan your deployment for each of the stages, below are the results observed during the internal testing on a system with a config

系统配置System configuration 详细信息Details
CPUCPU 64 个带 64 MiB L3 高速缓存的虚拟内核64 Virtual Cores with 64 MiB L3 cache
内存Memory 128 GiB128 GiB
磁盘Disk 采用 RAID 10 且带有以电池供电的高速缓存的 SAS 磁盘SAS disks with RAID 10 with battery backed cache
网络Network 1 Gbps 网络1 Gbps Network
工作负荷Workload 常规用途文件服务器General Purpose File Server
初始的一次性预配Initial one-time provisioning 详细信息Details
对象数Number of objects 2500 万个对象25 million objects
数据集大小Dataset Size ~ 4.7 TiB~4.7 TiB
平均文件大小Average File Size ~ 200 KiB (最大文件: 100 GiB) ~200 KiB (Largest File: 100 GiB)
初始云更改枚举Initial cloud change enumeration 每秒7个对象7 objects per second
上传吞吐量Upload Throughput 每个同步组每秒20个对象20 objects per second per sync group
命名空间下载吞吐量Namespace Download Throughput 每秒 400 个对象400 objects per second

初始的一次性预配Initial one-time provisioning

初始云更改枚举:创建新的同步组后,初始云更改枚举是将执行的第一个步骤。Initial cloud change enumeration: When a new sync group is created, initial cloud change enumeration is the first step that will execute. 在此过程中,系统将枚举 Azure 文件共享中的所有项目。In this process, the system will enumerate all the items in the Azure File Share. 在此过程中,将不会有任何同步活动,即,不会将任何项从云终结点下载到服务器终结点,并且不会将任何项从服务器终结点上传到云终结点。During this process, there will be no sync activity i.e. no items will be downloaded from cloud endpoint to server endpoint and no items will be uploaded from server endpoint to cloud endpoint. 初始云更改枚举完成后,同步活动将继续。Sync activity will resume once initial cloud change enumeration completes. 性能速率为每秒7个对象。The rate of performance is 7 objects per second. 客户可以通过确定云共享中的项目数并使用以下公式获取时间(以天为单位)来估计完成初始云更改枚举所需的时间。Customers can estimate the time it will take to complete initial cloud change enumeration by determining the number of items in the cloud share and using the following formulae to get the time in days.

**初始云枚举的时间 (天) (= 云终结点中的对象数) / (7 * 60 * 60 * 24) **Time (in days) for initial cloud enumeration = (Number of objects in cloud endpoint)/(7 * 60 * 60 * 24)

命名空间下载吞吐量 将新服务器终结点添加到现有同步组时,Azure 文件同步代理不会从云终结点下载任何文件内容。Namespace download throughput When a new server endpoint is added to an existing sync group, the Azure File Sync agent does not download any of the file content from the cloud endpoint. 它将首先同步整个命名空间,然后触发后台调用来将文件整体下载,或者根据服务器终结点上设置的云分层策略进行下载(如果启用了云分层)。It first syncs the full namespace and then triggers background recall to download the files, either in their entirety or, if cloud tiering is enabled, to the cloud tiering policy set on the server endpoint.

持续同步Ongoing sync 详细信息Details
同步的对象数Number of objects synced 125,000 个对象(~1% 的改动)125,000 objects (~1% churn)
数据集大小Dataset Size 50 GiB50 GiB
平均文件大小Average File Size ~500 KiB~500 KiB
上传吞吐量Upload Throughput 每个同步组每秒20个对象20 objects per second per sync group
完整下载吞吐量*Full Download Throughput* 每秒 60 个对象60 objects per second

*如果启用了云分层,则性能可能更好,因为只会下载一部分文件数据。*If cloud tiering is enabled, you are likely to observe better performance as only some of the file data is downloaded. 只有当已缓存文件的数据在任何终结点上发生更改时,Azure 文件同步才会下载这些数据。Azure File Sync only downloads the data of cached files when they are changed on any of the endpoints. 对于任何已分层的或新创建的文件,代理不会下载文件数据,而仅会将命名空间同步到所有服务器终结点。For any tiered or newly created files, the agent does not download the file data, and instead only syncs the namespace to all the server endpoints. 代理还支持在用户访问已分层文件时下载这些文件的一部分。The agent also supports partial downloads of tiered files as they are accessed by the user.

备注

上述数字不代表你会实现的性能。The numbers above are not an indication of the performance that you will experience. 实际性能将取决于本部分开头列出的多个因素。The actual performance will depend on multiple factors as outlined in the beginning of this section.

作为常规部署指南,应当牢记以下几件事情:As a general guide for your deployment, you should keep a few things in mind:

  • 对象吞吐量大约按服务器上的同步组数量成比例缩放。The object throughput approximately scales in proportion to the number of sync groups on the server. 在服务器上将数据拆分到多个同步组会实现更好的吞吐量,吞吐量还受限于服务器和网络。Splitting data into multiple sync groups on a server yields better throughput, which is also limited by the server and network.
  • 对象吞吐量与每秒 MiB 数这一吞吐量成反比。The object throughput is inversely proportional to the MiB per second throughput. 对于较小的文件,每秒处理的对象数这一吞吐量较高,但每秒 MiB 数这一吞吐量较低。For smaller files, you will experience higher throughput in terms of the number of objects processed per second, but lower MiB per second throughput. 相反,对于较大的文件,每秒处理的对象数较少,但每秒 MiB 数这一吞吐量较高。Conversely, for larger files, you will get fewer objects processed per second, but higher MiB per second throughput. 每秒 MiB 数这一吞吐量受限于 Azure 文件规模目标。The MiB per second throughput is limited by the Azure Files scale targets.

另请参阅See also