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Azure 文件可伸缩性和性能目标Azure Files scalability and performance targets

Azure 文件在云中提供完全托管的文件共享,这些共享项可通过行业标准 SMB 协议进行访问。Azure Files offers fully managed file shares in the cloud that are accessible via the industry standard SMB protocol. 本文讨论了 Azure 文件和 Azure 文件同步的可伸缩性和性能目标。This article discusses the scalability and performance targets for Azure Files and Azure File Sync.

此处列出的可伸缩性和性能目标是高端目标,但可能会受部署中的其他变量影响。The scalability and performance targets listed here are high-end targets, but may be affected by other variables in your deployment. 例如,除了受限于托管着 Azure 文件服务的服务器之外,针对文件的吞吐量还可能会受限于可变的网络带宽。For example, the throughput for a file may also be limited by your available network bandwidth, not just the servers hosting the Azure Files service. 强烈建议你对使用模式进行测试,以确定 Azure 文件的可伸缩性和性能是否满足你的要求。We strongly recommend testing your usage pattern to determine whether the scalability and performance of Azure Files meet your requirements. 随着时间的推移,我们也一直在努力提高这些限制。We are also committed to increasing these limits over time. 如果希望我们提高某些限制,请尽管通过下面的评论或者通过 Azure 文件 UserVoice 向我们提供反馈。Please don't hesitate to give us feedback, either in the comments below or on the Azure Files UserVoice, about which limits you would like to see us increase.

Azure 存储帐户规模目标Azure storage account scale targets

Azure 文件共享的父资源是 Azure 存储帐户。The parent resource for an Azure file share is an Azure storage account. 存储帐户表示 Azure 中的一个存储池,该存储池可供包括 Azure 文件在内多个存储服务用来存储数据。A storage account represents a pool of storage in Azure that can be used by multiple storage services, including Azure Files, to store data. 在存储帐户中存储数据的其他服务有 Azure Blob 存储、Azure 队列存储和 Azure 表存储。Other services that store data in storage accounts are Azure Blob storage, Azure Queue storage, and Azure Table storage. 以下目标适用于在存储帐户中存储数据的所有存储服务:The following targets apply all storage services storing data in a storage account:

下表介绍 Azure 存储的默认限制。The following table describes default limits for Azure Storage. “传入”限制是指发送到存储帐户的所有数据(请求)。The ingress limit refers to all data (requests) being sent to a storage account. “传出”限制是指从存储帐户接收的所有数据(响应)。The egress limit refers to all data (responses) being received from a storage account.

资源Resource 默认限制Default Limit
每个订阅每个区域的存储帐户数,包括标准帐户和高级帐户Number of storage accounts per region per subscription, including both standard and premium accounts 250250
最大存储帐户容量Max storage account capacity 对于美国和欧洲为 2 PB,对于包括英国在内的其他所有区域为 500 TB2 PB for US and Europe, 500 TB for all other regions including UK
每个存储帐户的 Blob 容器、Blob、文件共享、表、队列、实体或消息数上限Max number of blob containers, blobs, file shares, tables, queues, entities, or messages per storage account 无限制No limit
每个存储帐户的最大请求速率1Maximum request rate1 per storage account 每秒 20,000 个请求20,000 requests per second
每个存储帐户的最大入口 1(美国区域)Max ingress1 per storage account (US Regions) 如果已启用 RA-GRS/GRS,则为 10 Gbps;对于 LRS/ZRS,为 20 Gbps210 Gbps if RA-GRS/GRS enabled, 20 Gbps for LRS/ZRS2
每个存储帐户的最大入口1(非美国区域)Max ingress1 per storage account (Non-US regions) 如果已启用 RA-GRS/GRS,则为 5 Gbps;对于 LRS/ZRS,为 10 Gbps25 Gbps if RA-GRS/GRS enabled, 10 Gbps for LRS/ZRS2
常规用途 v2 存储帐户和 Blob 存储帐户的最大出口(所有区域)Max egress for general-purpose v2 and Blob storage accounts (all regions) 50 Gbps50 Gbps
常规用途 v1 存储帐户的最大出口(美国区域)Max egress for general-purpose v1 storage accounts (US regions) 如果已启用 RA-GRS/GRS,则为 20 Gbps;对于 LRS/ZRS 2,为 30 Gbps20 Gbps if RA-GRS/GRS enabled, 30 Gbps for LRS/ZRS 2
常规用途 v1 存储帐户的最大出口(非美国区域)Max egress for general-purpose v1 storage accounts (Non-US regions) 如果已启用 RA-GRS/GRS,则为 10 Gbps;对于 LRS/ZRS 2,为 15 Gbps10 Gbps if RA-GRS/GRS enabled, 15 Gbps for LRS/ZRS 2

1 Azure 存储帐户根据请求支持更高的入口上限。1 Azure storage accounts support higher limits for ingress by request. 若要请求提高帐户入口上限,请与 Azure 支持联系。To request an increase in account limits for ingress, contact Azure Support.

2Azure 存储复制选项包括:2Azure Storage replication options include:

  • RA-GRS:读取访问异地冗余存储。RA-GRS: Read-access geo-redundant storage. 如果已启用 RA-GRS,辅助位置的出口目标与主要位置的出口目标相同。If RA-GRS is enabled, egress targets for the secondary location are identical to those for the primary location.
  • GRS:异地冗余存储。GRS: Geo-redundant storage.
  • ZRS:区域冗余存储。ZRS: Zone-redundant storage.
  • LRS:本地冗余存储。LRS: Locally redundant storage.

如果应用程序的需求超过单个存储帐户的伸缩性目标,则可以构建使用多个存储帐户的应用程序。If the needs of your application exceed the scalability targets of a single storage account, you can build your application to use multiple storage accounts. 然后,可以将数据对象分布到这些存储帐户中。You can then partition your data objects across those storage accounts. 有关批量定价的信息,请参阅 Azure 存储定价See Azure Storage Pricing for information on volume pricing.

所有存储帐户都在扁平网络拓扑上运行,无论它们创建于何时,都支持本文所述的可伸缩性和性能目标。All storage accounts run on a flat network topology and support the scalability and performance targets outlined in this article, regardless of when they were created. 有关 Azure 存储的扁平网络体系结构和可伸缩性的详细信息,请参阅 Microsoft Azure Storage: A Highly Available Cloud Storage Service with Strong Consistency(Microsoft Azure 存储:具有高度一致性的高可用云存储服务)。For more information on the Azure Storage flat network architecture and on scalability, see Microsoft Azure Storage: A Highly Available Cloud Storage Service with Strong Consistency.

仅当使用 Azure 资源管理器对 Azure 存储执行管理操作时,以下限制才适用。The following limits apply only when performing management operations using Azure Resource Manager with Azure Storage.

资源Resource 默认限制Default Limit
存储帐户管理操作数(读取)Storage account management operations (read) 每 5 分钟 800 次800 per 5 minutes
存储帐户管理操作数(写入)Storage account management operations (write) 每小时 200 次200 per hour
存储帐户管理操作数(列出)Storage account management operations (list) 每 5 分钟 100 次100 per 5 minutes

重要

其他存储服务对存储帐户的利用率会影响你的存储帐户中的 Azure 文件共享。Storage account utilization from other storage services affects your Azure file shares in your storage account. 例如,如果由于 Azure Blob 存储而达到了最大存储帐户容量,则将无法在 Azure 文件共享上创建新文件,即使 Azure 文件共享低于最大共享大小。For example, if you reach the maximum storage account capacity with Azure Blob storage, you will not be able to create new files on your Azure file share, even if your Azure file share is below the maximum share size.

Azure 文件规模目标Azure Files scale targets

资源Resource 标准文件共享Standard file shares 高级文件共享(预览版)Premium file shares (preview)
文件共享的最小大小Minimum size of a file share (没有最小值;即用即付)(no minimum; pay as you go) 100 GiB100 GiB
文件共享的最大大小Max size of a file share 5 TiB5 TiB 5 TiB5 TiB
文件共享中文件的最大大小Max size of a file in a file share 1 TiB1 TiB 1 TiB1 TiB
文件共享中的文件数上限Max number of files in a file share 无限制No limit 无限制No limit
每个共享的最大 IOPSMax IOPS per share 1000 IOPS1000 IOPS 5120 IOPS 基线5120 IOPS baseline
突发时为 15,360 IOPS15,360 IOPS with burst
每个文件共享的存储的访问策略的最大数目Max number of stored access policies per file share 55 55
单个文件共享的目标吞吐量Target throughput for single file share 最多 60 MiB/秒Up to 60 MiB/second 最多 612 MiB/秒(已预配)Up to 612 MiB/sec (provisioned)
每个文件打开图柄的最大数目Maximum open handles per file 2,000 个打开句柄2,000 open handles 2,000 个打开句柄2,000 open handles
共享快照的最大数目Maximum number of share snapshots 200 个共享快照200 share snapshots 200 个共享快照200 share snapshots

Azure 文件同步规模目标Azure File Sync scale targets

对于 Azure 文件同步,在设计时我们已尽最大努力来实现不受限的使用,但这并非始终可能。With Azure File Sync, we have tried as much as possible to design for limitless usage, however this is not always possible. 下表指明了我们的测试边界以及哪些目标实际上是硬性限制:The below table indicates the boundaries of our testing and which targets are actually hard limits:

资源Resource 目标Target 硬限制Hard limit
每个订阅的存储同步服务数Storage Sync Services per subscription 每个区域有 15 个存储同步服务15 Storage Sync Services per region No
每个存储同步服务的同步组数Sync groups per Storage Sync Service 100 个同步组100 sync groups Yes
每个存储同步服务的已注册服务器Registered servers per Storage Sync Service 99 台服务器99 servers Yes
每个同步组的云终结点数Cloud endpoints per Sync Group 1 个云终结点1 cloud endpoint Yes
每个同步组的服务器终结点数Server endpoints per Sync Group 50 个服务器终结点50 server endpoints No
每个服务器的服务器终结点数Server endpoints per server 30 个服务器终结点30 server endpoints Yes
终结点大小Endpoint size 4 TiB4 TiB No
每个同步组的文件系统对象数(目录和文件)File system objects (directories and files) per sync group 2500 万个对象25 million objects No
目录中的最大文件系统对象(目录和文件)数Maximum number of file system objects (directories and files) in a directory 200,000 个对象200,000 objects Yes
最大对象(目录和文件)名称长度Maximum object (directories and files) name length 255 个字符255 characters Yes
最大对象(目录和文件)安全描述符大小Maximum object (directories and files) security descriptor size 4 KiB4 KiB Yes
文件大小File size 100 GiB100 GiB No
要进行分层的文件的最小文件大小Minimum file size for a file to be tiered 64 KiB64 KiB Yes
并发同步会话Concurrent sync sessions V4 代理:限制因可用系统资源而异。V4 agent: Limit varies based on available system resources.
V3 代理:每个处理器 2 个活动的同步会话,或每个服务器最多 8 个活动的同步会话V3 agent: 2 active sync sessions per processor or maximum of 8 active sync sessions per server
Yes

Azure 文件同步性能指标Azure File Sync performance metrics

由于 Azure 文件同步代理在连接到 Azure 文件共享的 Windows Server 计算机上运行,因此有效的同步性能取决于基础结构中的多个因素:Windows Server 和基础磁盘配置、服务器与 Azure 存储之间的网络带宽、文件大小、总数据集大小以及数据集上的活动。Since the Azure File Sync agent runs on a Windows Server machine that connects to the Azure file shares, the effective sync performance depends upon a number of factors in your infrastructure: Windows Server and the underlying disk configuration, network bandwidth between the server and the Azure storage, file size, total dataset size, and the activity on the dataset. 由于 Azure 文件同步在文件级别工作,因此可以更好地通过每秒处理的对象数(文件和目录)这一指标来度量基于 Azure 文件同步的解决方案的性能特征。Since Azure File Sync works on the file level, the performance characteristics of an Azure File Sync-based solution is better measured in the number of objects (files and directories) processed per second.

对于 Azure 文件同步,性能在两个阶段至关重要:For Azure File Sync, performance is critical in two stages:

  1. 初始的一次性预配:若要优化初始预配的性能,请参阅使用 Azure 文件同步进行载入来了解最佳部署详细信息。Initial one-time provisioning: To optimize performance on initial provisioning, refer to Onboarding with Azure File Sync for the optimal deployment details.
  2. 持续同步:在 Azure 文件同步中初次植入数据后,Azure 文件同步会使多个终结点保持同步。Ongoing sync: After the data is initially seeded in the Azure file shares, Azure File Sync keeps multiple endpoints in sync.

为帮助你计划每个阶段的部署,下面提供了在采用某个配置的系统上进行内部测试期间观察到的结果To help you plan your deployment for each of the stages, below are the results observed during the internal testing on a system with a config

系统配置System configuration
CPUCPU 64 个带 64 MiB L3 高速缓存的虚拟内核64 Virtual Cores with 64 MiB L3 cache
内存Memory 128 GiB128 GiB
磁盘Disk 采用 RAID 10 且带有以电池供电的高速缓存的 SAS 磁盘SAS disks with RAID 10 with battery backed cache
网络Network 1 Gbps 网络1 Gbps Network
工作负荷Workload 常规用途文件服务器General Purpose File Server
初始的一次性预配Initial one-time provisioning
对象数Number of objects 1000 万个对象10 million objects
数据集大小Dataset Size ~4 TiB~4 TiB
平均文件大小Average File Size ~500 KiB(最大的文件:100 GiB)~500 KiB (Largest File: 100 GiB)
上传吞吐量Upload Throughput 每秒 20 个对象20 objects per second
命名空间下载吞吐量*Namespace Download Throughput* 每秒 400 个对象400 objects per second

*当创建新的服务器终结点时,Azure 文件同步代理不下载任何文件内容。*When a new server endpoint is created, the Azure File Sync agent does not download any of the file content. 它将首先同步整个命名空间,然后触发后台调用来将文件整体下载,或者根据服务器终结点上设置的云分层策略进行下载(如果启用了云分层)。It first syncs the full namespace and then triggers background recall to download the files, either in their entirety or, if cloud tiering is enabled, to the cloud tiering policy set on the server endpoint.

持续同步Ongoing sync
同步的对象数Number of objects synced 125,000 个对象(~1% 的改动)125,000 objects (~1% churn)
数据集大小Dataset Size 50 GiB50 GiB
平均文件大小Average File Size ~500 KiB~500 KiB
上传吞吐量Upload Throughput 每秒 30 个对象30 objects per second
完整下载吞吐量*Full Download Throughput* 每秒 60 个对象60 objects per second

*如果启用了云分层,则性能可能更好,因为只会下载一部分文件数据。*If cloud tiering is enabled, you are likely to observe better performance as only some of the file data is downloaded. 只有当已缓存文件的数据在任何终结点上发生更改时,Azure 文件同步才会下载这些数据。Azure File Sync only downloads the data of cached files when they are changed on any of the endpoints. 对于任何已分层的或新创建的文件,代理不会下载文件数据,而仅会将命名空间同步到所有服务器终结点。For any tiered or newly created files, the agent does not download the file data, and instead only syncs the namespace to all the server endpoints. 代理还支持在用户访问已分层文件时下载这些文件的一部分。The agent also supports partial downloads of tiered files as they are accessed by the user.

备注

上述数字不代表你会实现的性能。The numbers above are not an indication of the performance that you will experience. 实际性能将取决于本部分开头列出的多个因素。The actual performance will depend on multiple factors as outlined in the beginning of this section.

作为常规部署指南,应当牢记以下几件事情:As a general guide for your deployment, you should keep a few things in mind:

  • 对象吞吐量大约按服务器上的同步组数量成比例缩放。The object throughput approximately scales in proportion to the number of sync groups on the server. 在服务器上将数据拆分到多个同步组会实现更好的吞吐量,吞吐量还受限于服务器和网络。Splitting data into multiple sync groups on a server yields better throughput, which is also limited by the server and network.
  • 对象吞吐量与每秒 MiB 数这一吞吐量成反比。The object throughput is inversely proportional to the MiB per second throughput. 对于较小的文件,每秒处理的对象数这一吞吐量较高,但每秒 MiB 数这一吞吐量较低。For smaller files, you will experience higher throughput in terms of the number of objects processed per second, but lower MiB per second throughput. 相反,对于较大的文件,每秒处理的对象数较少,但每秒 MiB 数这一吞吐量较高。Conversely, for larger files, you will get fewer objects processed per second, but higher MiB per second throughput. 每秒 MiB 数这一吞吐量受限于 Azure 文件规模目标。The MiB per second throughput is limited by the Azure Files scale targets.

另请参阅See also