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Azure 文件可伸缩性和性能目标Azure Files scalability and performance targets

Azure 文件在云中提供完全托管的文件共享,这些共享项可通过行业标准 SMB 协议进行访问。Azure Files offers fully managed file shares in the cloud that are accessible via the industry standard SMB protocol. 本文讨论了 Azure 文件和 Azure 文件同步的可伸缩性和性能目标。This article discusses the scalability and performance targets for Azure Files and Azure File Sync.

此处列出的可伸缩性和性能目标是高端目标,但可能会受部署中的其他变量影响。The scalability and performance targets listed here are high-end targets, but may be affected by other variables in your deployment. 例如,除了受限于托管着 Azure 文件服务的服务器之外,针对文件的吞吐量还可能会受限于可变的网络带宽。For example, the throughput for a file may also be limited by your available network bandwidth, not just the servers hosting the Azure Files service. 强烈建议你对使用模式进行测试,以确定 Azure 文件的可伸缩性和性能是否满足你的要求。We strongly recommend testing your usage pattern to determine whether the scalability and performance of Azure Files meet your requirements. 随着时间的推移,我们也一直在努力提高这些限制。We are also committed to increasing these limits over time. 如果希望我们提高某些限制,请尽管通过下面的评论或者通过 Azure 文件 UserVoice 向我们提供反馈。Please don't hesitate to give us feedback, either in the comments below or on the Azure Files UserVoice, about which limits you would like to see us increase.

Azure 存储帐户规模目标Azure storage account scale targets

Azure 文件共享的父资源是 Azure 存储帐户。The parent resource for an Azure file share is an Azure storage account. 存储帐户表示 Azure 中的一个存储池,该存储池可供包括 Azure 文件在内多个存储服务用来存储数据。A storage account represents a pool of storage in Azure that can be used by multiple storage services, including Azure Files, to store data. 在存储帐户中存储数据的其他服务有 Azure Blob 存储、Azure 队列存储和 Azure 表存储。Other services that store data in storage accounts are Azure Blob storage, Azure Queue storage, and Azure Table storage. 以下目标适用于在存储帐户中存储数据的所有存储服务:The following targets apply all storage services storing data in a storage account:

下表介绍 Azure 常规用途 v1、v2 和 Blob 存储帐户的默认限制。The following table describes default limits for Azure general-purpose v1, v2, and Blob storage accounts. “传入” 限制是指请求中发送到存储帐户的所有数据。The ingress limit refers to all data from requests that are sent to a storage account. “传出” 限制是指响应中从存储帐户接收的所有数据。The egress limit refers to all data from responses that are received from a storage account.

ResourceResource 默认限制Default limit
每个订阅每个区域的存储帐户数,包括标准帐户和高级帐户Number of storage accounts per region per subscription, including both standard and premium accounts 250250
最大存储帐户容量Maximum storage account capacity 2 PB 针对美国和欧洲,对于所有其他区域,其中包括英国 500 TB2 PB for US and Europe, 500 TB for all other regions, which includes the UK
每个存储帐户的 Blob 容器、Blob、文件共享、表、队列、实体或消息数上限Maximum number of blob containers, blobs, file shares, tables, queues, entities, or messages per storage account 无限制No limit
每个存储帐户的最大请求速率1Maximum request rate1 per storage account 每秒 20,000 个请求20,000 requests per second
最大入口1每个存储帐户 (美国区域)Maximum ingress1 per storage account (US regions) 如果已启用 RA-GRS/GRS 的 10 Gbps,20 Gbps; 对于 LRS/ZRS210 Gbps if RA-GRS/GRS is enabled, 20 Gbps for LRS/ZRS2
最大入口1每个存储帐户 (非美国区域)Maximum ingress1 per storage account (non-US regions) 如果已启用 RA-GRS/GRS,则为 5 Gbps,10 Gbps; 对于 LRS/ZRS25 Gbps if RA-GRS/GRS is enabled, 10 Gbps for LRS/ZRS2
对于常规用途 v2 和 Blob 存储帐户 (所有区域) 的最大出口Maximum egress for general-purpose v2 and Blob storage accounts (all regions) 50 Gbps50 Gbps
常规用途 v1 存储帐户 (美国区域) 的最大出口Maximum egress for general-purpose v1 storage accounts (US regions) 如果启用 RA-GRS/GRS,则为 20 Gbps、 30 Gbps; 对于 LRS/ZRS220 Gbps if RA-GRS/GRS is enabled, 30 Gbps for LRS/ZRS2
常规用途 v1 存储帐户 (非美国区域) 的最大出口Maximum egress for general-purpose v1 storage accounts (non-US regions) 如果已启用 RA-GRS/GRS 的 10 Gbps,15 Gbps; 对于 LRS/ZRS210 Gbps if RA-GRS/GRS is enabled, 15 Gbps for LRS/ZRS2

1 Azure 标准存储帐户根据请求支持更高的入口上限。1Azure Standard Storage accounts support higher limits for ingress by request. 若要请求提高帐户入口上限,请与 Azure 支持联系。To request an increase in account limits for ingress, contact Azure Support.

2 Azure 存储复制选项包括:2 Azure Storage replication options include:

  • RA-GRS:读取访问异地冗余存储。RA-GRS: Read-access geo-redundant storage. 如果已启用 RA-GRS,辅助位置的出口目标与主要位置的出口目标相同。If RA-GRS is enabled, egress targets for the secondary location are identical to those for the primary location.
  • GRS:异地冗余存储。GRS: Geo-redundant storage.
  • ZRS:区域冗余存储。ZRS: Zone-redundant storage.
  • LRS:本地冗余存储。LRS: Locally redundant storage.

备注

大多数情况下,建议使用常规用途 v2 存储帐户。We recommend that you use a general-purpose v2 storage account for most scenarios. 可以轻松将常规用途 v1 或 Azure Blob 存储帐户升级到常规用途 v2 帐户,无需停机且无需复制数据。You can easily upgrade a general-purpose v1 or an Azure Blob storage account to a general-purpose v2 account with no downtime and without the need to copy data.

有关 Azure 存储帐户的详细信息,请参阅存储帐户概述For more information on Azure Storage accounts, see Storage account overview.

如果应用程序的需求超过单个存储帐户的伸缩性目标,则可以构建使用多个存储帐户的应用程序。If the needs of your application exceed the scalability targets of a single storage account, you can build your application to use multiple storage accounts. 然后,可以将数据对象分布到这些存储帐户中。You can then partition your data objects across those storage accounts. 有关批量定价的信息,请参阅 Azure 存储定价For information on volume pricing, see Azure Storage pricing.

所有存储帐户都在扁平网络拓扑上运行,无论它们创建于何时,都支持本文所述的可伸缩性和性能目标。All storage accounts run on a flat network topology and support the scalability and performance targets outlined in this article, regardless of when they were created. 有关 Azure 存储的扁平网络体系结构和可伸缩性的详细信息,请参阅 Microsoft Azure 存储:具有非常一致性的高可用云存储服务For more information on the Azure Storage flat network architecture and on scalability, see Microsoft Azure Storage: A Highly Available Cloud Storage Service with Strong Consistency.

仅当使用 Azure 资源管理器对 Azure 存储执行管理操作时,以下限制才适用。The following limits apply only when you perform management operations by using Azure Resource Manager with Azure Storage.

ResourceResource 默认限制Default limit
存储帐户管理操作数(读取)Storage account management operations (read) 每 5 分钟 800 次800 per 5 minutes
存储帐户管理操作数(写入)Storage account management operations (write) 每小时 200 次200 per hour
存储帐户管理操作数(列出)Storage account management operations (list) 每 5 分钟 100 次100 per 5 minutes

重要

常规用途存储帐户从其他存储服务的利用率会影响 Azure 文件共享存储帐户中。General purpose storage account utilization from other storage services affects your Azure file shares in your storage account. 例如,如果由于 Azure Blob 存储而达到了最大存储帐户容量,则将无法在 Azure 文件共享上创建新文件,即使 Azure 文件共享低于最大共享大小。For example, if you reach the maximum storage account capacity with Azure Blob storage, you will not be able to create new files on your Azure file share, even if your Azure file share is below the maximum share size.

Azure 文件规模目标Azure Files scale targets

高级缩放目标Premium scale targets

有三个类别的限制要考虑的高级文件共享: 存储帐户、 共享和文件。There are three categories of limitations to consider for premium file shares: storage accounts, shares, and files.

例如:单个共享可以实现 100,000 IOPS 和单个文件可以扩展最多 5,000 个 IOPS。For example: A single share can achieve 100,000 IOPS and a single file can scale up to 5,000 IOPS. 因此,例如,如果您有一个共享中的三个文件,就可以从该共享的最大 IOPS 是 15000。So, for example, if you have three files in one share, the maximum IOPS you can get from that share is 15,000.

高级文件存储帐户限制Premium FileStorage account limits

高级文件共享中一个名为特殊的存储帐户预配文件存储 (预览版)Premium file shares are provisioned in a special storage account called filestorage (preview). 此帐户具有比使用标准文件共享的存储帐户的略有不同的缩放目标。This account has slightly different scale targets than the storage account used for standard file shares. 有关存储帐户规模目标,请参阅中的表Azure 存储帐户规模目标部分。For the storage account scale targets, refer to the table in the Azure storage account scale targets section.

重要

存储帐户限制适用于所有共享。Storage account limits apply to all shares. 最多缩放是只可实现,如果每个文件存储帐户只有一个共享的文件存储帐户的最大值。Scaling up to the max for FileStorage accounts is only achievable if there is only one share per FileStorage account.

文件共享和文件规模目标File share and file scale targets

备注

大于 5 TiB 的标准文件共享处于预览状态,存在一定的限制。Standard file shares larger than 5 TiB are in preview and have certain limitations. 有关列表的限制和要加入到的这些更大的文件共享大小的预览,请参阅标准文件共享计划指南的部分。For a list of limitations and to onboard to the preview of these larger file share sizes, see the Standard file shares section of the planning guide.

ResourceResource 标准文件共享Standard file shares 高级文件共享(预览版)Premium file shares (preview)
文件共享的最小大小Minimum size of a file share 没有最小值;现用现付No minimum; pay as you go 100 giB;预配100 GiB; provisioned
文件共享的最大大小Maximum size of a file share 5 TiB (GA)、 100 TiB (预览版)5 TiB (GA), 100 TiB (preview) 100 TiB100 TiB
文件共享中文件的最大大小Maximum size of a file in a file share 1 TiB1 TiB 1 TiB1 TiB
文件共享中的文件数上限Maximum number of files in a file share 无限制No limit 无限制No limit
每个共享的最大 IOPSMaximum IOPS per share 1000 IOPS (GA)),10,000 IOPS (预览版)1,000 IOPS (GA), 10,000 IOPS (preview) 100,000 IOPS100,000 IOPS
每个文件共享的存储的访问策略的最大数目Maximum number of stored access policies per file share 55 55
单个文件共享的目标吞吐量Target throughput for a single file share 高达 60 MiB/秒 (GA)),最多 300 MiB/秒 (预览版)Up to 60 MiB/sec (GA), up to 300 MiB/sec (preview) 请参阅高级文件共享入口和出口值See premium file share ingress and egress values
单个文件共享的最大出口Maximum egress for a single file share 请参阅标准文件共享的目标吞吐量See standard file share target throughput 高达 6,204 MiB/秒Up to 6,204 MiB/s
单个文件共享的最大入口Maximum ingress for a single file share 请参阅标准文件共享的目标吞吐量See standard file share target throughput 高达 4,136 MiB/秒Up to 4,136 MiB/s
每个文件打开图柄的最大数目Maximum open handles per file 2,000 个打开句柄2,000 open handles 2,000 个打开句柄2,000 open handles
共享快照的最大数目Maximum number of share snapshots 200 个共享快照200 share snapshots 200 个共享快照200 share snapshots
最大对象(目录和文件)名称长度Maximum object (directories and files) name length 2,048 个字符2,048 characters 2,048 个字符2,048 characters
最大路径名组成部分(在路径 \A\B\C\D 中,每个字母是一个组成部分)Maximum pathname component (in the path \A\B\C\D, each letter is a component) 255 个字符255 characters 255 个字符255 characters

更多高级文件共享限制Additional premium file share limits

区域Area 确定目标Target
最小大小增大/减少Minimum size increase/decrease 1 GiB1 GiB
基线 IOPSBaseline IOPS 每 GiB 多达 100,000 个 1 IOPS1 IOPS per GiB up to 100,000
爆发的 IOPSIOPS bursting 3 个 x IOPS 每 GiB 多达 100,000 个3x IOPS per GiB up to 100,000
出口率Egress rate 60 MiB/秒 + 0.06 * 预配 GiB60 MiB/s + 0.06 * provisioned GiB
入口速率Ingress rate 40 MiB/秒 + 0.04 * 预配 GiB40 MiB/s + 0.04 * provisioned GiB
最大快照数Maximum number of snapshots 200200

高级文件限制Premium file limits

区域Area 确定目标Target
大小Size 1 TiB1 TiB
每个文件的最大 IOPSMax IOPS per file 5,0005,000
并发句柄Concurrent handles 2,0002,000

Azure 文件同步规模目标Azure File Sync scale targets

Azure 文件同步的设计目标是无限使用,但并非总是可以无限使用。Azure File Sync has been designed with the goal of limitless usage, but limitless usage is not always possible. 下表指示了 Microsoft 测试的边界,还指出了哪些目标是硬限制:The following table indicates the boundaries of Microsoft's testing and also indicates which targets are hard limits:

ResourceResource 确定目标Target 硬限制Hard limit
每个区域的存储同步服务数Storage Sync Services per region 20 个存储同步服务20 Storage Sync Services Yes
每个存储同步服务的同步组数Sync groups per Storage Sync Service 100 个同步组100 sync groups Yes
每个存储同步服务的已注册服务器Registered servers per Storage Sync Service 99 台服务器99 servers Yes
每个同步组的云终结点Cloud endpoints per sync group 1 个云终结点1 cloud endpoint Yes
每个同步组的服务器终结点Server endpoints per sync group 50 个服务器终结点50 server endpoints No
每个服务器的服务器终结点数Server endpoints per server 30 个服务器终结点30 server endpoints Yes
每个同步组的文件系统对象数(目录和文件)File system objects (directories and files) per sync group 2500 万个对象25 million objects No
目录中的最大文件系统对象(目录和文件)数Maximum number of file system objects (directories and files) in a directory 1 亿个对象1 million objects Yes
最大对象(目录和文件)安全描述符大小Maximum object (directories and files) security descriptor size 64 KiB64 KiB Yes
文件大小File size 100 GiB100 GiB No
要进行分层的文件的最小文件大小Minimum file size for a file to be tiered 64 KiB64 KiB Yes
并发同步会话Concurrent sync sessions V4 代理及更高版本:根据可用系统资源限制而异。V4 agent and later: The limit varies based on available system resources.
V3 代理:每个处理器或最多为每个服务器的八个活动的同步会话的两个活动的同步会话。V3 agent: Two active sync sessions per processor or a maximum of eight active sync sessions per server.
Yes

备注

Azure 文件同步终结点可以扩展到 Azure 文件共享的大小。An Azure File Sync endpoint can scale up to the size of an Azure file share. 如果达到 Azure 文件共享大小限制时,同步不能运行。If the Azure file share size limit is reached, sync will not be able to operate.

Azure 文件同步性能指标Azure File Sync performance metrics

由于 Azure 文件同步代理在连接到 Azure 文件共享的 Windows Server 计算机上运行,因此有效的同步性能取决于基础结构中的多个因素:Windows Server 和基础磁盘配置、服务器与 Azure 存储之间的网络带宽、文件大小、总数据集大小以及数据集上的活动。Since the Azure File Sync agent runs on a Windows Server machine that connects to the Azure file shares, the effective sync performance depends upon a number of factors in your infrastructure: Windows Server and the underlying disk configuration, network bandwidth between the server and the Azure storage, file size, total dataset size, and the activity on the dataset. 由于 Azure 文件同步在文件级别工作,因此可以更好地通过每秒处理的对象数(文件和目录)这一指标来度量基于 Azure 文件同步的解决方案的性能特征。Since Azure File Sync works on the file level, the performance characteristics of an Azure File Sync-based solution is better measured in the number of objects (files and directories) processed per second.

对于 Azure 文件同步,性能在两个阶段至关重要:For Azure File Sync, performance is critical in two stages:

  1. 初始的一次性预配:若要优化初始预配的性能,请参阅使用 Azure 文件同步进行载入来了解最佳部署详细信息。Initial one-time provisioning: To optimize performance on initial provisioning, refer to Onboarding with Azure File Sync for the optimal deployment details.
  2. 持续同步:在 Azure 文件同步中初次植入数据后,Azure 文件同步会使多个终结点保持同步。Ongoing sync: After the data is initially seeded in the Azure file shares, Azure File Sync keeps multiple endpoints in sync.

为帮助你计划每个阶段的部署,下面提供了在采用某个配置的系统上进行内部测试期间观察到的结果To help you plan your deployment for each of the stages, below are the results observed during the internal testing on a system with a config

系统配置System configuration
CPUCPU 64 个带 64 MiB L3 高速缓存的虚拟内核64 Virtual Cores with 64 MiB L3 cache
内存Memory 128 GiB128 GiB
磁盘Disk 采用 RAID 10 且带有以电池供电的高速缓存的 SAS 磁盘SAS disks with RAID 10 with battery backed cache
网络Network 1 Gbps 网络1 Gbps Network
工作负荷Workload 常规用途文件服务器General Purpose File Server
初始的一次性预配Initial one-time provisioning
对象数Number of objects 2500 万个对象25 million objects
数据集大小Dataset Size ~4.7 TiB~4.7 TiB
平均文件大小Average File Size ~ 200 KiB (最大的文件:100 GiB)~200 KiB (Largest File: 100 GiB)
上传吞吐量Upload Throughput 每秒 20 个对象20 objects per second
命名空间下载吞吐量*Namespace Download Throughput* 每秒 400 个对象400 objects per second

*当创建新的服务器终结点时,Azure 文件同步代理不下载任何文件内容。*When a new server endpoint is created, the Azure File Sync agent does not download any of the file content. 它将首先同步整个命名空间,然后触发后台调用来将文件整体下载,或者根据服务器终结点上设置的云分层策略进行下载(如果启用了云分层)。It first syncs the full namespace and then triggers background recall to download the files, either in their entirety or, if cloud tiering is enabled, to the cloud tiering policy set on the server endpoint.

持续同步Ongoing sync
同步的对象数Number of objects synced 125,000 个对象(~1% 的改动)125,000 objects (~1% churn)
数据集大小Dataset Size 50 GiB50 GiB
平均文件大小Average File Size ~500 KiB~500 KiB
上传吞吐量Upload Throughput 每秒 30 个对象30 objects per second
完整下载吞吐量*Full Download Throughput* 每秒 60 个对象60 objects per second

*如果启用了云分层,则性能可能更好,因为只会下载一部分文件数据。*If cloud tiering is enabled, you are likely to observe better performance as only some of the file data is downloaded. 只有当已缓存文件的数据在任何终结点上发生更改时,Azure 文件同步才会下载这些数据。Azure File Sync only downloads the data of cached files when they are changed on any of the endpoints. 对于任何已分层的或新创建的文件,代理不会下载文件数据,而仅会将命名空间同步到所有服务器终结点。For any tiered or newly created files, the agent does not download the file data, and instead only syncs the namespace to all the server endpoints. 代理还支持在用户访问已分层文件时下载这些文件的一部分。The agent also supports partial downloads of tiered files as they are accessed by the user.

备注

上述数字不代表你会实现的性能。The numbers above are not an indication of the performance that you will experience. 实际性能将取决于本部分开头列出的多个因素。The actual performance will depend on multiple factors as outlined in the beginning of this section.

作为常规部署指南,应当牢记以下几件事情:As a general guide for your deployment, you should keep a few things in mind:

  • 对象吞吐量大约按服务器上的同步组数量成比例缩放。The object throughput approximately scales in proportion to the number of sync groups on the server. 在服务器上将数据拆分到多个同步组会实现更好的吞吐量,吞吐量还受限于服务器和网络。Splitting data into multiple sync groups on a server yields better throughput, which is also limited by the server and network.
  • 对象吞吐量与每秒 MiB 数这一吞吐量成反比。The object throughput is inversely proportional to the MiB per second throughput. 对于较小的文件,每秒处理的对象数这一吞吐量较高,但每秒 MiB 数这一吞吐量较低。For smaller files, you will experience higher throughput in terms of the number of objects processed per second, but lower MiB per second throughput. 相反,对于较大的文件,每秒处理的对象数较少,但每秒 MiB 数这一吞吐量较高。Conversely, for larger files, you will get fewer objects processed per second, but higher MiB per second throughput. 每秒 MiB 数这一吞吐量受限于 Azure 文件规模目标。The MiB per second throughput is limited by the Azure Files scale targets.

另请参阅See also