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Azure 有哪些可用的磁盘类型?What disk types are available in Azure?

Azure 托管磁盘当前提供四种磁盘类型, 每种类型都面向特定的客户方案。Azure managed disks currently offers four disk types, each type is aimed towards specific customer scenarios.

磁盘比较Disk comparison

下表提供了对托管磁盘的 ultra 磁盘、高级固态驱动器 (SSD)、标准 SSD 和标准硬盘驱动器 (HDD) 的比较, 有助于你决定要使用的内容。The following table provides a comparison of ultra disks, premium solid-state-drives (SSD), standard SSD, and standard hard disk drives (HDD) for managed disks to help you decide what to use.

超磁盘Ultra disk 高级 SSDPremium SSD 标准 SSDStandard SSD 标准 HDDStandard HDD
磁盘类型Disk type SSDSSD SSDSSD SSDSSD HDDHDD
应用场景Scenario SAP HANA、顶层数据库等 IO 密集型工作负荷(例如,SQL、Oracle),以及其他事务密集型工作负荷。IO-intensive workloads such as SAP HANA, top tier databases (for example, SQL, Oracle), and other transaction-heavy workloads. 生产和性能敏感型工作负荷Production and performance sensitive workloads Web 服务器、不常使用的企业应用程序和开发/测试Web servers, lightly used enterprise applications and dev/test 备份、非关键、不常访问Backup, non-critical, infrequent access
磁盘大小Disk size 65536 gibibyte (GiB)65,536 gibibyte (GiB) 32,767 GiB32,767 GiB 32,767 GiB32,767 GiB 32,767 GiB32,767 GiB
最大吞吐量Max throughput 2000 MiB/秒2,000 MiB/s 900 MiB/秒900 MiB/s 750 MiB/秒750 MiB/s 500 MiB/秒500 MiB/s
最大 IOPSMax IOPS 160,000160,000 20,00020,000 6,0006,000 2,0002,000

超磁盘Ultra disk

Azure ultra 磁盘为 Azure IaaS Vm 提供高吞吐量、高 IOPS 和一致的低延迟磁盘存储。Azure ultra disks deliver high throughput, high IOPS, and consistent low latency disk storage for Azure IaaS VMs. 超磁盘的其他好处包括能够动态地更改磁盘的性能和工作负荷, 而无需重新启动虚拟机。Some additional benefits of ultra disks include the ability to dynamically change the performance of the disk, along with your workloads, without the need to restart your virtual machines. 超磁盘适用于数据密集型工作负荷, 例如 SAP HANA、顶级数据库和事务密集型工作负荷。Ultra disks are suited for data-intensive workloads such as SAP HANA, top tier databases, and transaction-heavy workloads. 超磁盘只能用作数据磁盘。Ultra disks can only be used as data disks. 建议将高级 SSD 用作 OS 磁盘。We recommend using premium SSDs as OS disks.

性能Performance

预配超级磁盘时,可以单独配置磁盘的容量和性能。When you provision an ultra disk, you can independently configure the capacity and the performance of the disk. 超磁盘具有多种固定大小, 范围从 4 GiB 到 64 TiB, 并提供灵活的性能配置模型, 使你能够独立配置 IOPS 和吞吐量。Ultra disks come in several fixed sizes, ranging from 4 GiB up to 64 TiB, and feature a flexible performance configuration model that allows you to independently configure IOPS and throughput.

超磁盘的一些关键功能是:Some key capabilities of ultra disks are:

  • 磁盘容量:超高磁盘容量的范围为 4 GiB 至 64 TiB。Disk capacity: Ultra disks capacity ranges from 4 GiB up to 64 TiB.
  • 磁盘 IOPS:超磁盘支持 300 IOPS/GiB 的 IOPS 限制, 每个磁盘最多可达 160 K IOPS。Disk IOPS: Ultra disks support IOPS limits of 300 IOPS/GiB, up to a maximum of 160 K IOPS per disk. 若要实现预配的 IOPS, 请确保所选磁盘 IOPS 小于 VM IOPS 限制。To achieve the IOPS that you provisioned, ensure that the selected Disk IOPS are less than the VM IOPS limit. 每个磁盘的最小 IOPS 是 2 IOPS/GiB, 整体基线至少为 100 IOPS。The minimum IOPS per disk is 2 IOPS/GiB, with an overall baseline minimum of 100 IOPS. 例如, 如果有4个 GiB 的超磁盘, 则至少需要 100 IOPS, 而不是 8 IOPS。For example, if you had a 4 GiB ultra disk, you will have a minimum of 100 IOPS, instead of 8 IOPS.
  • 磁盘吞吐量:对于超磁盘, 单个磁盘的吞吐量限制为每个预配 IOPS 256 KiB/s, 每个磁盘最大可达 2000 MBps (其中 Mbits = 10 ^ 6 字节/秒)。Disk throughput: With ultra disks, the throughput limit of a single disk is 256 KiB/s for each provisioned IOPS, up to a maximum of 2000 MBps per disk (where MBps = 10^6 Bytes per second). 对于每个预配的 IOPS, 每个磁盘的最小吞吐量为 4KiB/s, 整体基线最小为 1 MBps。The minimum throughput per disk is 4KiB/s for each provisioned IOPS, with an overall baseline minimum of 1 MBps.
  • 超磁盘支持在运行时调整磁盘性能属性 (IOPS 和吞吐量), 而无需从虚拟机中分离该磁盘。Ultra disks support adjusting the disk performance attributes (IOPS and throughput) at runtime without detaching the disk from the virtual machine. 在对磁盘上发出磁盘性能调整大小操作后,更改实际上可能最多需要一个小时才能生效。Once a disk performance resize operation has been issued on a disk, it can take up to an hour for the change to actually take effect.

磁盘大小Disk size

磁盘大小 (GiB)Disk Size (GiB) IOPS 上限IOPS Cap 吞吐量上限 (MBps)Throughput Cap (MBps)
44 1,2001,200 300300
88 2,4002,400 600600
1616 4,8004,800 1,2001,200
3232 9,6009,600 2,0002,000
6464 19,20019,200 2,0002,000
128128 38,40038,400 2,0002,000
256256 76,80076,800 2,0002,000
512512 80,00080,000 2,0002,000
1,024 - 65,536(此范围内的大小以 1 TiB 为增量递增)1,024-65,536 (sizes in this range increasing in increments of 1 TiB) 160,000160,000 2,0002,000

GA 范围和限制GA scope and limitations

目前, 超磁盘有其他限制, 如下所示:For now, ultra disks have additional limitations, they are as follows:

  • 支持在每个区域的两个可用性区域中的美国东部2、东南亚和北欧中Are supported in East US 2, SouthEast Asia, and North Europe, in two availability zones per region
  • 只能在可用性区域中使用(区域外部的可用性集和单一 VM 部署无法附加超级磁盘)Can only be used with availability zones (availability sets and single VM deployments outside of zones will not have the ability to attach an ultra disk)
  • 仅在 ES/DS v3 VM 上受支持Are only supported on ES/DS v3 VMs
  • 只可用作数据磁盘,并且仅支持 4k 物理扇区大小Are only available as data disks and only support 4k physical sector size
  • 只能以空磁盘的形式创建Can only be created as empty disks
  • 尚不支持磁盘快照、VM 映像、可用性集、虚拟机规模集和 Azure 磁盘加密Do not yet support disk snapshots, VM images, availability sets, virtual machine scale sets, and Azure disk encryption
  • 尚不支持与 Azure 备份或 Azure Site Recovery 的集成Do not yet support integration with Azure Backup or Azure Site Recovery

如果要开始使用超磁盘, 请参阅主题的文章:使用 Azure ultra 磁盘If you would like to start using ultra disks, see our article on the subject: Using Azure ultra disks.

高级·SSDPremium SSD

Azure 高级 SSD 为运行输入/输出 (IO) 密集型工作负荷的虚拟机 (VM) 提供高性能、低延迟的磁盘支持。Azure premium SSDs deliver high-performance and low-latency disk support for virtual machines (VMs) with input/output (IO)-intensive workloads. 若要利用高级存储磁盘的速度和性能优势,可将现有的 VM 磁盘迁移到高级 SSD。To take advantage of the speed and performance of premium storage disks, you can migrate existing VM disks to Premium SSDs. 高级 SSD 适用于任务关键型生产应用程序。Premium SSDs are suitable for mission-critical production applications. 高级 Ssd 仅可用于将高级存储兼容的 VM 系列。Premium SSDs can only be used with VM series that are premium storage-compatible.

若要详细了解各种 VM 类型和大小以 Azure 为 Windows,包括的大小高级存储兼容,请参阅Windows VM 大小To learn more about individual VM types and sizes in Azure for Windows, including which sizes are premium storage-compatible, see Windows VM sizes. 若要了解有关各个 VM 类型和在 Azure 中的大小的详细信息对于 Linux,包括的大小高级存储兼容,请参阅Linux VM 大小To learn more about individual VM types and sizes in Azure for Linux, including which sizes are premium storage-compatible, see Linux VM sizes.

磁盘大小Disk size

高级 SSD 大小Premium SSD sizes  P4P4 P6P6 P10P10 P15P15 P20P20 P30P30 P40P40 P50P50 P60P60 P70P70 P80P80
磁盘大小 (GiB)Disk size in GiB 3232 6464 128128 256256 512512 1,0241,024 2,0482,048 4,0964,096 8,1928,192 16,38416,384 32,76732,767
每个磁盘的 IOPSIOPS per disk 最多 120Up to 120 最多 240Up to 240 最多 500Up to 500 最多 1,100Up to 1,100 最多 2,300Up to 2,300 最多 5,000Up to 5,000 最多 7,500Up to 7,500 最多 7,500Up to 7,500 最多 16,000Up to 16,000 最多 18,000Up to 18,000 最多 20,000Up to 20,000
每个磁盘的吞吐量Throughput per disk 最多 25 MiB/秒Up to 25 MiB/sec 最多 50 MiB/秒Up to 50 MiB/sec 最多 100 MiB/秒Up to 100 MiB/sec 最多 125 MiB/秒Up to 125 MiB/sec 最多 150 MiB/秒Up to 150 MiB/sec 最多 200 MiB/秒Up to 200 MiB/sec 最多 250 MiB/秒Up to 250 MiB/sec 最多 250 MiB/秒Up to 250 MiB/sec 最多 500 MiB/秒Up to 500 MiB/sec 最多 750 MiB/秒Up to 750 MiB/sec 最多 900 MiB/秒Up to 900 MiB/sec

预配高级存储磁盘时,可以获得该磁盘的容量、IOPS 和吞吐量保证,这与标准存储不同。When you provision a premium storage disk, unlike standard storage, you are guaranteed the capacity, IOPS, and throughput of that disk. 例如,如果创建 P50 磁盘,Azure 将为此磁盘预配 4,095-GB 存储容量、7,500 IOPS 和 250-MB/秒的吞吐量。For example, if you create a P50 disk, Azure provisions 4,095-GB storage capacity, 7,500 IOPS, and 250-MB/s throughput for that disk. 应用程序可以使用全部或部分容量与性能。Your application can use all or part of the capacity and performance. 高级 SSD 磁盘旨在提供低位数的毫秒级延迟和面向 IOPS 和吞吐量上述表 99.9%的时间中所述。Premium SSD disks are designed to provide low single-digit millisecond latencies and target IOPS and throughput described in the preceding table 99.9% of the time.

事务Transactions

对于高级 Ssd,每个 I/O 操作小于或等于为 256 KiB 吞吐量被视为单个 I/O 操作。For premium SSDs, each I/O operation less than or equal to 256 KiB of throughput is considered a single I/O operation. I/O 的吞吐量大于 256 KiB 操作被视为多个 I/o 大小为 256 KiB。I/O operations larger than 256 KiB of throughput are considered multiple I/Os of size 256 KiB.

标准 SSDStandard SSD

Azure 标准 SSD 是经济高效的存储选项,已针对需要一致性能和较低 IOPS 级别的工作负荷进行优化。Azure standard SSDs are a cost-effective storage option optimized for workloads that need consistent performance at lower IOPS levels. 对于想要迁移到云的用户而言,标准 SSD 提供良好的入门级体验,尤其是在本地 HDD 解决方案中运行各种工作负荷遇到问题时。Standard SSD offers a good entry level experience for those who wish to move to the cloud, especially if you experience issues with the variance of workloads running on your HDD solutions on premises. 标准 Ssd 与标准 Hdd 相比,提供更好的可用性、 一致性、 可靠性和延迟。Compared to standard HDDs, standard SSDs deliver better availability, consistency, reliability, and latency. 标准 SSD 适用于 Web 服务器、低 IOPS 应用程序服务器、较少使用的企业应用程序和开发/测试工作负荷。Standard SSDs are suitable for Web servers, low IOPS application servers, lightly used enterprise applications, and Dev/Test workloads. 与标准 Hdd,标准 SSDs 是可在所有 Azure Vm 上。Like standard HDDs, standard SSDs are available on all Azure VMs.

磁盘大小Disk size

标准 SSD 大小Standard SSD sizes E4E4 E6E6 E10E10 E15E15 E20E20 E30E30 E40E40 E50E50 E60E60 E70E70 E80E80
磁盘大小 (GiB)Disk size in GiB 3232 6464 128128 256256 512512 1,0241,024 2,0482,048 4,0964,096 8,1928,192 16,38416,384 32,76732,767
每个磁盘的 IOPSIOPS per disk 最多 120Up to 120 最多 240Up to 240 最多 500Up to 500 最多 500Up to 500 最多 500Up to 500 最多 500Up to 500 最多 500Up to 500 最多 500Up to 500 最多 2,000Up to 2,000 最多 4,000 个Up to 4,000 最多 6000Up to 6,000
每个磁盘的吞吐量Throughput per disk 最多 25 MiB/秒Up to 25 MiB/sec 最多 50 MiB/秒Up to 50 MiB/sec 最多 60 MiB/秒Up to 60 MiB/sec 最多 60 MiB/秒Up to 60 MiB/sec 最多 60 MiB/秒Up to 60 MiB/sec 最多 60 MiB/秒Up to 60 MiB/sec 最多 60 MiB/秒Up to 60 MiB/sec 最多 60 MiB/秒Up to 60 MiB/sec 最多 400 台 MiB/秒Up to 400 MiB/sec 达 600 个 MiB/秒Up to 600 MiB/sec 最多 750 MiB/秒Up to 750 MiB/sec

标准 Ssd 旨在提供一位数的毫秒级延迟的 IOPS 和吞吐量达到上述表 99%的时间中所述的限制。Standard SSDs are designed to provide single-digit millisecond latencies and the IOPS and throughput up to the limits described in the preceding table 99% of the time. 实际 IOPS 和吞吐量有时根据流量模式而异。Actual IOPS and throughput may vary sometimes depending on the traffic patterns. 相比 HDD 磁盘,标准 SSD 提供更加一致的性能,并且延迟更低。Standard SSDs will provide more consistent performance than the HDD disks with the lower latency.

事务Transactions

对于标准的 Ssd,每个 I/O 操作小于或等于为 256 KiB 吞吐量被视为单个 I/O 操作。For standard SSDs, each I/O operation less than or equal to 256 KiB of throughput is considered a single I/O operation. I/O 的吞吐量大于 256 KiB 操作被视为多个 I/o 大小为 256 KiB。I/O operations larger than 256 KiB of throughput are considered multiple I/Os of size 256 KiB. 这些事务具有计费影响。These transactions have a billing impact.

标准 HDDStandard HDD

Azure 标准 HDD 为运行不区分延迟的工作负荷提供可靠、低成本的磁盘支持。Azure standard HDDs deliver reliable, low-cost disk support for VMs running latency-insensitive workloads. 使用标准存储,将数据存储在硬盘驱动器 (HDD)。With standard storage, the data is stored on hard disk drives (HDDs). 与基于 SSD 的磁盘相比,延迟、 IOPS 和吞吐量的标准 HDD 磁盘可能会更广泛地有所不同。Latency, IOPS and Throughput of Standard HDD disks may vary more widely as compared to SSD-based disks. 标准 HDD 磁盘旨在提供写下 10 毫秒的延迟和读取延迟在 20 毫秒,对于大多数 IO 操作,但是实际性能可能会有所不同,具体取决于 IO 大小和工作负荷模式。Standard HDD Disks are designed to deliver write latencies under 10ms and read latencies under 20ms for most IO operations, however the actual performance may vary depending on the IO size and workload pattern. 时使用的 Vm,可以使用标准 HDD 磁盘,用于开发/测试方案和更低的关键工作负荷。When working with VMs, you can use standard HDD disks for dev/test scenarios and less critical workloads. 标准 Hdd 可在所有 Azure 区域以及可用于所有 Azure Vm。Standard HDDs are available in all Azure regions and can be used with all Azure VMs.

磁盘大小Disk size

标准磁盘类型Standard Disk Type S4S4 S6S6 S10S10 S15S15 S20S20 S30S30 S40S40 S50S50 S60S60 S70S70 S80S80
磁盘大小 (GiB)Disk size in GiB 3232 6464 128128 256256 512512 1,0241,024 2,0482,048 4,0964,096 8,1928,192 16,38416,384 32,76732,767
每个磁盘的 IOPSIOPS per disk 最多 500Up to 500 最多 500Up to 500 最多 500Up to 500 最多 500Up to 500 最多 500Up to 500 最多 500Up to 500 最多 500Up to 500 最多 500Up to 500 最多 1,300Up to 1,300 最多 2,000Up to 2,000 最多 2,000Up to 2,000
每个磁盘的吞吐量Throughput per disk 最多 60 MiB/秒Up to 60 MiB/sec 最多 60 MiB/秒Up to 60 MiB/sec 最多 60 MiB/秒Up to 60 MiB/sec 最多 60 MiB/秒Up to 60 MiB/sec 最多 60 MiB/秒Up to 60 MiB/sec 最多 60 MiB/秒Up to 60 MiB/sec 最多 60 MiB/秒Up to 60 MiB/sec 最多 60 MiB/秒Up to 60 MiB/sec 最多 300 MiB/秒Up to 300 MiB/sec 最多 500 MiB/秒Up to 500 MiB/sec 最多 500 MiB/秒Up to 500 MiB/sec

事务Transactions

对于标准 HDD,每个 IO 操作会被视为单个事务,无论 I/O 大小如何。For Standard HDDs, each IO operation is considered as a single transaction, regardless of the I/O size. 这些事务具有计费影响。These transactions have a billing impact.

计费Billing

使用托管磁盘时,将考虑以下计费事项:When using managed disks, the following billing considerations apply:

  • 磁盘类型Disk type
  • 托管磁盘大小managed disk Size
  • 快照Snapshots
  • 出站数据传输Outbound data transfers
  • 事务数Number of transactions

托管磁盘大小:托管磁盘按预配大小计费。Managed disk size: managed disks are billed on the provisioned size. Azure 将预配大小映射(向上舍入)到所提供的最接近的磁盘大小。Azure maps the provisioned size (rounded up) to the nearest offered disk size. 有关所提供的磁盘大小的详细信息,请参阅前面的表。For details of the disk sizes offered, see the previous tables. 每个磁盘将映射到一种受支持的预配磁盘大小套餐并相应地计费。Each disk maps to a supported provisioned disk size offering and is billed accordingly. 例如,如果预配了 200 GiB 的标准 SSD,它会映射到 E15 的磁盘大小 (256 GiB)。For example, if you provisioned a 200 GiB Standard SSD, it maps to the disk size offer of E15 (256 GiB). 任何预配的磁盘根据每月的高级存储优惠价格按小时计费。Billing for any provisioned disk is prorated hourly by using the monthly price for the Premium Storage offer. 例如,如果在预配 E10 磁盘的 20 小时后删除它,则会以 20 小时计算 E10 产品/服务的费用。For example, if you provisioned an E10 disk and deleted it after 20 hours, you're billed for the E10 offering prorated to 20 hours. 这与写入磁盘的实际数据量无关。This is regardless of the amount of actual data written to the disk.

快照:基于已使用大小对快照计费。Snapshots: Snapshots are billed based on the size used. 例如,如果创建预配容量为 64 GiB 且实际使用数据大小为 10 GiB 的托管磁盘的快照,则仅针对已用数据大小 10 GiB 对该快照计费。For example, if you create a snapshot of a managed disk with provisioned capacity of 64 GiB and actual used data size of 10 GiB, the snapshot is billed only for the used data size of 10 GiB.

有关快照的详细信息,请参阅托管磁盘概述中有关快照的部分。For more information on snapshots, see the section on snapshots in the managed disk overview.

出站数据传输出站数据传输(传出 Azure 数据中心的数据)会产生带宽使用费。Outbound data transfers: Outbound data transfers (data going out of Azure data centers) incur billing for bandwidth usage.

事务:会根据你对标准托管磁盘执行的事务数向你收费。Transactions: You're billed for the number of transactions that you perform on a standard managed disk. 对于标准 SSD,每个小于或等于 256 KiB 吞吐量的 I/O 操作被视为单个 I/O 操作。For standard SSDs, each I/O operation less than or equal to 256 KiB of throughput is considered a single I/O operation. 大于 256 KiB 吞吐量的 I/O 操作被视为大小为 256 KiB 的多个 I/O。I/O operations larger than 256 KiB of throughput are considered multiple I/Os of size 256 KiB. 对于标准 HDD,每个 IO 操作会被视为单个事务,无论 I/O 大小如何。For Standard HDDs, each IO operation is considered as a single transaction, regardless of the I/O size.

有关托管磁盘定价的详细信息(包括事务成本),请参阅托管磁盘定价For detailed information on pricing for Managed Disks, including transaction costs, see Managed Disks Pricing.

超磁盘 VM 保留费用Ultra disk VM reservation fee

Azure Vm 可以指示它们是否与超磁盘兼容。Azure VMs have the capability to indicate if they are compatible with ultra disks. 与超级磁盘兼容的 VM 在计算 VM 实例与块存储缩放单元之间分配专用的带宽容量,以优化性能并降低延迟。An ultra disk compatible VM allocates dedicated bandwidth capacity between the compute VM instance and the block storage scale unit to optimize the performance and reduce latency. 在 VM 上添加此功能会导致预留费用,不过,这笔费用是仅当在 VM 上启用了超级磁盘功能但未将超级磁盘附加到 VM 时才产生的。Adding this capability on the VM results in a reservation charge that is only imposed if you enabled ultra disk capability on the VM without attaching an ultra disk to it. 如果将超级磁盘附加到与超级磁盘兼容的 VM,则不会收取此费用。When an ultra disk is attached to the ultra disk compatible VM, this charge would not be applied. 此费用根据 VM 上预配的每个 vCPU 计收。This charge is per vCPU provisioned on the VM.

有关超高磁盘定价的详细信息, 请参阅Azure 磁盘定价页Refer to the Azure Disks pricing page for ultra disk pricing details.