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预付 Azure 保留的 VM 实例 (RI) 的虚拟机Prepay for Virtual Machines with Azure Reserved VM Instances (RI)

通过 Azure 虚拟机 (VM) 预留实例预付虚拟机并节省资金。Prepay for virtual machines and save money with Azure Reserved Virtual Machine (VM) Instances. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 虚拟机预留实例产品/服务For more information, see Azure Reserved VM Instances offering.

可在 Azure 门户中购买虚拟机预留实例。You can buy a Reserved VM Instance in the Azure portal. 若要购买实例:To buy an instance:

  • 您必须至少一个企业订阅或现用现付费率的订阅的所有者角色。You must be in an Owner role for at least one Enterprise subscription or a subscription with a pay-as-you-go rate.
  • 对于企业订阅,必须在 EA 门户中启用“添加预留实例” 。For Enterprise subscriptions, Add Reserved Instances must be enabled in the EA portal. 或者,如果禁用了该设置,则必须是订阅的 EA 管理员。Or, if that setting is disabled, you must be an EA Admin on the subscription.
  • 对于云解决方案提供商 (CSP) 计划,只有管理员代理或销售代理才能购买预留。For the Cloud Solution Provider (CSP) program, only the admin agents or sales agents can buy reservations.

预订折扣将自动应用于正在运行的与预订范围和属性匹配的虚拟机数量。The reservation discount is applied automatically to the number of running virtual machines that match the reservation scope and attributes. 可以通过 Azure 门户、PowerShell、CLI 或 API 更新预留的范围。You can update the scope of the reservation through Azure portal, PowerShell, CLI, or through the API.

在购买前确定正确的 VM 大小Determine the right VM size before you buy

在购买预订之前,应确定所需的 VM 的大小。Before you buy a reservation, you should determine the size of the VM that you need. 以下部分将帮助你确定适当的 VM 大小。The following sections will help you determine the right VM size.

使用保留的建议Use reservation recommendations

可以使用保留的建议来帮助确定应该购买的预订。You can use reservation recommendations to help determine the reservations you should purchase.

经典虚拟机和云服务Classic VMs and cloud services

虚拟机保留实例会自动将应用于这两个经典 Vm 和云服务,启用实例大小灵活性。Virtual machine reserved instances automatically apply to both classic VMs and cloud services when instance size flexibility is enabled. 没有任何特殊的 Sku 为经典 Vm 或云服务。There aren't any special SKUs for classic VMs or cloud services. 相同的 VM Sku 适用于它们。The same VM SKUs apply to them.

例如,您可能将经典 Vm 或云服务转换为基于 Azure 资源管理器的 Vm。For example, you might convert your classic VMs or cloud services to Azure Resource Manager-based VMs. 在此示例中,预订折扣会自动适用于匹配的 Vm。In this example, the reservation discount automatically applies to matching VMs. 无需exchange现有的保留的实例-它会自动应用。There's no need to exchange an existing reserved instance - it automatically applies.

分析使用情况信息Analyze your usage information

您应分析你的使用情况信息以帮助确定应该购买的预订。You should analyze your usage information to help determine which reservations you should purchase.

使用情况数据目前在使用情况文件和 Api。Usage data is available in the usage file and APIs. 使用它们一起确定要购买的保留。Use them together to determine which reservation to purchase. 您应检查以确定要购买保留数量的每天都能使用率过高的 VM 实例。You should check for VM instances that have high usage on daily basis to determine the quantity of reservations to purchase.

避免Meter子类别和Product使用情况数据中的字段。Avoid the Meter subcategory and Product fields in usage data. 它们不区分使用高级存储的 VM 大小。They don't distinguish between VM sizes that use premium storage. 如果您使用这些字段来确定预订购买的 VM 大小,可能会购买大小有误。If you use these fields to determine the VM size for reservation purchase, you may buy the wrong size. 然后,则不会希望将预订折扣。Then you won't get the reservation discount you expect. 相反,请参阅AdditionalInfo字段中使用情况文件或使用情况 API 来确定正确的 VM 大小。Instead, refer to the AdditionalInfo field in your usage file or usage API to determine the correct VM size.

购买限制注意事项Purchase restriction considerations

保留的 VM 实例都可用于大多数 VM 大小,有一些例外情况。Reserved VM Instances are available for most VM sizes with some exceptions. 预订折扣不适用于以下 Vm:Reservation discounts don't apply for the following VMs:

  • VM 系列-A 系列、 Av2 系列或 G 系列。VM series - A-series, Av2-series, or G-series.

  • 在预览版中的 Vm的任何 VM 系列或大小处于预览状态。VMs in preview - Any VM-series or size that is in preview.

  • -保留项不是可供购买德国或中国区域中。Clouds - Reservations aren't available for purchase in Germany or China regions.

  • 配额不足-预订的范围限定为单个订阅必须具有在新的 RI 的订阅中可用的 vCPU 配额。Insufficient quota - A reservation that is scoped to a single subscription must have vCPU quota available in the subscription for the new RI. 例如,如果目标订阅的配额限制为 10 个 vCPU(适用于 D 系列),则不能为 11 个 Standard_D1 实例购买预留。For example, if the target subscription has a quota limit of 10 vCPUs for D-Series, then you can't buy a reservation for 11 Standard_D1 instances. 虚拟机预留实例的配额检查包括已在订阅中部署的 VM。The quota check for reservations includes the VMs already deployed in the subscription. 例如,如果该订阅的配额为针对 D 系列购买 10 个 vCPU,并且已部署两个 Standard_D1 实例,则可在该订阅中为 10 个 Standard_D1 实例购买预留。For example, if the subscription has a quota of 10 vCPUs for D-Series and has two standard_D1 instances deployed, then you can buy a reservation for 10 standard_D1 instances in this subscription. 你可以引号创建增加请求若要解决此问题。You can create quote increase request to resolve this issue.

  • 容量限制-在极少数情况下,Azure VM 的新的子集的保留项的采购大小,由于在区域中的低容量的限制。Capacity restrictions - In rare circumstances, Azure limits the purchase of new reservations for subset of VM sizes, due to low capacity in a region.

购买虚拟机预留实例Buy a Reserved VM Instance

  1. 登录到 Azure 门户Sign in to the Azure portal.
  2. 选择“所有服务” > “预订” 。Select All services > Reservations.
  3. 选择购买新的保留,然后单击虚拟机Select Add to purchase a new reservation and then click Virtual machine.
  4. 输入必填的字段。Enter required fields. 与所选属性匹配的正在运行的 VM 实例有资格获得预订折扣。Running VM instances that match the attributes you select qualify to get the reservation discount. 实际获得折扣的 VM 实例数取决于所选范围和数量。The actual number of your VM instances that get the discount depend on the scope and quantity selected.
字段Field 描述Description
订阅Subscription 用于支付预订费用的订阅。The subscription used to pay for the reservation. 将向订阅的付款方式收取预订的预付费用。The payment method on the subscription is charged the upfront costs for the reservation. 订阅类型必须是企业协议(产品/服务编号:MS-AZR-0017P 或 MS-条-0148 P) 或单个订阅中的通过即用即付费率 (产品/服务编号:MS-AZR-0003P 或 MS-AZR-0023P)。The subscription type must be an enterprise agreement (offer numbers: MS-AZR-0017P or MS-AZR-0148P) or an individual subscription with pay-as-you-go rates (offer numbers: MS-AZR-0003P or MS-AZR-0023P). 对于企业订阅,从注册的货币承诺余额中扣除费用或作为超额收取费用。For an enterprise subscription, the charges are deducted from the enrollment's monetary commitment balance or charged as overage. 对于现用现付费率使用的订阅,费用将信用卡或发票付款方式的订阅计费。For a subscription with pay-as-you-go rates, the charges are billed to the credit card or invoice payment method on the subscription.
范围Scope 预订的范围可以包含一个订阅或多个订阅(共享范围)。The reservation’s scope can cover one subscription or multiple subscriptions (shared scope). 如果选择:If you select:
  • 单一资源组范围— 将预订折扣应用于在所选的资源组中匹配的资源。Single resource group scope — Applies the reservation discount to the matching resources in the selected resource group only.
  • 单一订阅范围内— 将预订折扣应用于所选订阅中匹配的资源。Single subscription scope — Applies the reservation discount to the matching resources in the selected subscription.
  • 共享范围-预订折扣适用于匹配符合条件的订阅中计费上下文中的资源。Shared scope — Applies the reservation discount to matching resources in eligible subscriptions that are in the billing context. 对于企业协议客户,计费上下文是注册。For Enterprise Agreement customers, the billing context is the enrollment. 对于现用现付费率使用单独的订阅,计费范围是由帐户管理员创建的所有符合条件的订阅。For individual subscriptions with pay-as-you-go rates, the billing scope is all eligible subscriptions created by the account administrator.
区域Region 预订涵盖的 Azure 区域。The Azure region that’s covered by the reservation.
VM 大小VM Size VM 实例的大小。The size of the VM instances.
优化对象Optimize for 默认情况下选择 VM 实例大小灵活性。VM instance size flexibility is selected by default. 单击高级的设置更改实例大小灵活性值可将预订折扣应用到其他 Vm 在同一个VM 大小组Click Advanced settings to change the instance size flexibility value to apply the reservation discount to other VMs in the same VM size group. 容量优先级可以对部署优先使用数据中心容量。Capacity priority prioritizes data center capacity for your deployments. 使你在需要时能够更加有把握地启动 VM 实例。This offers additional confidence in your ability to launch the VM instances when you need them. 仅当预留范围为单个订阅时,容量优先级才可用。Capacity priority is only available when the reservation scope is single subscription.
术语Term 一年或三年。One year or three years.
数量Quantity 预订中购买的实例数。The number of instances being purchased within the reservation. 数量是可以获得计费折扣的正在运行的 VM 实例数。The quantity is the number of running VM instances that can get the billing discount. 例如,如果正在美国东部运行 10 个 Standard_D2 VM,则会将数量指定为 10,以将所有正在运行的虚拟机的权益最大化。For example, if you are running 10 Standard_D2 VMs in the East US, then you would specify quantity as 10 to maximize the benefit for all running machines.

更改预订购买后Change a reservation after purchase

对预订购买后,可以进行以下类型的更改:You can make the following types of changes to a reservation after purchase:

  • 更新预订范围Update reservation scope
  • 实例大小灵活性 (如果适用)Instance size flexibility (if applicable)
  • 所有权Ownership

也可以拆分成较小的区块和合并已拆分预订的保留。You can also split a reservation into smaller chunks and merge already split reservations. 无所做的更改会导致新的商业事务或更改保留的结束日期。None of the changes cause a new commercial transaction or change the end date of the reservation.

您不能直接购买后进行以下类型的更改:You cannot make the following types of changes after purchase, directly:

  • 现有预订的区域An existing reservation’s region
  • SKUSKU
  • 数量Quantity
  • DurationDuration

但是,你可以exchange一个保留项,如果你想要进行更改。However, you can exchange a reservation if you want to make changes.

取消和更换Cancellations and exchanges

如果需要取消预留,可能会产生 12% 的提前终止费。If you need to cancel your reservation, there may be a 12% early termination fee. 退款根据购买价格和当前预留价格中的最低者计算。Refunds are based on the lowest price of either your purchase price or the current price of the reservation. 退款限制为每年 50,000 美元。Refunds are limited to $50,000 per year. 收到的退款为按比例计算出的余额减去 12% 的提前终止费。The refund you receive is the remaining pro-rated balance minus the 12% early termination fee. 若要请求取消,请在 Azure 门户中访问该预留,并选择“退款” 创建支持请求。To request a cancellation, go to the reservation in the Azure portal and select Refund to create a support request.

如果需要将虚拟机预留实例的订购项目更改为其他区域、VM 大小组或期限,可将其交换为价值相同或更高的另一个订购项目。If you need to change your Reserved VM Instances reservation to another region, VM size group, or term, you can exchange it for another reservation that's of equal or greater value. 新订购项目的期限开始日期不是从交换的订购项目延续。The term start date for the new reservation doesn't carry over from the exchanged reservation. 1 年或 3 年期限从创建新订购项目开始算起。The 1 or 3-year term starts from when you create the new reservation. 若要请求交换,请在 Azure 门户中访问该预留,并选择“交换” 创建支持请求。To request an exchange, go to the reservation in the Azure portal, and select Exchange to create a support request.

有关如何对 exchange 或退款保留的详细信息,请参阅保留交换和退款For more information about how to exchange or refund reservations, see Reservation exchanges and refunds.

需要帮助?Need help? 请联系我们。Contact us.

如有任何疑问或需要帮助,请创建支持请求If you have questions or need help, create a support request.

后续步骤Next steps