List<T>.FindAll(Predicate<T>) 方法

定义

检索与指定谓词定义的条件匹配的所有元素。Retrieves all the elements that match the conditions defined by the specified predicate.

public:
 System::Collections::Generic::List<T> ^ FindAll(Predicate<T> ^ match);
public System.Collections.Generic.List<T> FindAll (Predicate<T> match);
member this.FindAll : Predicate<'T> -> System.Collections.Generic.List<'T>
Public Function FindAll (match As Predicate(Of T)) As List(Of T)

参数

match
Predicate<T>

Predicate<T> 委托,用于定义要搜索的元素应满足的条件。The Predicate<T> delegate that defines the conditions of the elements to search for.

返回

List<T>

如果找到一个 List<T>,其中所有元素均与指定谓词定义的条件匹配,则为该数组;否则为一个空 List<T>A List<T> containing all the elements that match the conditions defined by the specified predicate, if found; otherwise, an empty List<T>.

例外

matchnullmatch is null.

示例

下面的示例演示了类的查找方法 List<T>The following example demonstrates the find methods for the List<T> class. 类的示例 List<T> 包含 book 类的对象( Book 使用示例 XML 文件中的数据) :书籍 (LINQ to XML) The example for the List<T> class contains book objects, of class Book, using the data from the Sample XML File: Books (LINQ to XML). FillList该示例中的方法使用LINQ to XML分析从 XML 到对象的属性值的值 bookThe FillList method in the example uses LINQ to XML to parse the values from the XML to property values of the book objects.

下表介绍了为 find 方法提供的示例。The following table describes the examples provided for the find methods.

方法Method 示例Example
Find(Predicate<T>) 使用谓词委托按 ID 查找书籍 IDToFindFinds a book by an ID using the IDToFind predicate delegate.

C # 示例使用匿名委托。C# example uses an anonymous delegate.
FindAll(Predicate<T>) Genre使用谓词委托查找其属性为 "Computer" 的所有书籍 FindComputerFind all books that whose Genre property is "Computer" using the FindComputer predicate delegate.
FindLast(Predicate<T>) 使用谓词委托查找集合中其发布日期早于2001的最后一本书 PubBefore2001Finds the last book in the collection that has a publish date before 2001, using the PubBefore2001 predicate delegate.

C # 示例使用匿名委托。C# example uses an anonymous delegate.
FindIndex(Predicate<T>) 使用谓词委托查找第一台计算机的索引 FindComputerFinds the index of first computer book using the FindComputer predicate delegate.
FindLastIndex(Predicate<T>) 使用谓词委托查找最后一台计算机的索引 FindComputerFinds the index of the last computer book using the FindComputer predicate delegate.
FindIndex(Int32, Int32, Predicate<T>) 使用谓词委托查找集合的第二部分中第一台计算机书籍的索引 FindComputerFinds the index of first computer book in the second half of the collection, using the FindComputer predicate delegate.
FindLastIndex(Int32, Int32, Predicate<T>) 使用谓词委托查找集合的后半部分中的最后一台计算机的索引 FindComputerFinds the index of last computer book in the second half of the collection, using the FindComputer predicate delegate.
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Xml.Linq;

namespace Find
{
    class Program
    {
        private static string IDtoFind = "bk109";

        private static List<Book> Books = new List<Book>();
        public static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            FillList();

            // Find a book by its ID.
            Book result = Books.Find(
            delegate(Book bk)
            {
                return bk.ID == IDtoFind;
            }
            );
            if (result != null)
            {
                DisplayResult(result, "Find by ID: " + IDtoFind);
            }
            else
            {
                Console.WriteLine("\nNot found: {0}", IDtoFind);
            }

            // Find last book in collection published before 2001.
            result = Books.FindLast(
            delegate(Book bk)
            {
                DateTime year2001 = new DateTime(2001,01,01);
                return bk.Publish_date < year2001;
            });
            if (result != null)
            {
                DisplayResult(result, "Last book in collection published before 2001:");
            }
            else
            {
                Console.WriteLine("\nNot found: {0}", IDtoFind);
            }

            // Find all computer books.
            List<Book> results = Books.FindAll(FindComputer);
            if (results.Count != 0)
            {
                DisplayResults(results, "All computer:");
            }
            else
            {
                Console.WriteLine("\nNo books found.");
            }

            // Find all books under $10.00.
            results = Books.FindAll(
            delegate(Book bk)
            {
                return bk.Price < 10.00;
            }
            );
            if (results.Count != 0)
            {
                DisplayResults(results, "Books under $10:");
            }
            else
            {
                Console.WriteLine("\nNo books found.");
            }

            // Find index values.
            Console.WriteLine();
            int ndx = Books.FindIndex(FindComputer);
            Console.WriteLine("Index of first computer book: {0}", ndx);
            ndx = Books.FindLastIndex(FindComputer);
            Console.WriteLine("Index of last computer book: {0}", ndx);

            int mid = Books.Count / 2;
            ndx = Books.FindIndex(mid, mid, FindComputer);
            Console.WriteLine("Index of first computer book in the second half of the collection: {0}", ndx);

            ndx = Books.FindLastIndex(Books.Count - 1, mid, FindComputer);
            Console.WriteLine("Index of last computer book in the second half of the collection: {0}", ndx);
        }

        // Populates the list with sample data.
        private static void FillList()
        {

            // Create XML elements from a source file.
            XElement xTree = XElement.Load(@"c:\temp\books.xml");

            // Create an enumerable collection of the elements.
            IEnumerable<XElement> elements = xTree.Elements();

            // Evaluate each element and set set values in the book object.
            foreach (XElement el in elements)
            {
                Book book = new Book();
                book.ID = el.Attribute("id").Value;
                IEnumerable<XElement> props = el.Elements();
                foreach (XElement p in props)
                {

                    if (p.Name.ToString().ToLower() == "author")
                    {
                        book.Author = p.Value;
                    }
                    else if (p.Name.ToString().ToLower() == "title")
                    {
                        book.Title = p.Value;
                    }
                    else if (p.Name.ToString().ToLower() == "genre")
                    {
                        book.Genre = p.Value;
                    }
                    else if (p.Name.ToString().ToLower() == "price")
                    {
                        book.Price = Convert.ToDouble(p.Value);
                    }
                    else if (p.Name.ToString().ToLower() == "publish_date")
                    {
                        book.Publish_date = Convert.ToDateTime(p.Value);
                    }
                    else if (p.Name.ToString().ToLower() == "description")
                    {
                        book.Description = p.Value;
                    }
                }

                Books.Add(book);
            }

            DisplayResults(Books, "All books:");
        }

        // Explicit predicate delegate.
        private static bool FindComputer(Book bk)
        {

            if (bk.Genre == "Computer")
            {
                return true;
            }
        else
            {
                return false;
            }
        }

        private static void DisplayResult(Book result, string title)
        {
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine(title);
            Console.WriteLine("\n{0}\t{1}\t{2}\t{3}\t{4}\t{5}", result.ID,
                result.Author, result.Title, result.Genre, result.Price,
                result.Publish_date.ToShortDateString());
            Console.WriteLine();
        }

        private static void DisplayResults(List<Book> results, string title)
        {
            Console.WriteLine();
            Console.WriteLine(title);
            foreach (Book b in results)
            {

                Console.Write("\n{0}\t{1}\t{2}\t{3}\t{4}\t{5}", b.ID,
                    b.Author, b.Title, b.Genre, b.Price,
                    b.Publish_date.ToShortDateString());
            }
            Console.WriteLine();
        }
    }

    public class Book
    {
        public string ID { get; set; }
        public string Author { get; set; }
        public string Title { get; set; }
        public string Genre { get; set; }
        public double Price { get; set; }
        public DateTime Publish_date { get; set; }
        public string Description { get; set; }
    }
}
Imports System.Collections.Generic
Imports System.Linq
Imports System.Xml.Linq
Module Module1

    Private IDToFind As String = "bk109"

    Public Books As New List(Of Book)


    Sub Main()

        FillList()

        ' Find a book by its ID.
        Dim result As Book = Books.Find(AddressOf FindID)
        If result IsNot Nothing Then
            DisplayResult(result, "Find by ID: " & IDToFind)
        Else

            Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf & "Not found: " & IDToFind)
        End If
        Console.WriteLine()

        ' Find last book in collection that has a publish date before 2001.
        result = Books.FindLast(AddressOf PubBefore2001)
        If result IsNot Nothing Then
            DisplayResult(result, "Last book in collection published before 2001:")
        Else
            Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf & "Not found: " & IDToFind)
        End If
        Console.WriteLine()

        ' Find all computer books.
        Dim results As List(Of Book) = Books.FindAll(AddressOf FindComputer)
        If results.Count <> 0 Then
            DisplayResults(results, "All computer books:")
        Else
            Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf & "No books found.")
        End If
        Console.WriteLine()


        ' Find all books under $10.00.
        results = Books.FindAll(AddressOf FindUnderTen)
        If results.Count <> 0 Then
            DisplayResults(results, "Books under $10:")
        Else
            Console.WriteLine(vbCrLf & "No books found.")
        End If
        Console.WriteLine()

        ' Find index values.
        Console.WriteLine()
        Dim ndx As Integer = Books.FindIndex(AddressOf FindComputer)
        Console.WriteLine("Index of first computer book: " & ndx)
        ndx = Books.FindLastIndex(AddressOf FindComputer)
        Console.WriteLine("Index of last computer book: " & ndx)

        Dim mid As Integer = Books.Count / 2
        ndx = Books.FindIndex(mid, mid, AddressOf FindComputer)
        Console.WriteLine("Index of first computer book in the second half of the collection: " & ndx)



        ndx = Books.FindLastIndex(Books.Count - 1, mid, AddressOf FindComputer)
        Console.WriteLine("Index of last computer book in the second half of the collection: " & ndx)


    End Sub



    Private Sub FillList()

        ' Create XML elements from a source file.
        Dim xTree As XElement = XElement.Load("c:\temp\books.xml")

        ' Create an enumerable collection of the elements.
        Dim elements As IEnumerable(Of XElement) = xTree.Elements

        ' Evaluate each element and set values in the book object.
        For Each el As XElement In elements
            Dim Book As New Book()
            Book.ID = el.Attribute("id").Value
            Dim props As IEnumerable(Of XElement) = el.Elements
            For Each p As XElement In props
                If p.Name.ToString.ToLower = "author" Then
                    Book.Author = p.Value
                End If
                If p.Name.ToString.ToLower = "title" Then
                    Book.Title = p.Value
                End If
                If p.Name.ToString.ToLower = "genre" Then
                    Book.Genre = p.Value
                End If
                If p.Name.ToString.ToLower = "price" Then
                    Book.Price = Convert.ToDouble(p.Value)
                End If
                If p.Name.ToString.ToLower = "publish_date" Then
                    Book.Publish_date = Convert.ToDateTime(p.Value)
                End If
                If p.Name.ToString.ToLower = "description" Then
                    Book.Description = p.Value
                End If
            Next
            Books.Add(Book)
        Next

        DisplayResults(Books, "All books:")
        Console.WriteLine()

    End Sub

    ' Predicate delegates for
    ' Find and FindAll methods.
    Private Function FindID(ByVal bk As Book) As Boolean
        If bk.ID = IDToFind Then
            Return True
        Else
            Return False
        End If
    End Function
    Private Function FindComputer(ByVal bk As Book) As Boolean
        If bk.Genre = "Computer" Then
            Return True
        Else
            Return False
        End If
    End Function
    Private Function FindUnderTen(ByVal bk As Book) As Boolean
        Dim tendollars As Double = 10.0
        If bk.Price < tendollars Then
            Return True
        Else
            Return False
        End If
    End Function
    Private Function PubBefore2001(ByVal bk As Book) As Boolean
        Dim year2001 As DateTime = New DateTime(2001, 1, 1)
        Return bk.Publish_date < year2001
    End Function
    Private Sub DisplayResult(ByVal result As Book, ByVal title As String)
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine(title)
        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & result.ID & vbTab & result.Author & _
                          vbTab & result.Title & vbTab & result.Genre & _
                          vbTab & result.Publish_date & vbTab & result.Price)
        Console.WriteLine()
    End Sub
    Private Sub DisplayResults(ByVal results As List(Of Book), ByVal title As String)
        Console.WriteLine()
        Console.WriteLine(title)
        For Each b As Book In results
            Console.Write(vbLf & b.ID & vbTab & b.Author & _
                              vbTab & b.Title & vbTab & b.Genre & _
                              vbTab & b.Publish_date & vbTab & b.Price)
        Next
        Console.WriteLine()
    End Sub

    Public Class Book
        Public ID As String
        Public Author As String
        Public Title As String
        Public Genre As String
        Public Price As Double
        Public Publish_date As DateTime
        Public Description As String
    End Class


End Module

注解

Predicate<T>是一个方法委托, true 如果传递给它的对象与委托中定义的条件相匹配,则它将返回。The Predicate<T> is a delegate to a method that returns true if the object passed to it matches the conditions defined in the delegate. 将当前的元素 List<T> 分别传递到 Predicate<T> 委托,并将与条件相匹配的元素保存在返回的中 List<T>The elements of the current List<T> are individually passed to the Predicate<T> delegate, and the elements that match the conditions are saved in the returned List<T>.

此方法执行线性搜索;因此,此方法是 O (n) 操作,其中 nCountThis method performs a linear search; therefore, this method is an O(n) operation, where n is Count.

适用于

另请参阅