Comparison<T> 委托

定义

表示比较同一类型的两个对象的方法。Represents the method that compares two objects of the same type.

generic <typename T>
public delegate int Comparison(T x, T y);
public delegate int Comparison<in T>(T x, T y);
type Comparison<'T> = delegate of 'T * 'T -> int
Public Delegate Function Comparison(Of In T)(x As T, y As T) As Integer 

类型参数

T

要比较的对象的类型。The type of the objects to compare.

参数

x

要比较的第一个对象。The first object to compare.

y

要比较的第二个对象。The second object to compare.

返回值

Int32

一个有符号整数,指示 xy 的相对值,如下表所示。A signed integer that indicates the relative values of x and y, as shown in the following table.

Value 含义Meaning
小于 0Less than 0 x 小于 yx is less than y.
00 x 等于 yx equals y.
大于 0Greater than 0 x 大于 yx is greater than y.
继承
Comparison<T>

示例

下面的代码示例演示如何将Comparison<T>委托Sort(Comparison<T>)与方法重载一起使用。The following code example demonstrates the use of the Comparison<T> delegate with the Sort(Comparison<T>) method overload.

此代码示例定义了一个名为CompareDinosByLength的字符串的替代比较方法。The code example defines an alternative comparison method for strings, named CompareDinosByLength. 此方法的工作方式如下:首先, 对这些比较的值null进行测试, 并将空引用视为小于非空引用。This method works as follows: First, the comparands are tested for null, and a null reference is treated as less than a non-null. 其次, 比较字符串长度, 较长的字符串被认为更大。Second, the string lengths are compared, and the longer string is deemed to be greater. 第三, 如果长度相等, 则使用普通字符串比较。Third, if the lengths are equal, ordinary string comparison is used.

List<T>创建一个字符串, 并以无特定顺序填充四个字符串。A List<T> of strings is created and populated with four strings, in no particular order. 此列表还包括一个空字符串和一个空引用。The list also includes an empty string and a null reference. 显示列表, 使用Comparison<T> CompareDinosByLength表示方法的泛型委托进行排序, 并再次显示。The list is displayed, sorted using a Comparison<T> generic delegate representing the CompareDinosByLength method, and displayed again.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;

int CompareDinosByLength(String^ x, String^ y)
{
    if (x == nullptr)
    {
        if (y == nullptr)
        {
            // If x is null and y is null, they're
            // equal. 
            return 0;
        }
        else
        {
            // If x is null and y is not null, y
            // is greater. 
            return -1;
        }
    }
    else
    {
        // If x is not null...
        //
        if (y == nullptr)
            // ...and y is null, x is greater.
        {
            return 1;
        }
        else
        {
            // ...and y is not null, compare the 
            // lengths of the two strings.
            //
            int retval = x->Length.CompareTo(y->Length);

            if (retval != 0)
            {
                // If the strings are not of equal length,
                // the longer string is greater.
                //
                return retval;
            }
            else
            {
                // If the strings are of equal length,
                // sort them with ordinary string comparison.
                //
                return x->CompareTo(y);
            }
        }
    }
};

void Display(List<String^>^ list)
{
    Console::WriteLine();
    for each(String^ s in list)
    {
        if (s == nullptr)
            Console::WriteLine("(null)");
        else
            Console::WriteLine("\"{0}\"", s);
    }
};

void main()
{
    List<String^>^ dinosaurs = gcnew List<String^>();
    dinosaurs->Add("Pachycephalosaurus");
    dinosaurs->Add("Amargasaurus");
    dinosaurs->Add("");
    dinosaurs->Add(nullptr);
    dinosaurs->Add("Mamenchisaurus");
    dinosaurs->Add("Deinonychus");
    Display(dinosaurs);

    Console::WriteLine("\nSort with generic Comparison<String^> delegate:");
    dinosaurs->Sort(
        gcnew Comparison<String^>(CompareDinosByLength));
    Display(dinosaurs);

}

/* This code example produces the following output:

"Pachycephalosaurus"
"Amargasaurus"
""
(null)
"Mamenchisaurus"
"Deinonychus"

Sort with generic Comparison<String^> delegate:

(null)
""
"Deinonychus"
"Amargasaurus"
"Mamenchisaurus"
"Pachycephalosaurus"
 */
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;

public class Example
{
    private static int CompareDinosByLength(string x, string y)
    {
        if (x == null)
        {
            if (y == null)
            {
                // If x is null and y is null, they're
                // equal. 
                return 0;
            }
            else
            {
                // If x is null and y is not null, y
                // is greater. 
                return -1;
            }
        }
        else
        {
            // If x is not null...
            //
            if (y == null)
                // ...and y is null, x is greater.
            {
                return 1;
            }
            else
            {
                // ...and y is not null, compare the 
                // lengths of the two strings.
                //
                int retval = x.Length.CompareTo(y.Length);

                if (retval != 0)
                {
                    // If the strings are not of equal length,
                    // the longer string is greater.
                    //
                    return retval;
                }
                else
                {
                    // If the strings are of equal length,
                    // sort them with ordinary string comparison.
                    //
                    return x.CompareTo(y);
                }
            }
        }
    }

    public static void Main()
    {
        List<string> dinosaurs = new List<string>();
        dinosaurs.Add("Pachycephalosaurus");
        dinosaurs.Add("Amargasaurus");
        dinosaurs.Add("");
        dinosaurs.Add(null);
        dinosaurs.Add("Mamenchisaurus");
        dinosaurs.Add("Deinonychus");
        Display(dinosaurs);

        Console.WriteLine("\nSort with generic Comparison<string> delegate:");
        dinosaurs.Sort(CompareDinosByLength);
        Display(dinosaurs);

    }

    private static void Display(List<string> list)
    {
        Console.WriteLine();
        foreach( string s in list )
        {
            if (s == null)
                Console.WriteLine("(null)");
            else
                Console.WriteLine("\"{0}\"", s);
        }
    }
}

/* This code example produces the following output:

"Pachycephalosaurus"
"Amargasaurus"
""
(null)
"Mamenchisaurus"
"Deinonychus"

Sort with generic Comparison<string> delegate:

(null)
""
"Deinonychus"
"Amargasaurus"
"Mamenchisaurus"
"Pachycephalosaurus"
 */
Imports System.Collections.Generic

Public Class Example

    Private Shared Function CompareDinosByLength( _
        ByVal x As String, ByVal y As String) As Integer

        If x Is Nothing Then
            If y Is Nothing Then 
                ' If x is Nothing and y is Nothing, they're
                ' equal. 
                Return 0
            Else
                ' If x is Nothing and y is not Nothing, y
                ' is greater. 
                Return -1
            End If
        Else
            ' If x is not Nothing...
            '
            If y Is Nothing Then
                ' ...and y is Nothing, x is greater.
                Return 1
            Else
                ' ...and y is not Nothing, compare the 
                ' lengths of the two strings.
                '
                Dim retval As Integer = _
                    x.Length.CompareTo(y.Length)

                If retval <> 0 Then 
                    ' If the strings are not of equal length,
                    ' the longer string is greater.
                    '
                    Return retval
                Else
                    ' If the strings are of equal length,
                    ' sort them with ordinary string comparison.
                    '
                    Return x.CompareTo(y)
                End If
            End If
        End If

    End Function

    Public Shared Sub Main()

        Dim dinosaurs As New List(Of String)
        dinosaurs.Add("Pachycephalosaurus")
        dinosaurs.Add("Amargasaurus")
        dinosaurs.Add("")
        dinosaurs.Add(Nothing)
        dinosaurs.Add("Mamenchisaurus")
        dinosaurs.Add("Deinonychus")
        Display(dinosaurs)

        Console.WriteLine(vbLf & "Sort with generic Comparison(Of String) delegate:")
        dinosaurs.Sort(AddressOf CompareDinosByLength)
        Display(dinosaurs)

    End Sub

    Private Shared Sub Display(ByVal lis As List(Of String))
        Console.WriteLine()
        For Each s As String In lis
            If s Is Nothing Then
                Console.WriteLine("(Nothing)")
            Else
                Console.WriteLine("""{0}""", s)
            End If
        Next
    End Sub
End Class

' This code example produces the following output:
'
'"Pachycephalosaurus"
'"Amargasaurus"
'""
'(Nothing)
'"Mamenchisaurus"
'"Deinonychus"
'
'Sort with generic Comparison(Of String) delegate:
'
'(Nothing)
'""
'"Deinonychus"
'"Amargasaurus"
'"Mamenchisaurus"
'"Pachycephalosaurus"

下面的示例使用Comparison<T>委托对CityInfo对象集合的元素进行排序。The following example uses the Comparison<T> delegate to sort the elements of a collection of CityInfo objects. CityInfo是应用程序定义的类, 包含有关城市及其人口的信息。CityInfo is an application-defined class that contains information about a city and its population. 该示例定义了三种CompareByName方法CompareByPopulation:、 CompareByNames和, 它们提供了三种不同的CityInfo顺序对对象进行排序。The example defines three methods, CompareByName, CompareByPopulation, and CompareByNames, that offer three different ways of ordering the CityInfo objects. 每个方法都分配comparisonArray.Sort<T>(T[], Comparison<T>)方法的参数。Each method is assigned to the comparison argument of the Array.Sort<T>(T[], Comparison<T>) method.

using System;

public class CityInfo
{
   string cityName;
   string countryName;
   int pop2010;
   
   public CityInfo(string name, string country, int pop2010)
   {
      this.cityName = name;
      this.countryName = country;
      this.pop2010 = pop2010;
   }
   
   public string City
   { get { return this.cityName; } } 
   
   public string Country
   { get { return this.countryName; } }

   public int Population
   { get { return this.pop2010; } }
   
   public static int CompareByName(CityInfo city1, CityInfo city2)
   { 
      return String.Compare(city1.City, city2.City);
   }
   
   public static int CompareByPopulation(CityInfo city1, CityInfo city2)
   {
      return city1.Population.CompareTo(city2.Population);
   }
   
   public static int CompareByNames(CityInfo city1, CityInfo city2)
   {
      return String.Compare(city1.Country + city1.City, city2.Country + city2.City);
   }      
}

public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      CityInfo NYC = new CityInfo("New York City", "United States of America", 8175133 );
      CityInfo Det = new CityInfo("Detroit", "United States of America", 713777);
      CityInfo Paris = new CityInfo("Paris", "France",  2193031);
      CityInfo[] cities = { NYC, Det, Paris };
      // Display ordered array.
      DisplayArray(cities);
      
      // Sort array by city name.
      Array.Sort(cities, CityInfo.CompareByName);
      DisplayArray(cities);
      
      // Sort array by population.
      Array.Sort(cities, CityInfo.CompareByPopulation);
      DisplayArray(cities);
      
      // Sort array by country + city name.
      Array.Sort(cities, CityInfo.CompareByNames);
      DisplayArray(cities);
   }
   
   private static void DisplayArray(CityInfo[] cities)
   {
      Console.WriteLine("{0,-20} {1,-25} {2,10}", "City", "Country", "Population");
      foreach (var city in cities)
         Console.WriteLine("{0,-20} {1,-25} {2,10:N0}", city.City, 
                           city.Country, city.Population);

      Console.WriteLine();
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//     City                 Country                   Population
//     New York City        United States of America   8,175,133
//     Detroit              United States of America     713,777
//     Paris                France                     2,193,031
//     
//     City                 Country                   Population
//     Detroit              United States of America     713,777
//     New York City        United States of America   8,175,133
//     Paris                France                     2,193,031
//     
//     City                 Country                   Population
//     Detroit              United States of America     713,777
//     Paris                France                     2,193,031
//     New York City        United States of America   8,175,133
//     
//     City                 Country                   Population
//     Paris                France                     2,193,031
//     Detroit              United States of America     713,777
//     New York City        United States of America   8,175,133
Public Class CityInfo
   Dim cityName As String
   Dim countryName As String
   Dim pop2010 As Integer
   
   Public Sub New(name As String, country As String, pop2010 As Integer)
      Me.cityName = name
      Me.countryName = country
      Me.pop2010 = pop2010
   End Sub
   
   Public ReadOnly Property City As String
      Get
         Return Me.cityName
      End Get
   End Property
   
   Public ReadOnly Property Country As String
      Get
         Return Me.countryName
      End Get
   End Property
   
   Public ReadOnly Property Population As Integer
      Get
         Return Me.pop2010
      End Get   
   End Property
   
   Public Shared Function CompareByName(city1 As CityInfo, city2 As CityInfo) As Integer
      Return String.Compare(city1.City, city2.City)
   End Function
   
   Public Shared Function CompareByPopulation(city1 As CityInfo, city2 As CityInfo) As Integer
      Return city1.Population.CompareTo(city2.Population)
   End Function
   
   Public Shared Function CompareByNames(city1 As CityInfo, city2 As CityInfo) As Integer
      Return String.Compare(city1.Country + city1.City, city2.Country + city2.City)
   End Function   
End Class

Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim NYC As New CityInfo("New York City", "United States of America", 8175133)
      Dim Det As New CityInfo("Detroit", "United States of America", 713777)
      Dim Paris As New CityInfo("Paris", "France", 2193031)
      Dim cities As CityInfo() = { NYC, Det, Paris }
      ' Display ordered array.
      DisplayArray(cities)
      
      ' Sort array by city name.
      Array.Sort(cities, AddressOf CityInfo.CompareByName)
      DisplayArray(cities)
      
      ' Sort array by population.
      Array.Sort(cities, AddressOf CityInfo.CompareByPopulation)
      DisplayArray(cities)
      
      ' Sort array by country + city name.
      Array.Sort(cities, AddressOf CityInfo.CompareByNames)
      DisplayArray(cities)
   End Sub
   
   Private Sub DisplayArray(cities() As CityInfo)
      Console.WriteLine("{0,-20} {1,-25} {2,10}", "City", "Country/Region", "Population")
      For Each city In cities
         Console.WriteLine("{0,-20} {1,-25} {2,10:N0}", city.City, city.Country, city.Population)
      Next
      Console.WriteLine()
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays the following output:
'     City                 Country/Region            Population
'     New York City        United States of America   8,175,133
'     Detroit              United States of America     713,777
'     Paris                France                     2,193,031
'     
'     City                 Country/Region            Population
'     Detroit              United States of America     713,777
'     New York City        United States of America   8,175,133
'     Paris                France                     2,193,031
'     
'     City                 Country/Region            Population
'     Detroit              United States of America     713,777
'     Paris                France                     2,193,031
'     New York City        United States of America   8,175,133
'     
'     City                 Country/Region            Population
'     Paris                France                     2,193,031
'     Detroit              United States of America     713,777
'     New York City        United States of America   8,175,133

注解

该类的Sort<T>(T[], Comparison<T>)方法重载Sort(Comparison<T>) List<T>以及类的方法重载使用此委托对数组或列表的元素进行排序。 ArrayThis delegate is used by the Sort<T>(T[], Comparison<T>) method overload of the Array class and the Sort(Comparison<T>) method overload of the List<T> class to sort the elements of an array or list.

扩展方法

GetMethodInfo(Delegate)

获取指示指定委托表示的方法的对象。Gets an object that represents the method represented by the specified delegate.

适用于

另请参阅