TypeInitializationException 类

定义

作为类初始值设定项引发的异常的包装器而引发的异常。The exception that is thrown as a wrapper around the exception thrown by the class initializer. 此类不能被继承。This class cannot be inherited.

public ref class TypeInitializationException sealed : SystemException
[System.Runtime.InteropServices.ComVisible(true)]
[System.Serializable]
public sealed class TypeInitializationException : SystemException
type TypeInitializationException = class
    inherit SystemException
Public NotInheritable Class TypeInitializationException
Inherits SystemException
继承
TypeInitializationException
属性

注解

当类初始值设定项初始化类型失败时,将创建一个 TypeInitializationException,并向其传递对由该类型的类初始值设定项引发的异常的引用。When a class initializer fails to initialize a type, a TypeInitializationException is created and passed a reference to the exception thrown by the type's class initializer. InnerExceptionTypeInitializationException属性包含基础异常。The InnerException property of TypeInitializationException holds the underlying exception.

通常情况下TypeInitializationException , 异常反映灾难性条件 (运行时无法实例化类型), 这会阻止应用程序继续。Typically, the TypeInitializationException exception reflects a catastrophic condition (the runtime is unable to instantiate a type) that prevents an application from continuing. 最常见的TypeInitializationException情况是, 在应用程序的执行环境中发生某些更改时引发。Most commonly, the TypeInitializationException is thrown in response to some change in the executing environment of the application. 因此, 除了故障排除调试代码外, 不应在try catch块中/处理异常。Consequently, other than possibly for troubleshooting debug code, the exception should not be handled in a try/catch block. 相反, 应调查并消除异常的原因。Instead, the cause of the exception should be investigated and eliminated.

TypeInitializationException使用 COR_E_TYPEINITIALIZATION 值为0x80131534 的 HRESULT。TypeInitializationException uses the HRESULT COR_E_TYPEINITIALIZATION, which has the value 0x80131534.

有关实例的初始属性值的列表TypeInitializationException,请参阅TypeInitializationException构造函数。For a list of initial property values for an instance of TypeInitializationException, see the TypeInitializationException constructors.

以下各节描述了引发TypeInitializationException异常的一些情况。The following sections describe some of the situations in which a TypeInitializationException exception is thrown.

静态构造函数和 System.typeinitializationexceptionStatic constructors and the TypeInitializationException

静态构造函数 (如果存在) 在创建类型的新实例之前由运行时自动调用。A static constructor, if one exists, is called automatically by the runtime before creating a new instance of a type. 静态构造函数可以由开发人员显式定义。Static constructors can be explicitly defined by a developer. 如果未显式定义静态构造函数, 则编译器会自动创建一个构造函数static以初始化C#该类型Shared的任何 (在中) 或 (在 Visual Basic 中) 成员。If a static constructor is not explicitly defined, compilers automatically create one to initialize any static (in C#) or Shared (in Visual Basic) members of the type. 有关静态构造函数的详细信息, 请参阅静态构造函数For more information on static constructors, see Static Constructors.

通常, 当静态TypeInitializationException构造函数无法实例化类型时, 将引发异常。Most commonly, a TypeInitializationException exception is thrown when a static constructor is unable to instantiate a type. InnerException属性指示静态构造函数无法实例化类型的原因。The InnerException property indicates why the static constructor was unable to instantiate the type. TypeInitializationException异常的一些更常见的原因如下:Some of the more common causes of a TypeInitializationException exception are:

  • 静态构造函数中出现未经处理的异常An unhandled exception in a static constructor

    如果在静态构造函数中引发异常, 则会将该异常包装在TypeInitializationException异常中, 并且无法实例化该类型。If an exception is thrown in a static constructor, that exception is wrapped in a TypeInitializationException exception, and the type cannot be instantiated.

    通常导致此异常难以解决的问题是: 静态构造函数并不总是在源代码中显式定义。What often makes this exception difficult to troubleshoot is that static constructors are not always explicitly defined in source code. 如果存在以下情况, 则类型中存在静态构造函数:A static constructor exists in a type if:

    • 它已显式定义为类型的成员。It has been explicitly defined as a member of a type.

    • 该类型static在单个语句中声明Shared和初始化的 (in C#) 或 (in Visual Basic) 变量。The type has static (in C#) or Shared (in Visual Basic) variables that are declared and initialized in a single statement. 在这种情况下, 语言编译器将为该类型生成静态构造函数。In this case, the language compiler generates a static constructor for the type. 可以通过使用实用程序 (如IL 拆装器) 进行检查。You can inspect it by using a utility such as IL Disassembler. 例如, 当C#和 VB 编译器编译以下示例时, 它们将为类似于以下内容的静态构造函数生成 IL:For instance, when the C# and VB compilers compile the following example, they generate the IL for a static constructor that is similar to this:

    .method private specialname rtspecialname static   
             void  .cctor() cil managed  
    {  
       // Code size       12 (0xc)  
       .maxstack  8  
       IL_0000:  ldc.i4.3  
       IL_0001:  newobj     instance void TestClass::.ctor(int32)  
       IL_0006:  stsfld     class TestClass Example::test  
       IL_000b:  ret  
    } // end of method Example::.cctor  
    

    下面的示例演示TypeInitializationException由编译器生成的静态构造函数引发的异常。The following example shows a TypeInitializationException exception thrown by a compiler-generated static constructor. C# Shared类包含类型为TestClass的 (在中) 或 (在 Visual Basic 中) 字段, 该字段通过将值3传递到其类构造函数进行实例化。 static ExampleThe Example class includes a static (in C#) or Shared (in Visual Basic) field of type TestClass that is instantiated by passing a value of 3 to its class constructor. 然而, 此值是非法的;只允许值0或1。That value, however, is illegal; only values of 0 or 1 are permitted. 因此, TestClass类构造函数会ArgumentOutOfRangeException引发。As a result, the TestClass class constructor throws an ArgumentOutOfRangeException. 由于不处理此异常, 因此它将被包装在TypeInitializationException异常中。Since this exception is not handled, it is wrapped in a TypeInitializationException exception.

    using System;
    
    public class Example
    {
       private static TestClass test = new TestClass(3);
       
       public static void Main()
       {
          Example ex = new Example();
          Console.WriteLine(test.Value);
       }
    }
    
    public class TestClass
    {
       public readonly int Value;
       
       public TestClass(int value)
       {
          if (value < 0 || value > 1) throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException();
          Value = value;
       }
    }
    // The example displays the following output:
    //    Unhandled Exception: System.TypeInitializationException: 
    //       The type initializer for 'Example' threw an exception. ---> 
    //       System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException: Specified argument was out of the range of valid values.
    //       at TestClass..ctor(Int32 value)
    //       at Example..cctor()
    //       --- End of inner exception stack trace ---
    //       at Example.Main()
    
    Public Class Example
       Shared test As New TestClass(3)
       
       Public Shared Sub Main()
          Dim ex As New Example()
          Console.WriteLine(test.Value)
       End Sub
    End Class
    
    Public Class TestClass
       Public ReadOnly Value As Integer
       
       Public Sub New(value As Integer)
          If value < 0 Or value > 1 Then Throw New ArgumentOutOfRangeException()
          Value = value
       End Sub
    End Class
    ' The example displays the following output:
    '    Unhandled Exception: System.TypeInitializationException: 
    '       The type initializer for 'Example' threw an exception. ---> 
    '       System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException: Specified argument was out of the range of valid values.
    '       at TestClass..ctor(Int32 value)
    '       at Example..cctor()
    '       --- End of inner exception stack trace ---
    '       at Example.Main()
    

    请注意, 异常消息会显示有关属性InnerException的信息。Note that the exception message displays information about the InnerException property.

  • 缺少程序集或数据文件A missing assembly or data file

    出现TypeInitializationException异常的常见原因是, 应用程序的开发和测试环境中存在的程序集或数据文件从其运行时环境中丢失。A common cause of a TypeInitializationException exception is that an assembly or data file that was present in an application's development and test environments is missing from its runtime environment. 例如, 可以使用以下命令行语法将下面的示例编译为名为 Missing1a 的程序集:For example, you can compile the following example to an assembly named Missing1a.dll by using this command-line syntax:

    csc -t:library Missing1a.cs  
    
    vbc Missing1a.vb -t:library  
    
    using System;
    
    public class InfoModule
    {
       private DateTime firstUse;
       private int ctr = 0;
    
       public InfoModule(DateTime dat)
       {
          firstUse = dat;
       }
       
       public int Increment()
       {
          return ++ctr;
       }
       
       public DateTime GetInitializationTime()
       {
          return firstUse;
       }
    }
    
    Public Class InfoModule
       Private firstUse As DateTime
       Private ctr As Integer = 0
    
       Public Sub New(dat As DateTime)
          firstUse = dat
       End Sub
       
       Public Function Increment() As Integer
          ctr += 1
          Return ctr
       End Function
       
       Public Function GetInitializationTime() As DateTime
          Return firstUse
       End Function
    End Class
    

    然后, 可以通过包含对 Missing1a 的引用, 将以下示例编译到名为 Missing1 的可执行文件:You can then compile the following example to an executable named Missing1.exe by including a reference to Missing1a.dll:

    csc Missing1.cs /r:Missing1a.dll  
    
    vbc Missing1.vb /r:Missing1a.dll  
    

    但是, 如果重命名、移动或删除 Missing1a 并运行该示例, 则会引发TypeInitializationException异常并显示示例中所示的输出。However, if you rename, move, or delete Missing1a.dll and run the example, it throws a TypeInitializationException exception and displays the output shown in the example. 请注意, 异常消息包括有关属性的InnerException信息。Note that the exception message includes information about the InnerException property. 在这种情况下, 内部异常是FileNotFoundException引发的, 因为运行时找不到依赖程序集。In this case, the inner exception is a FileNotFoundException that is thrown because the runtime cannot find the dependent assembly.

    using System;
    
    public class Example
    {
       public static void Main()
       {
          Person p = new Person("John", "Doe");
          Console.WriteLine(p);   
       }
    }
    
    public class Person
    {
       static InfoModule infoModule;
       
       String fName;
       String mName;
       String lName;
       
       static Person()
       {
          infoModule = new InfoModule(DateTime.UtcNow);
       }
       
       public Person(String fName, String lName)
       {
          this.fName = fName;
          this.lName = lName;
          infoModule.Increment();
       }
       
       public override String ToString()
       {
          return String.Format("{0} {1}", fName, lName);
       }
    }
    // The example displays the following output if missing1a.dll is renamed or removed:
    //    Unhandled Exception: System.TypeInitializationException: 
    //       The type initializer for 'Person' threw an exception. ---> 
    //       System.IO.FileNotFoundException: Could not load file or assembly 
    //       'Missing1a, Version=0.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=null' 
    //       or one of its dependencies. The system cannot find the file specified.
    //       at Person..cctor()
    //       --- End of inner exception stack trace ---
    //       at Person..ctor(String fName, String lName)
    //       at Example.Main()
    
    Module Example
       Public Sub Main()
          Dim p As New Person("John", "Doe")
          Console.WriteLine(p)   
       End Sub
    End Module
    
    Public Class Person
       Shared infoModule As InfoModule
       
       Dim fName As String
       Dim mName As String
       Dim lName As String
       
       Shared Sub New()
          infoModule = New InfoModule(DateTime.UtcNow)
       End Sub
       
       Public Sub New(fName As String, lName As String)
          Me.fName = fName
          Me.lName = lName
          infoModule.Increment()
       End Sub
       
       Public Overrides Function ToString() As String
          Return String.Format("{0} {1}", fName, lName)
       End Function
    End Class
    ' The example displays the following output if missing1a.dll is renamed or removed:
    '    Unhandled Exception: System.TypeInitializationException: 
    '       The type initializer for 'Person' threw an exception. ---> 
    '       System.IO.FileNotFoundException: Could not load file or assembly 
    '       'Missing1a, Version=0.0.0.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=null' 
    '       or one of its dependencies. The system cannot find the file specified.
    '       at Person..cctor()
    '       --- End of inner exception stack trace ---
    '       at Person..ctor(String fName, String lName)
    '       at Example.Main()
    

    备注

    在此示例中, TypeInitializationException引发了异常, 因为未能加载程序集。In this example, a TypeInitializationException exception was thrown because an assembly could not be loaded. 如果静态构造函数尝试打开数据文件 (如配置文件、XML 文件或包含序列化数据的文件), 则也可能会引发异常。The exception can also be thrown if a static constructor attempts to open a data file, such as a configuration file, an XML file, or a file containing serialized data, that it cannot find.

正则表达式匹配超时值Regular expression match timeout values

可以为每个应用程序域设置正则表达式模式匹配操作的默认超时值。You can set the default timeout value for a regular expression pattern matching operation on a per-application domain basis. 超时TimeSpan值由指定AppDomain.SetData方法的 "REGEX_DEFAULT_MATCH_TIMEOUT" 属性的值来定义。The timeout is defined by a specifying a TimeSpan value for the "REGEX_DEFAULT_MATCH_TIMEOUT" property to the AppDomain.SetData method. 时间间隔必须是大于零且TimeSpan小于24天的有效对象。The time interval must be a valid TimeSpan object that is greater than zero and less than approximately 24 days. 如果未满足这些要求, 则设置默认超时值的尝试将引发ArgumentOutOfRangeException, 而这反过来会被包装TypeInitializationException在异常中。If these requirements are not met, the attempt to set the default timeout value throws an ArgumentOutOfRangeException, which in turn is wrapped in a TypeInitializationException exception.

下面的示例演示TypeInitializationException当分配给 "REGEX_DEFAULT_MATCH_TIMEOUT" 属性的值无效时引发的。The following example shows the TypeInitializationException that is thrown when the value assigned to the "REGEX_DEFAULT_MATCH_TIMEOUT" property is invalid. 若要消除此异常, 请将 "REGEX_DEFAULT_MATCH_TIMEOUT" 属性设置TimeSpan为大于零且小于24天的值。To eliminate the exception, set the"REGEX_DEFAULT_MATCH_TIMEOUT" property to a TimeSpan value that is greater than zero and less than approximately 24 days.

using System;
using System.Text.RegularExpressions;

public class Example
{
   public static void Main()
   {
      AppDomain domain = AppDomain.CurrentDomain;
      // Set a timeout interval of -2 seconds.
      domain.SetData("REGEX_DEFAULT_MATCH_TIMEOUT", TimeSpan.FromSeconds(-2));

      Regex rgx = new Regex("[aeiouy]");
      Console.WriteLine("Regular expression pattern: {0}", rgx.ToString());
      Console.WriteLine("Timeout interval for this regex: {0} seconds",
                        rgx.MatchTimeout.TotalSeconds);
   }
}
// The example displays the following output:
//    Unhandled Exception: System.TypeInitializationException: 
//       The type initializer for 'System.Text.RegularExpressions.Regex' threw an exception. ---> 
//       System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException: Specified argument was out of the range of valid values.
//       Parameter name: AppDomain data 'REGEX_DEFAULT_MATCH_TIMEOUT' contains an invalid value or 
//       object for specifying a default matching timeout for System.Text.RegularExpressions.Regex.
//       at System.Text.RegularExpressions.Regex.InitDefaultMatchTimeout()
//       at System.Text.RegularExpressions.Regex..cctor()
//       --- End of inner exception stack trace ---
//       at System.Text.RegularExpressions.Regex..ctor(String pattern)
//       at Example.Main()
Imports System.Text.RegularExpressions

Module Example
   Public Sub Main()
      Dim domain As AppDomain = AppDomain.CurrentDomain
      ' Set a timeout interval of -2 seconds.
      domain.SetData("REGEX_DEFAULT_MATCH_TIMEOUT", TimeSpan.FromSeconds(-2))

      Dim rgx As New Regex("[aeiouy]")
      Console.WriteLine("Regular expression pattern: {0}", rgx.ToString())
      Console.WriteLine("Timeout interval for this regex: {0} seconds",
                        rgx.MatchTimeout.TotalSeconds)
   End Sub
End Module
' The example displays the following output:
'    Unhandled Exception: System.TypeInitializationException: 
'       The type initializer for 'System.Text.RegularExpressions.Regex' threw an exception. ---> 
'       System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException: Specified argument was out of the range of valid values.
'       Parameter name: AppDomain data 'REGEX_DEFAULT_MATCH_TIMEOUT' contains an invalid value or 
'       object for specifying a default matching timeout for System.Text.RegularExpressions.Regex.
'       at System.Text.RegularExpressions.Regex.InitDefaultMatchTimeout()
'       at System.Text.RegularExpressions.Regex..cctor()
'       --- End of inner exception stack trace ---
'       at System.Text.RegularExpressions.Regex..ctor(String pattern)
'       at Example.Main()

日历和文化数据Calendars and cultural data

如果尝试实例化日历但运行时无法实例化CultureInfo对应于该日历的对象, 则会TypeInitializationException引发异常。If you attempt to instantiate a calendar but the runtime is unable to instantiate the CultureInfo object that corresponds to that calendar, it throws a TypeInitializationException exception. 以下 calendar 类构造函数可能会引发此异常:This exception can be thrown by the following calendar class constructors:

由于这些区域性的区域性数据应在所有系统上都可用, 因此, 您几乎不会遇到此异常。Since cultural data for these cultures should be available on all systems, you should rarely, if ever, encounter this exception.

构造函数

TypeInitializationException(String, Exception)

用默认错误消息、指定的类型名称和对内部异常(为该异常的根源)的引用来初始化 TypeInitializationException 类的新实例。Initializes a new instance of the TypeInitializationException class with the default error message, the specified type name, and a reference to the inner exception that is the root cause of this exception.

属性

Data

获取提供有关异常的其他用户定义信息的键/值对集合。Gets a collection of key/value pairs that provide additional user-defined information about the exception.

(继承自 Exception)
HelpLink

获取或设置指向与此异常关联的帮助文件链接。Gets or sets a link to the help file associated with this exception.

(继承自 Exception)
HResult

获取或设置 HRESULT(一个分配给特定异常的编码数字值)。Gets or sets HRESULT, a coded numerical value that is assigned to a specific exception.

(继承自 Exception)
InnerException

获取导致当前异常的 Exception 实例。Gets the Exception instance that caused the current exception.

(继承自 Exception)
Message

获取描述当前异常的消息。Gets a message that describes the current exception.

(继承自 Exception)
Source

获取或设置导致错误的应用程序或对象的名称。Gets or sets the name of the application or the object that causes the error.

(继承自 Exception)
StackTrace

获取调用堆栈上的即时框架字符串表示形式。Gets a string representation of the immediate frames on the call stack.

(继承自 Exception)
TargetSite

获取引发当前异常的方法。Gets the method that throws the current exception.

(继承自 Exception)
TypeName

获取未能初始化类型的完全限定名。Gets the fully qualified name of the type that fails to initialize.

方法

Equals(Object)

确定指定的对象是否等于当前对象。Determines whether the specified object is equal to the current object.

(继承自 Object)
GetBaseException()

当在派生类中重写时,返回 Exception,它是一个或多个并发的异常的根源。When overridden in a derived class, returns the Exception that is the root cause of one or more subsequent exceptions.

(继承自 Exception)
GetHashCode()

用作默认哈希函数。Serves as the default hash function.

(继承自 Object)
GetObjectData(SerializationInfo, StreamingContext)

设置带有文件名和附加异常信息的 SerializationInfo 对象。Sets the SerializationInfo object with the type name and additional exception information.

GetType()

获取当前实例的运行时类型。Gets the runtime type of the current instance.

(继承自 Exception)
MemberwiseClone()

创建当前 Object 的浅表副本。Creates a shallow copy of the current Object.

(继承自 Object)
ToString()

创建并返回当前异常的字符串表示形式。Creates and returns a string representation of the current exception.

(继承自 Exception)

事件

SerializeObjectState

当异常被序列化用来创建包含有关该异常的徐列出数据的异常状态对象时会出现该问题。Occurs when an exception is serialized to create an exception state object that contains serialized data about the exception.

(继承自 Exception)

适用于

另请参阅