如何:在 Windows 窗体 DataGridView 控件中自定义排序How to: Customize Sorting in the Windows Forms DataGridView Control

DataGridView 控件提供自动排序,但根据需要,你可能需要自定义排序操作。The DataGridView control provides automatic sorting but, depending on your needs, you might need to customize sort operations. 例如,你可以使用编程排序来创建替代的用户界面 (UI)。For example, you can use programmatic sorting to create an alternate user interface (UI). 或者,你可以处理 SortCompare 事件或调用 Sort 方法的 Sort(IComparer) 重载,以便进行更灵活的排序,例如对多个列进行排序。Alternatively, you can handle the SortCompare event or call the Sort(IComparer) overload of the Sort method for greater sorting flexibility, such as sorting multiple columns.

下面的代码示例演示三种自定义排序方法。The following code examples demonstrate these three approaches to custom sorting. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Windows 窗体 DataGridView 控件中的列排序模式For more information, see Column Sort Modes in the Windows Forms DataGridView Control.

编程排序Programmatic Sorting

下面的代码示例演示使用 SortOrderSortedColumn 属性来确定排序方向,使用 SortGlyphDirection 属性来手动设置排序标志符号的编程排序。The following code example demonstrates a programmatic sort using the SortOrder and SortedColumn properties to determine the direction of the sort, and the SortGlyphDirection property to manually set the sort glyph. Sort 方法的 Sort(DataGridViewColumn,ListSortDirection) 重载仅用于对单个列中的数据进行排序。The Sort(DataGridViewColumn,ListSortDirection) overload of the Sort method is used to sort data only in a single column.

using System;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Windows.Forms;

class Form1 : Form
{
    private Button sortButton = new Button();
    private DataGridView dataGridView1 = new DataGridView();

    // Initializes the form.
    // You can replace this code with designer-generated code.
    public Form1()
    {
        dataGridView1.Dock = DockStyle.Fill;
        dataGridView1.AllowUserToAddRows = false;
        dataGridView1.SelectionMode =
            DataGridViewSelectionMode.ColumnHeaderSelect;
        dataGridView1.MultiSelect = false;

        sortButton.Dock = DockStyle.Bottom;
        sortButton.Text = "Sort";

        Controls.Add(dataGridView1);
        Controls.Add(sortButton);
        Text = "DataGridView programmatic sort demo";
    }

    // Establishes the main entry point for the application.
    [STAThreadAttribute()]
    static void Main()
    {
        Application.EnableVisualStyles();
        Application.Run(new Form1());
    }

    // Populates the DataGridView.
    // Replace this with your own code to populate the DataGridView.
    public void PopulateDataGridView()
    {
        // Add columns to the DataGridView.
        dataGridView1.ColumnCount = 2;
        dataGridView1.Columns[0].HeaderText = "Last Name";
        dataGridView1.Columns[1].HeaderText = "City";
        // Put the new columns into programmatic sort mode
        dataGridView1.Columns[0].SortMode = 
            DataGridViewColumnSortMode.Programmatic;
        dataGridView1.Columns[1].SortMode =
            DataGridViewColumnSortMode.Programmatic;

        // Populate the DataGridView.
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "Parker", "Seattle" });
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "Watson", "Seattle" });
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "Osborn", "New York" });
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "Jameson", "New York" });
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "Brock", "New Jersey" });
    }

    protected override void OnLoad(EventArgs e)
    {
        sortButton.Click += new EventHandler(sortButton_Click);

        PopulateDataGridView();
        base.OnLoad(e);
    }

    private void sortButton_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
    {
        // Check which column is selected, otherwise set NewColumn to null.
        DataGridViewColumn newColumn =
            dataGridView1.Columns.GetColumnCount(
            DataGridViewElementStates.Selected) == 1 ?
            dataGridView1.SelectedColumns[0] : null;

        DataGridViewColumn oldColumn = dataGridView1.SortedColumn;
        ListSortDirection direction;

        // If oldColumn is null, then the DataGridView is not currently sorted.
        if (oldColumn != null)
        {
            // Sort the same column again, reversing the SortOrder.
            if (oldColumn == newColumn &&
                dataGridView1.SortOrder == SortOrder.Ascending)
            {
                direction = ListSortDirection.Descending;
            }
            else
            {
                // Sort a new column and remove the old SortGlyph.
                direction = ListSortDirection.Ascending;
                oldColumn.HeaderCell.SortGlyphDirection = SortOrder.None;
            }
        }
        else
        {
            direction = ListSortDirection.Ascending;
        }

        // If no column has been selected, display an error dialog  box.
        if (newColumn == null)
        {
            MessageBox.Show("Select a single column and try again.",
                "Error: Invalid Selection", MessageBoxButtons.OK,
                MessageBoxIcon.Error);
        }
        else
        {
            dataGridView1.Sort(newColumn, direction);
            newColumn.HeaderCell.SortGlyphDirection =
                direction == ListSortDirection.Ascending ?
                SortOrder.Ascending : SortOrder.Descending;
        }
    }
}
Imports System
Imports System.ComponentModel
Imports System.Windows.Forms

Public Class Form1
    Inherits Form

    Private WithEvents sortButton As New Button()
    Private WithEvents dataGridView1 As New DataGridView()

    ' Initializes the form.
    ' You can replace this code with designer-generated code.
    Public Sub New()
        With dataGridView1
            .Dock = DockStyle.Fill
            .AllowUserToAddRows = False
            .SelectionMode = DataGridViewSelectionMode.ColumnHeaderSelect
            .MultiSelect = False
        End With

        sortButton.Dock = DockStyle.Bottom
        sortButton.Text = "Sort"
 
        Controls.Add(dataGridView1)
        Controls.Add(sortButton)
        Text = "DataGridView programmatic sort demo"

        PopulateDataGridView()
    End Sub

    ' Establish the main entry point for the application.
    <STAThreadAttribute()> _
    Public Shared Sub Main()
        Application.Run(New Form1())
    End Sub

    ' Populates the DataGridView.
    ' Replace this with your own code to populate the DataGridView.
    Public Sub PopulateDataGridView()

        ' Add columns to the DataGridView.
        dataGridView1.ColumnCount = 2
        dataGridView1.Columns(0).HeaderText = "Last Name"
        dataGridView1.Columns(1).HeaderText = "City"
        ' Put the new columns into programmatic sort mode
        dataGridView1.Columns(0).SortMode = _
            DataGridViewColumnSortMode.Programmatic
        dataGridView1.Columns(1).SortMode = _
            DataGridViewColumnSortMode.Programmatic


        ' Populate the DataGridView.
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(New String() {"Parker", "Seattle"})
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(New String() {"Watson", "Seattle"})
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(New String() {"Osborn", "New York"})
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(New String() {"Jameson", "New York"})
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(New String() {"Brock", "New Jersey"})
    End Sub

    Private Sub SortButton_Click(ByVal sender As Object, _
        ByVal e As EventArgs) Handles sortButton.Click

        ' Check which column is selected, otherwise set NewColumn to Nothing.
        Dim newColumn As DataGridViewColumn
        If dataGridView1.Columns.GetColumnCount(DataGridViewElementStates _
            .Selected) = 1 Then
            newColumn = dataGridView1.SelectedColumns(0)
        Else
            newColumn = Nothing
        End If

        Dim oldColumn As DataGridViewColumn = dataGridView1.SortedColumn
        Dim direction As ListSortDirection

        ' If oldColumn is null, then the DataGridView is not currently sorted.
        If oldColumn IsNot Nothing Then

            ' Sort the same column again, reversing the SortOrder.
            If oldColumn Is newColumn AndAlso dataGridView1.SortOrder = _
                SortOrder.Ascending Then
                direction = ListSortDirection.Descending
            Else

                ' Sort a new column and remove the old SortGlyph.
                direction = ListSortDirection.Ascending
                oldColumn.HeaderCell.SortGlyphDirection = SortOrder.None
            End If
        Else
            direction = ListSortDirection.Ascending
        End If


        ' If no column has been selected, display an error dialog  box.
        If newColumn Is Nothing Then
            MessageBox.Show("Select a single column and try again.", _
                "Error: Invalid Selection", MessageBoxButtons.OK, _
                MessageBoxIcon.Error)
        Else
            dataGridView1.Sort(newColumn, direction)
            If direction = ListSortDirection.Ascending Then
                newColumn.HeaderCell.SortGlyphDirection = SortOrder.Ascending
            Else
                newColumn.HeaderCell.SortGlyphDirection = SortOrder.Descending
            End If
        End If

    End Sub

End Class

使用 SortCompare 事件自定义排序Custom Sorting Using the SortCompare Event

下面的代码示例演示使用 SortCompare 事件处理程序进行自定义排序。The following code example demonstrates custom sorting using a SortCompare event handler. 对所选 DataGridViewColumn 进行了排序,如果列中有重复的值,则使用 ID 列确定最终顺序。The selected DataGridViewColumn is sorted and, if there are duplicate values in the column, the ID column is used to determine the final order.

#region Using directives

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Data;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Windows.Forms;

#endregion
class Form1 : Form
{
    private DataGridView dataGridView1 = new DataGridView();

    // Establish the main entry point for the application.
    [STAThreadAttribute()]
    static void Main()
    {
        Application.EnableVisualStyles();
        Application.Run(new Form1());
    }

    public Form1()
    {
        // Initialize the form.
        // This code can be replaced with designer generated code.
        dataGridView1.AllowUserToAddRows = false;
        dataGridView1.Dock = DockStyle.Fill;
        dataGridView1.SortCompare += new DataGridViewSortCompareEventHandler(
            this.dataGridView1_SortCompare);
        Controls.Add(this.dataGridView1);
        this.Text = "DataGridView.SortCompare demo";

        PopulateDataGridView();
    }

    // Replace this with your own population code.
    public void PopulateDataGridView()
    {
        // Add columns to the DataGridView.
        dataGridView1.ColumnCount = 3;

        // Set the properties of the DataGridView columns.
        dataGridView1.Columns[0].Name = "ID";
        dataGridView1.Columns[1].Name = "Name";
        dataGridView1.Columns[2].Name = "City";
        dataGridView1.Columns["ID"].HeaderText = "ID";
        dataGridView1.Columns["Name"].HeaderText = "Name";
        dataGridView1.Columns["City"].HeaderText = "City";

        // Add rows of data to the DataGridView.
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "1", "Parker", "Seattle" });
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "2", "Parker", "New York" });
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "3", "Watson", "Seattle" });
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "4", "Jameson", "New Jersey" });
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "5", "Brock", "New York" });
        dataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "6", "Conner", "Portland" });

        // Autosize the columns.
        dataGridView1.AutoResizeColumns();
    }

    private void dataGridView1_SortCompare(object sender,
        DataGridViewSortCompareEventArgs e)
    {
        // Try to sort based on the cells in the current column.
        e.SortResult = System.String.Compare(
            e.CellValue1.ToString(), e.CellValue2.ToString());

        // If the cells are equal, sort based on the ID column.
        if (e.SortResult == 0 && e.Column.Name != "ID")
        {
            e.SortResult = System.String.Compare(
                dataGridView1.Rows[e.RowIndex1].Cells["ID"].Value.ToString(),
                dataGridView1.Rows[e.RowIndex2].Cells["ID"].Value.ToString());
        }
        e.Handled = true;
    }
}
Imports System
Imports System.Windows.Forms

Public Class Form1
    Inherits Form

    Private WithEvents DataGridView1 As New DataGridView()

    ' Establish the main entry point for the application.
    <STAThreadAttribute()> _
    Public Shared Sub Main()
        Application.Run(New Form1())
    End Sub

    Public Sub New()
        ' Initialize the form.
        ' This code can be replaced with designer generated code.
        Me.DataGridView1.AllowUserToAddRows = False
        Me.DataGridView1.Dock = DockStyle.Fill
        Me.Controls.Add(Me.DataGridView1)
        Me.Text = "DataGridView.SortCompare demo"

        Me.PopulateDataGridView()
    End Sub

    '<snippet20>'
    ' Replace this with your own population code.
    Private Sub PopulateDataGridView()
        With Me.DataGridView1
            ' Add columns to the DataGridView.
            .ColumnCount = 3

            ' Set the properties of the DataGridView columns.
            .Columns(0).Name = "ID"
            .Columns(1).Name = "Name"
            .Columns(2).Name = "City"
            .Columns("ID").HeaderText = "ID"
            .Columns("Name").HeaderText = "Name"
            .Columns("City").HeaderText = "City"
        End With

        ' Add rows of data to the DataGridView.
        With Me.DataGridView1.Rows
            .Add(New String() {"1", "Parker", "Seattle"})
            .Add(New String() {"2", "Parker", "New York"})
            .Add(New String() {"3", "Watson", "Seattle"})
            .Add(New String() {"4", "Jameson", "New Jersey"})
            .Add(New String() {"5", "Brock", "New York"})
            .Add(New String() {"6", "Conner", "Portland"})
        End With

        ' Autosize the columns.
        Me.DataGridView1.AutoResizeColumns()
 
    End Sub

    Private Sub DataGridView1_SortCompare( _
        ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As DataGridViewSortCompareEventArgs) _
        Handles DataGridView1.SortCompare

        ' Try to sort based on the contents of the cell in the current column.
        e.SortResult = System.String.Compare(e.CellValue1.ToString(), _
            e.CellValue2.ToString())

        ' If the cells are equal, sort based on the ID column.
        If (e.SortResult = 0) AndAlso Not (e.Column.Name = "ID") Then
            e.SortResult = System.String.Compare( _
                DataGridView1.Rows(e.RowIndex1).Cells("ID").Value.ToString(), _
                DataGridView1.Rows(e.RowIndex2).Cells("ID").Value.ToString())
        End If

        e.Handled = True

    End Sub
End Class

使用 IComparer 接口自定义排序Custom Sorting Using the IComparer Interface

下面的代码示例演示使用 Sort 方法的 Sort(IComparer) 重载进行自定义排序,它通过实现 IComparer 接口来执行多个列的排序。The following code example demonstrates custom sorting using the Sort(IComparer) overload of the Sort method, which takes an implementation of the IComparer interface to perform a multiple-column sort.

#region Using directives

using System;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Windows.Forms;

#endregion

class Form1 : Form
{
    private DataGridView DataGridView1 = new DataGridView();
    private FlowLayoutPanel FlowLayoutPanel1 = new FlowLayoutPanel();
    private Button Button1 = new Button();
    private RadioButton RadioButton1 = new RadioButton();
    private RadioButton RadioButton2 = new RadioButton();

    // Establish the main entry point for the application.
    [STAThreadAttribute()]
    public static void Main()
    {
        Application.Run(new Form1());
    }

    public Form1()
    {
        // Initialize the form.
        // This code can be replaced with designer generated code.
        AutoSize = true;
        Text = "DataGridView IComparer sort demo";

        FlowLayoutPanel1.FlowDirection = FlowDirection.TopDown;
        FlowLayoutPanel1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point( 304, 0 );
        FlowLayoutPanel1.AutoSize = true;

        FlowLayoutPanel1.Controls.Add( RadioButton1 );
        FlowLayoutPanel1.Controls.Add( RadioButton2 );
        FlowLayoutPanel1.Controls.Add( Button1 );

        Button1.Text = "Sort";
        RadioButton1.Text = "Ascending";
        RadioButton2.Text = "Descending";
        RadioButton1.Checked = true;

        Controls.Add( FlowLayoutPanel1 );
        Controls.Add( DataGridView1 );
    }

    protected override void OnLoad( EventArgs e )
    {
        PopulateDataGridView();
        Button1.Click += new EventHandler(Button1_Click);

        base.OnLoad( e );
    }

    // Replace this with your own code to populate the DataGridView.
    private void PopulateDataGridView()
    {

        DataGridView1.Size = new Size(300, 300);

        // Add columns to the DataGridView.
        DataGridView1.ColumnCount = 2;

        // Set the properties of the DataGridView columns.
        DataGridView1.Columns[0].Name = "First";
        DataGridView1.Columns[1].Name = "Last";
        DataGridView1.Columns["First"].HeaderText = "First Name";
        DataGridView1.Columns["Last"].HeaderText = "Last Name";
        DataGridView1.Columns["First"].SortMode = 
            DataGridViewColumnSortMode.Programmatic;
        DataGridView1.Columns["Last"].SortMode = 
            DataGridViewColumnSortMode.Programmatic;

        // Add rows of data to the DataGridView.
        DataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "Peter", "Parker" });
        DataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "James", "Jameson" });
        DataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "May", "Parker" });
        DataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "Mary", "Watson" });
        DataGridView1.Rows.Add(new string[] { "Eddie", "Brock" });
    }

    private void Button1_Click( object sender, EventArgs e )
    {
        if ( RadioButton1.Checked == true )
        {
            DataGridView1.Sort( new RowComparer( SortOrder.Ascending ) );
        }
        else if ( RadioButton2.Checked == true )
        {
            DataGridView1.Sort( new RowComparer( SortOrder.Descending ) );
        }
    }

    private class RowComparer : System.Collections.IComparer
    {
        private static int sortOrderModifier = 1;

        public RowComparer(SortOrder sortOrder)
        {
            if (sortOrder == SortOrder.Descending)
            {
                sortOrderModifier = -1;
            }
            else if (sortOrder == SortOrder.Ascending)
            {
                sortOrderModifier = 1;
            }
        }

        public int Compare(object x, object y)
        {
            DataGridViewRow DataGridViewRow1 = (DataGridViewRow)x;
            DataGridViewRow DataGridViewRow2 = (DataGridViewRow)y;

            // Try to sort based on the Last Name column.
            int CompareResult = System.String.Compare(
                DataGridViewRow1.Cells[1].Value.ToString(),
                DataGridViewRow2.Cells[1].Value.ToString());

            // If the Last Names are equal, sort based on the First Name.
            if ( CompareResult == 0 )
            {
                CompareResult = System.String.Compare(
                    DataGridViewRow1.Cells[0].Value.ToString(),
                    DataGridViewRow2.Cells[0].Value.ToString());
            }
            return CompareResult * sortOrderModifier;
        }
    }
}
Imports System
Imports System.Drawing
Imports System.Windows.Forms

Public Class Form1
    Inherits Form

    Private WithEvents DataGridView1 As New DataGridView()
    Private FlowLayoutPanel1 As New FlowLayoutPanel()
    Private WithEvents Button1 As New Button()
    Private RadioButton1 As New RadioButton()
    Private RadioButton2 As New RadioButton()

    ' Establish the main entry point for the application.
    <STAThreadAttribute()> _
    Public Shared Sub Main()
        Application.Run(New Form1())
    End Sub

    Public Sub New()
        ' Initialize the form.
        ' This code can be replaced with designer generated code.
        AutoSize = True
        Text = "DataGridView IComparer sort demo"

        FlowLayoutPanel1.FlowDirection = FlowDirection.TopDown
        FlowLayoutPanel1.Location = New System.Drawing.Point(304, 0)
        FlowLayoutPanel1.AutoSize = True

        FlowLayoutPanel1.Controls.Add(RadioButton1)
        FlowLayoutPanel1.Controls.Add(RadioButton2)
        FlowLayoutPanel1.Controls.Add(Button1)

        Button1.Text = "Sort"
        RadioButton1.Text = "Ascending"
        RadioButton2.Text = "Descending"
        RadioButton1.Checked = True

        Controls.Add(FlowLayoutPanel1)
        Controls.Add(DataGridView1)

        PopulateDataGridView()
    End Sub

    ' Replace this with your own code to populate the DataGridView.
    Private Sub PopulateDataGridView()

        DataGridView1.Size = New Size(300, 300)

        ' Add columns to the DataGridView.
        DataGridView1.ColumnCount = 2

        ' Set the properties of the DataGridView columns.
        DataGridView1.Columns(0).Name = "First"
        DataGridView1.Columns(1).Name = "Last"
        DataGridView1.Columns("First").HeaderText = "First Name"
        DataGridView1.Columns("Last").HeaderText = "Last Name"
        DataGridView1.Columns("First").SortMode = _
            DataGridViewColumnSortMode.Programmatic
        DataGridView1.Columns("Last").SortMode = _
            DataGridViewColumnSortMode.Programmatic

        ' Add rows of data to the DataGridView.
        DataGridView1.Rows.Add(New String() {"Peter", "Parker"})
        DataGridView1.Rows.Add(New String() {"James", "Jameson"})
        DataGridView1.Rows.Add(New String() {"May", "Parker"})
        DataGridView1.Rows.Add(New String() {"Mary", "Watson"})
        DataGridView1.Rows.Add(New String() {"Eddie", "Brock"})
    End Sub

    Private Sub Button1_Click(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs) _
    Handles Button1.Click
        If RadioButton1.Checked = True Then
            DataGridView1.Sort(New RowComparer(SortOrder.Ascending))
        ElseIf RadioButton2.Checked = True Then
            DataGridView1.Sort(New RowComparer(SortOrder.Descending))
        End If
    End Sub

    Private Class RowComparer
        Implements System.Collections.IComparer

        Private sortOrderModifier As Integer = 1

        Public Sub New(ByVal sortOrder As SortOrder)
            If sortOrder = sortOrder.Descending Then
                sortOrderModifier = -1
            ElseIf sortOrder = sortOrder.Ascending Then

                sortOrderModifier = 1
            End If
        End Sub

        Public Function Compare(ByVal x As Object, ByVal y As Object) As Integer _
            Implements System.Collections.IComparer.Compare

            Dim DataGridViewRow1 As DataGridViewRow = CType(x, DataGridViewRow)
            Dim DataGridViewRow2 As DataGridViewRow = CType(y, DataGridViewRow)

            ' Try to sort based on the Last Name column.
            Dim CompareResult As Integer = System.String.Compare( _
                DataGridViewRow1.Cells(1).Value.ToString(), _
                DataGridViewRow2.Cells(1).Value.ToString())

            ' If the Last Names are equal, sort based on the First Name.
            If CompareResult = 0 Then
                CompareResult = System.String.Compare( _
                    DataGridViewRow1.Cells(0).Value.ToString(), _
                    DataGridViewRow2.Cells(0).Value.ToString())
            End If
            Return CompareResult * sortOrderModifier
        End Function
    End Class
End Class

编译代码Compiling the Code

这些示例需要:These examples require:

  • 对 System、System.Drawing 和 System.Windows.Forms 程序集的引用。References to the System, System.Drawing, and System.Windows.Forms assemblies.

请参阅See also