演练:在 Windows 窗体 DataGridView 控件中实现虚拟模式Walkthrough: Implementing Virtual Mode in the Windows Forms DataGridView Control

如果想要显示非常大量的表格数据DataGridView控件,可以设置VirtualMode属性设置为true和显式管理其数据存储区与控件的交互。When you want to display very large quantities of tabular data in a DataGridView control, you can set the VirtualMode property to true and explicitly manage the control's interaction with its data store. 这样可以微调控件在此情况下的性能。This lets you fine-tune the performance of the control in this situation.

DataGridView控件提供了可以处理与自定义数据存储进行交互的多个事件。The DataGridView control provides several events that you can handle to interact with a custom data store. 本演练将指导您完成实现这些事件处理程序的过程。This walkthrough guides you through the process of implementing these event handlers. 本主题中的代码示例用于说明目的使用非常简单的数据源。The code example in this topic uses a very simple data source for illustration purposes. 在生产设置中,通常将加载只有需要到缓存中,显示和处理的行DataGridView事件进行交互并更新缓存。In a production setting, you will typically load only the rows you need to display into a cache, and handle DataGridView events to interact with and update the cache. 有关详细信息,请参阅实时数据加载 Windows 窗体 DataGridView 控件中实现虚拟模式For more information, see Implementing Virtual Mode with Just-In-Time Data Loading in the Windows Forms DataGridView Control

要将本主题中的代码作为单个列表进行复制,请参阅如何:Windows 中的实现虚拟模式窗体 DataGridView 控件To copy the code in this topic as a single listing, see How to: Implement Virtual Mode in the Windows Forms DataGridView Control.

创建窗体Creating the Form

若要实现虚拟模式To implement virtual mode

  1. 创建派生的类Form和包含DataGridView控件。Create a class that derives from Form and contains a DataGridView control.

    下面的代码包含一些基本的初始化。The following code contains some basic initialization. 它声明一些将在后续步骤中使用的变量,提供Main方法,并提供了类构造函数中的简单窗体布局。It declares some variables that will be used in later steps, provides a Main method, and provides a simple form layout in the class constructor.

    #using <System.Drawing.dll>
    #using <System.dll>
    #using <System.Windows.Forms.dll>
    
    using namespace System;
    using namespace System::Windows::Forms;
    
    public ref class Customer
    {
    private:
       String^ companyNameValue;
       String^ contactNameValue;
    
    public:
       Customer()
       {
          
          // Leave fields empty.
       }
    
       Customer( String^ companyName, String^ contactName )
       {
          companyNameValue = companyName;
          contactNameValue = contactName;
       }
    
    
       property String^ CompanyName 
       {
          String^ get()
          {
             return companyNameValue;
          }
    
          void set( String^ value )
          {
             companyNameValue = value;
          }
    
       }
    
       property String^ ContactName 
       {
          String^ get()
          {
             return contactNameValue;
          }
    
          void set( String^ value )
          {
             contactNameValue = value;
          }
    
       }
    
    };
    
    public ref class Form1: public Form
    {
    private:
       DataGridView^ dataGridView1;
    
       // Declare an ArrayList to serve as the data store. 
       System::Collections::ArrayList^ customers;
    
       // Declare a Customer object to store data for a row being edited.
       Customer^ customerInEdit;
    
       // Declare a variable to store the index of a row being edited. 
       // A value of -1 indicates that there is no row currently in edit. 
       int rowInEdit;
    
       // Declare a variable to indicate the commit scope. 
       // Set this value to false to use cell-level commit scope. 
       bool rowScopeCommit;
    
    public:
       static void Main()
       {
          Application::Run( gcnew Form1 );
       }
    
       Form1()
       {
          dataGridView1 = gcnew DataGridView;
          customers = gcnew System::Collections::ArrayList;
          rowInEdit = -1;
          rowScopeCommit = true;
          
          // Initialize the form.
          this->dataGridView1->Dock = DockStyle::Fill;
          this->Controls->Add( this->dataGridView1 );
          this->Load += gcnew EventHandler( this, &Form1::Form1_Load );
       }
    
    private:
    
    using System;
    using System.Windows.Forms;
    
    public class Form1 : Form
    {
        private DataGridView dataGridView1 = new DataGridView();
    
        // Declare an ArrayList to serve as the data store. 
        private System.Collections.ArrayList customers =
            new System.Collections.ArrayList();
    
        // Declare a Customer object to store data for a row being edited.
        private Customer customerInEdit;
    
        // Declare a variable to store the index of a row being edited. 
        // A value of -1 indicates that there is no row currently in edit. 
        private int rowInEdit = -1;
    
        // Declare a variable to indicate the commit scope. 
        // Set this value to false to use cell-level commit scope. 
        private bool rowScopeCommit = true;
    
        [STAThreadAttribute()]
        public static void Main()
        {
            Application.Run(new Form1());
        }
    
        public Form1()
        {
            // Initialize the form.
            this.dataGridView1.Dock = DockStyle.Fill;
            this.Controls.Add(this.dataGridView1);
            this.Load += new EventHandler(Form1_Load);
            this.Text = "DataGridView virtual-mode demo (row-level commit scope)";
        }
    
    Imports System
    Imports System.Windows.Forms
    
    Public Class Form1
        Inherits Form
    
        Private WithEvents dataGridView1 As New DataGridView()
    
        ' Declare an ArrayList to serve as the data store. 
        Private customers As New System.Collections.ArrayList()
    
        ' Declare a Customer object to store data for a row being edited.
        Private customerInEdit As Customer
    
        ' Declare a variable to store the index of a row being edited. 
        ' A value of -1 indicates that there is no row currently in edit. 
        Private rowInEdit As Integer = -1
    
        ' Declare a variable to indicate the commit scope. 
        ' Set this value to false to use cell-level commit scope. 
        Private rowScopeCommit As Boolean = True
    
        <STAThreadAttribute()> _
        Public Shared Sub Main()
            Application.Run(New Form1())
        End Sub
    
        Public Sub New()
            ' Initialize the form.
            Me.dataGridView1.Dock = DockStyle.Fill
            Me.Controls.Add(Me.dataGridView1)
            Me.Text = "DataGridView virtual-mode demo (row-level commit scope)"
        End Sub
    
    };
    
    int main()
    {
       Form1::Main();
    }
    
    }
    
    
    End Class
    
  2. 实现窗体的一个处理程序Load初始化的事件DataGridView控制,并填充具有示例值的数据存储区。Implement a handler for your form's Load event that initializes the DataGridView control and populates the data store with sample values.

    void Form1_Load( Object^ /*sender*/, EventArgs^ /*e*/ )
    {
       
       // Enable virtual mode.
       this->dataGridView1->VirtualMode = true;
       
       // Connect the virtual-mode events to event handlers. 
       this->dataGridView1->CellValueNeeded += gcnew
           DataGridViewCellValueEventHandler( this, &Form1::dataGridView1_CellValueNeeded );
       this->dataGridView1->CellValuePushed += gcnew
           DataGridViewCellValueEventHandler( this, &Form1::dataGridView1_CellValuePushed );
       this->dataGridView1->NewRowNeeded += gcnew
           DataGridViewRowEventHandler( this, &Form1::dataGridView1_NewRowNeeded );
       this->dataGridView1->RowValidated += gcnew
           DataGridViewCellEventHandler( this, &Form1::dataGridView1_RowValidated );
       this->dataGridView1->RowDirtyStateNeeded += gcnew
           QuestionEventHandler( this, &Form1::dataGridView1_RowDirtyStateNeeded );
       this->dataGridView1->CancelRowEdit += gcnew
           QuestionEventHandler( this, &Form1::dataGridView1_CancelRowEdit );
       this->dataGridView1->UserDeletingRow += gcnew
           DataGridViewRowCancelEventHandler( this, &Form1::dataGridView1_UserDeletingRow );
       
       // Add columns to the DataGridView.
       DataGridViewTextBoxColumn^ companyNameColumn = gcnew DataGridViewTextBoxColumn;
       companyNameColumn->HeaderText = L"Company Name";
       companyNameColumn->Name = L"Company Name";
       DataGridViewTextBoxColumn^ contactNameColumn = gcnew DataGridViewTextBoxColumn;
       contactNameColumn->HeaderText = L"Contact Name";
       contactNameColumn->Name = L"Contact Name";
       this->dataGridView1->Columns->Add( companyNameColumn );
       this->dataGridView1->Columns->Add( contactNameColumn );
       this->dataGridView1->AutoSizeColumnsMode = DataGridViewAutoSizeColumnsMode::AllCells;
       
       // Add some sample entries to the data store. 
       this->customers->Add( gcnew Customer( L"Bon app'",L"Laurence Lebihan" ) );
       this->customers->Add( gcnew Customer( L"Bottom-Dollar Markets",L"Elizabeth Lincoln" ) );
       this->customers->Add( gcnew Customer( L"B's Beverages",L"Victoria Ashworth" ) );
       
       // Set the row count, including the row for new records.
       this->dataGridView1->RowCount = 4;
    }
    
    private void Form1_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)
    {
        // Enable virtual mode.
        this.dataGridView1.VirtualMode = true;
    
        // Connect the virtual-mode events to event handlers. 
        this.dataGridView1.CellValueNeeded += new
            DataGridViewCellValueEventHandler(dataGridView1_CellValueNeeded);
        this.dataGridView1.CellValuePushed += new
            DataGridViewCellValueEventHandler(dataGridView1_CellValuePushed);
        this.dataGridView1.NewRowNeeded += new
            DataGridViewRowEventHandler(dataGridView1_NewRowNeeded);
        this.dataGridView1.RowValidated += new
            DataGridViewCellEventHandler(dataGridView1_RowValidated);
        this.dataGridView1.RowDirtyStateNeeded += new
            QuestionEventHandler(dataGridView1_RowDirtyStateNeeded);
        this.dataGridView1.CancelRowEdit += new
            QuestionEventHandler(dataGridView1_CancelRowEdit);
        this.dataGridView1.UserDeletingRow += new
            DataGridViewRowCancelEventHandler(dataGridView1_UserDeletingRow);
    
        // Add columns to the DataGridView.
        DataGridViewTextBoxColumn companyNameColumn = new
            DataGridViewTextBoxColumn();
        companyNameColumn.HeaderText = "Company Name";
        companyNameColumn.Name = "Company Name";
        DataGridViewTextBoxColumn contactNameColumn = new
            DataGridViewTextBoxColumn();
        contactNameColumn.HeaderText = "Contact Name";
        contactNameColumn.Name = "Contact Name";
        this.dataGridView1.Columns.Add(companyNameColumn);
        this.dataGridView1.Columns.Add(contactNameColumn);
        this.dataGridView1.AutoSizeColumnsMode = 
            DataGridViewAutoSizeColumnsMode.AllCells;
    
        // Add some sample entries to the data store. 
        this.customers.Add(new Customer(
            "Bon app'", "Laurence Lebihan"));
        this.customers.Add(new Customer(
            "Bottom-Dollar Markets", "Elizabeth Lincoln"));
        this.customers.Add(new Customer(
            "B's Beverages", "Victoria Ashworth"));
    
        // Set the row count, including the row for new records.
        this.dataGridView1.RowCount = 4;
    }
    
    Private Sub Form1_Load(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs) _
        Handles Me.Load
    
        ' Enable virtual mode.
        Me.dataGridView1.VirtualMode = True
    
        ' Add columns to the DataGridView.
        Dim companyNameColumn As New DataGridViewTextBoxColumn()
        With companyNameColumn
            .HeaderText = "Company Name"
            .Name = "Company Name"
        End With
        Dim contactNameColumn As New DataGridViewTextBoxColumn()
        With contactNameColumn
            .HeaderText = "Contact Name"
            .Name = "Contact Name"
        End With
        Me.dataGridView1.Columns.Add(companyNameColumn)
        Me.dataGridView1.Columns.Add(contactNameColumn)
        Me.dataGridView1.AutoSizeColumnsMode = _
            DataGridViewAutoSizeColumnsMode.AllCells
    
        ' Add some sample entries to the data store. 
        Me.customers.Add(New Customer("Bon app'", "Laurence Lebihan"))
        Me.customers.Add(New Customer("Bottom-Dollar Markets", _
            "Elizabeth Lincoln"))
        Me.customers.Add(New Customer("B's Beverages", "Victoria Ashworth"))
    
        ' Set the row count, including the row for new records.
        Me.dataGridView1.RowCount = 4
    
    End Sub
    
  3. 实现的处理程序CellValueNeeded从数据存储中检索请求的单元格的值的事件或Customer当前正在编辑的对象。Implement a handler for the CellValueNeeded event that retrieves the requested cell value from the data store or the Customer object currently in edit.

    每当发生此事件DataGridView控件需要绘制单元格。This event occurs whenever the DataGridView control needs to paint a cell.

    void dataGridView1_CellValueNeeded( Object^ /*sender*/,
        System::Windows::Forms::DataGridViewCellValueEventArgs^ e )
    {
       Customer^ customerTmp = nullptr;
       
       // Store a reference to the Customer object for the row being painted.
       if ( e->RowIndex == rowInEdit )
       {
          customerTmp = this->customerInEdit;
       }
       else
       {
          customerTmp = dynamic_cast<Customer^>(this->customers[ e->RowIndex ]);
       }
       
       // Set the cell value to paint using the Customer object retrieved.
       int switchcase = 0;
       if ( (this->dataGridView1->Columns[ e->ColumnIndex ]->Name)->Equals( L"Company Name" ) )
             switchcase = 1;
       else
       if ( (this->dataGridView1->Columns[ e->ColumnIndex ]->Name)->Equals( L"Contact Name" ) )
             switchcase = 2;
    
    
       switch ( switchcase )
       {
          case 1:
             e->Value = customerTmp->CompanyName;
             break;
    
          case 2:
             e->Value = customerTmp->ContactName;
             break;
       }
    }
    
    
    
    private void dataGridView1_CellValueNeeded(object sender,
        System.Windows.Forms.DataGridViewCellValueEventArgs e)
    {
        // If this is the row for new records, no values are needed.
        if (e.RowIndex == this.dataGridView1.RowCount - 1) return;
    
        Customer customerTmp = null;
    
        // Store a reference to the Customer object for the row being painted.
        if (e.RowIndex == rowInEdit)
        {
            customerTmp = this.customerInEdit;
        }
        else 
        {
            customerTmp = (Customer)this.customers[e.RowIndex];
        }
    
        // Set the cell value to paint using the Customer object retrieved.
        switch (this.dataGridView1.Columns[e.ColumnIndex].Name)
        {
            case "Company Name":
                e.Value = customerTmp.CompanyName;
                break;
    
            case "Contact Name":
                e.Value = customerTmp.ContactName;
                break;
        }
    }
    
    Private Sub dataGridView1_CellValueNeeded(ByVal sender As Object, _
        ByVal e As System.Windows.Forms.DataGridViewCellValueEventArgs) _
        Handles dataGridView1.CellValueNeeded
    
        ' If this is the row for new records, no values are needed.
        If e.RowIndex = Me.dataGridView1.RowCount - 1 Then
            Return
        End If
    
        Dim customerTmp As Customer = Nothing
    
        ' Store a reference to the Customer object for the row being painted.
        If e.RowIndex = rowInEdit Then
            customerTmp = Me.customerInEdit
        Else
            customerTmp = CType(Me.customers(e.RowIndex), Customer)
        End If
    
        ' Set the cell value to paint using the Customer object retrieved.
        Select Case Me.dataGridView1.Columns(e.ColumnIndex).Name
            Case "Company Name"
                e.Value = customerTmp.CompanyName
    
            Case "Contact Name"
                e.Value = customerTmp.ContactName
        End Select
    
    End Sub
    
  4. 实现的处理程序CellValuePushed编辑的单元格将值存储在事件Customer对象,表示编辑过的行。Implement a handler for the CellValuePushed event that stores an edited cell value in the Customer object representing the edited row. 每当用户提交一个单元格的值更改时,将发生此事件。This event occurs whenever the user commits a cell value change.

    void dataGridView1_CellValuePushed( Object^ /*sender*/,
        System::Windows::Forms::DataGridViewCellValueEventArgs^ e )
    {
       Customer^ customerTmp = nullptr;
       
       // Store a reference to the Customer object for the row being edited.
       if ( e->RowIndex < this->customers->Count )
       {
          
          // If the user is editing a new row, create a new Customer object.
          if ( this->customerInEdit == nullptr )
          {
             this->customerInEdit = gcnew Customer(
                 (dynamic_cast<Customer^>(this->customers[ e->RowIndex ]))->CompanyName,
                 (dynamic_cast<Customer^>(this->customers[ e->RowIndex ])->ContactName) );
          }
    
          customerTmp = this->customerInEdit;
          this->rowInEdit = e->RowIndex;
       }
       else
       {
          customerTmp = this->customerInEdit;
       }
    
       
       // Set the appropriate Customer property to the cell value entered.
       int switchcase = 0;
       if ( (this->dataGridView1->Columns[ e->ColumnIndex ]->Name)->Equals( L"Company Name" ) )
             switchcase = 1;
       else
       if ( (this->dataGridView1->Columns[ e->ColumnIndex ]->Name)->Equals( L"Contact Name" ) )
             switchcase = 2;
    
    
       switch ( switchcase )
       {
          case 1:
             customerTmp->CompanyName = dynamic_cast<String^>(e->Value);
             break;
    
          case 2:
             customerTmp->ContactName = dynamic_cast<String^>(e->Value);
             break;
       }
    }
    
    
    
    private void dataGridView1_CellValuePushed(object sender,
        System.Windows.Forms.DataGridViewCellValueEventArgs e)
    {
        Customer customerTmp = null;
    
        // Store a reference to the Customer object for the row being edited.
        if (e.RowIndex < this.customers.Count)
        {
            // If the user is editing a new row, create a new Customer object.
            if (this.customerInEdit == null)
            {
                this.customerInEdit = new Customer(
                    ((Customer)this.customers[e.RowIndex]).CompanyName,
                    ((Customer)this.customers[e.RowIndex]).ContactName);
            }
            customerTmp = this.customerInEdit;
            this.rowInEdit = e.RowIndex;
        }
        else
        {
            customerTmp = this.customerInEdit;
        }
    
        // Set the appropriate Customer property to the cell value entered.
        String newValue = e.Value as String;
        switch (this.dataGridView1.Columns[e.ColumnIndex].Name)
        {
            case "Company Name":
                customerTmp.CompanyName = newValue;
                break;
    
            case "Contact Name":
                customerTmp.ContactName = newValue;
                break;
        }
    }
    
    Private Sub dataGridView1_CellValuePushed(ByVal sender As Object, _
        ByVal e As System.Windows.Forms.DataGridViewCellValueEventArgs) _
        Handles dataGridView1.CellValuePushed
    
        Dim customerTmp As Customer = Nothing
    
        ' Store a reference to the Customer object for the row being edited.
        If e.RowIndex < Me.customers.Count Then
    
            ' If the user is editing a new row, create a new Customer object.
            If Me.customerInEdit Is Nothing Then
                Me.customerInEdit = New Customer( _
                    CType(Me.customers(e.RowIndex), Customer).CompanyName, _
                    CType(Me.customers(e.RowIndex), Customer).ContactName)
            End If
            customerTmp = Me.customerInEdit
            Me.rowInEdit = e.RowIndex
    
        Else
            customerTmp = Me.customerInEdit
        End If
    
        ' Set the appropriate Customer property to the cell value entered.
        Dim newValue As String = TryCast(e.Value, String)
        Select Case Me.dataGridView1.Columns(e.ColumnIndex).Name
            Case "Company Name"
                customerTmp.CompanyName = newValue
            Case "Contact Name"
                customerTmp.ContactName = newValue
        End Select
    
    End Sub
    
  5. 实现的处理程序NewRowNeeded创建一个新的事件Customer对象,表示新创建的行。Implement a handler for the NewRowNeeded event that creates a new Customer object representing a newly created row.

    每当用户输入新记录的行,将发生此事件。This event occurs whenever the user enters the row for new records.

    void dataGridView1_NewRowNeeded( Object^ /*sender*/,
        System::Windows::Forms::DataGridViewRowEventArgs^ /*e*/ )
    {
       
       // Create a new Customer object when the user edits
       // the row for new records.
       this->customerInEdit = gcnew Customer;
       this->rowInEdit = this->dataGridView1->Rows->Count - 1;
    }
    
    
    
    private void dataGridView1_NewRowNeeded(object sender,
        System.Windows.Forms.DataGridViewRowEventArgs e)
    {
        // Create a new Customer object when the user edits
        // the row for new records.
        this.customerInEdit = new Customer();
        this.rowInEdit = this.dataGridView1.Rows.Count - 1;
    }
    
    Private Sub dataGridView1_NewRowNeeded(ByVal sender As Object, _
        ByVal e As System.Windows.Forms.DataGridViewRowEventArgs) _
        Handles dataGridView1.NewRowNeeded
    
        ' Create a new Customer object when the user edits
        ' the row for new records.
        Me.customerInEdit = New Customer()
        Me.rowInEdit = Me.dataGridView1.Rows.Count - 1
    
    End Sub
    
  6. 实现的处理程序RowValidated将新的或已修改行保存到数据存储的事件。Implement a handler for the RowValidated event that saves new or modified rows to the data store.

    每当用户更改当前行时,将发生此事件。This event occurs whenever the user changes the current row.

    void dataGridView1_RowValidated( Object^ /*sender*/,
        System::Windows::Forms::DataGridViewCellEventArgs^ e )
    {
       
       // Save row changes if any were made and release the edited 
       // Customer object if there is one.
       if ( e->RowIndex >= this->customers->Count && e->RowIndex != this->dataGridView1->Rows->Count - 1 )
       {
          
          // Add the new Customer object to the data store.
          this->customers->Add( this->customerInEdit );
          this->customerInEdit = nullptr;
          this->rowInEdit = -1;
       }
       else
       if ( this->customerInEdit != nullptr && e->RowIndex < this->customers->Count )
       {
          
          // Save the modified Customer object in the data store.
          this->customers[ e->RowIndex ] = this->customerInEdit;
          this->customerInEdit = nullptr;
          this->rowInEdit = -1;
       }
       else
       if ( this->dataGridView1->ContainsFocus )
       {
          this->customerInEdit = nullptr;
          this->rowInEdit = -1;
       }
    }
    
    
    
    private void dataGridView1_RowValidated(object sender,
        System.Windows.Forms.DataGridViewCellEventArgs e)
    {
        // Save row changes if any were made and release the edited 
        // Customer object if there is one.
        if (e.RowIndex >= this.customers.Count &&
            e.RowIndex != this.dataGridView1.Rows.Count - 1)
        {
            // Add the new Customer object to the data store.
            this.customers.Add(this.customerInEdit);
            this.customerInEdit = null;
            this.rowInEdit = -1;
        }
        else if (this.customerInEdit != null &&
            e.RowIndex < this.customers.Count)
        {
            // Save the modified Customer object in the data store.
            this.customers[e.RowIndex] = this.customerInEdit;
            this.customerInEdit = null;
            this.rowInEdit = -1;
        }
        else if (this.dataGridView1.ContainsFocus)
        {
            this.customerInEdit = null;
            this.rowInEdit = -1;
        }
    }
    
    Private Sub dataGridView1_RowValidated(ByVal sender As Object, _
        ByVal e As System.Windows.Forms.DataGridViewCellEventArgs) _
        Handles dataGridView1.RowValidated
    
        ' Save row changes if any were made and release the edited 
        ' Customer object if there is one.
        If e.RowIndex >= Me.customers.Count AndAlso _
            e.RowIndex <> Me.dataGridView1.Rows.Count - 1 Then
    
            ' Add the new Customer object to the data store.
            Me.customers.Add(Me.customerInEdit)
            Me.customerInEdit = Nothing
            Me.rowInEdit = -1
    
        ElseIf (Me.customerInEdit IsNot Nothing) AndAlso _
            e.RowIndex < Me.customers.Count Then
    
            ' Save the modified Customer object in the data store.
            Me.customers(e.RowIndex) = Me.customerInEdit
            Me.customerInEdit = Nothing
            Me.rowInEdit = -1
    
        ElseIf Me.dataGridView1.ContainsFocus Then
    
            Me.customerInEdit = Nothing
            Me.rowInEdit = -1
    
        End If
    
    End Sub
    
  7. 实现的处理程序RowDirtyStateNeeded事件,该值指示是否CancelRowEdit用户两次在编辑模式下或在非编辑模式,按 esc 键指示行恢复时,事件将会发生。Implement a handler for the RowDirtyStateNeeded event that indicates whether the CancelRowEdit event will occur when the user signals row reversion by pressing ESC twice in edit mode or once outside of edit mode.

    默认情况下CancelRowEdit在恢复行的当前行中的任何单元格已被修改,除非时发生QuestionEventArgs.Response属性设置为trueRowDirtyStateNeeded事件处理程序。By default, CancelRowEdit occurs upon row reversion when any cells in the current row have been modified unless the QuestionEventArgs.Response property is set to true in the RowDirtyStateNeeded event handler. 在运行时确定提交作用域时,此事件非常有用。This event is useful when the commit scope is determined at run time.

    void dataGridView1_RowDirtyStateNeeded( Object^ /*sender*/,
        System::Windows::Forms::QuestionEventArgs^ e )
    {
       if (  !rowScopeCommit )
       {
          
          // In cell-level commit scope, indicate whether the value
          // of the current cell has been modified.
          e->Response = this->dataGridView1->IsCurrentCellDirty;
       }
    }
    
    
    
    private void dataGridView1_RowDirtyStateNeeded(object sender,
        System.Windows.Forms.QuestionEventArgs e)
    {
        if (!rowScopeCommit)
        {
            // In cell-level commit scope, indicate whether the value
            // of the current cell has been modified.
            e.Response = this.dataGridView1.IsCurrentCellDirty;
        }
    }
    
    Private Sub dataGridView1_RowDirtyStateNeeded(ByVal sender As Object, _
        ByVal e As System.Windows.Forms.QuestionEventArgs) _
        Handles dataGridView1.RowDirtyStateNeeded
    
        If Not rowScopeCommit Then
    
            ' In cell-level commit scope, indicate whether the value
            ' of the current cell has been modified.
            e.Response = Me.dataGridView1.IsCurrentCellDirty
    
        End If
    
    End Sub
    
  8. 实现的处理程序CancelRowEdit放弃的值的事件Customer对象,表示当前行。Implement a handler for the CancelRowEdit event that discards the values of the Customer object representing the current row.

    当用户在编辑模式中两次或一次非编辑模式,按 esc 键指示行恢复时,将发生此事件。This event occurs when the user signals row reversion by pressing ESC twice in edit mode or once outside of edit mode. 如果没有当前行中的单元格已被修改,或如果不会发生此事件的值QuestionEventArgs.Response属性已设置为falseRowDirtyStateNeeded事件处理程序。This event does not occur if no cells in the current row have been modified or if the value of the QuestionEventArgs.Response property has been set to false in a RowDirtyStateNeeded event handler.

    void dataGridView1_CancelRowEdit( Object^ /*sender*/,
        System::Windows::Forms::QuestionEventArgs^ /*e*/ )
    {
       if ( this->rowInEdit == this->dataGridView1->Rows->Count - 2 &&
            this->rowInEdit == this->customers->Count )
       {
          
          // If the user has canceled the edit of a newly created row, 
          // replace the corresponding Customer object with a new, empty one.
          this->customerInEdit = gcnew Customer;
       }
       else
       {
          
          // If the user has canceled the edit of an existing row, 
          // release the corresponding Customer object.
          this->customerInEdit = nullptr;
          this->rowInEdit = -1;
       }
    }
    
    
    
    private void dataGridView1_CancelRowEdit(object sender,
        System.Windows.Forms.QuestionEventArgs e)
    {
        if (this.rowInEdit == this.dataGridView1.Rows.Count - 2 &&
            this.rowInEdit == this.customers.Count)
        {
            // If the user has canceled the edit of a newly created row, 
            // replace the corresponding Customer object with a new, empty one.
            this.customerInEdit = new Customer();
        }
        else
        {
            // If the user has canceled the edit of an existing row, 
            // release the corresponding Customer object.
            this.customerInEdit = null;
            this.rowInEdit = -1;
        }
    }
    
    Private Sub dataGridView1_CancelRowEdit(ByVal sender As Object, _
        ByVal e As System.Windows.Forms.QuestionEventArgs) _
        Handles dataGridView1.CancelRowEdit
    
        If Me.rowInEdit = Me.dataGridView1.Rows.Count - 2 AndAlso _
            Me.rowInEdit = Me.customers.Count Then
    
            ' If the user has canceled the edit of a newly created row, 
            ' replace the corresponding Customer object with a new, empty one.
            Me.customerInEdit = New Customer()
    
        Else
    
            ' If the user has canceled the edit of an existing row, 
            ' release the corresponding Customer object.
            Me.customerInEdit = Nothing
            Me.rowInEdit = -1
    
        End If
    
    End Sub
    
  9. 实现的处理程序UserDeletingRow删除现有的事件Customer数据存储区中的对象或放弃未保存Customer对象,表示新创建的行。Implement a handler for the UserDeletingRow event that deletes an existing Customer object from the data store or discards an unsaved Customer object representing a newly created row.

    每当用户通过单击行标题并按 DELETE 键删除行时,将发生此事件。This event occurs whenever the user deletes a row by clicking a row header and pressing the DELETE key.

    void dataGridView1_UserDeletingRow( Object^ /*sender*/,
        System::Windows::Forms::DataGridViewRowCancelEventArgs^ e )
    {
       if ( e->Row->Index < this->customers->Count )
       {
          
          // If the user has deleted an existing row, remove the 
          // corresponding Customer object from the data store.
          this->customers->RemoveAt( e->Row->Index );
       }
    
       if ( e->Row->Index == this->rowInEdit )
       {
          
          // If the user has deleted a newly created row, release
          // the corresponding Customer object. 
          this->rowInEdit = -1;
          this->customerInEdit = nullptr;
       }
    }
    
    private void dataGridView1_UserDeletingRow(object sender,
        System.Windows.Forms.DataGridViewRowCancelEventArgs e)
    {
        if (e.Row.Index < this.customers.Count)
        {
            // If the user has deleted an existing row, remove the 
            // corresponding Customer object from the data store.
            this.customers.RemoveAt(e.Row.Index);
        }
    
        if (e.Row.Index == this.rowInEdit)
        {
            // If the user has deleted a newly created row, release
            // the corresponding Customer object. 
            this.rowInEdit = -1;
            this.customerInEdit = null;
        }
    }
    
    Private Sub dataGridView1_UserDeletingRow(ByVal sender As Object, _
        ByVal e As System.Windows.Forms.DataGridViewRowCancelEventArgs) _
        Handles dataGridView1.UserDeletingRow
    
        If e.Row.Index < Me.customers.Count Then
    
            ' If the user has deleted an existing row, remove the 
            ' corresponding Customer object from the data store.
            Me.customers.RemoveAt(e.Row.Index)
    
        End If
    
        If e.Row.Index = Me.rowInEdit Then
    
            ' If the user has deleted a newly created row, release
            ' the corresponding Customer object. 
            Me.rowInEdit = -1
            Me.customerInEdit = Nothing
    
        End If
    
    End Sub
    
  10. 实现一个简单Customers类来表示此代码示例使用的数据项目。Implement a simple Customers class to represent the data items used by this code example.

    public ref class Customer
    {
    private:
       String^ companyNameValue;
       String^ contactNameValue;
    
    public:
       Customer()
       {
          
          // Leave fields empty.
       }
    
       Customer( String^ companyName, String^ contactName )
       {
          companyNameValue = companyName;
          contactNameValue = contactName;
       }
    
    
       property String^ CompanyName 
       {
          String^ get()
          {
             return companyNameValue;
          }
    
          void set( String^ value )
          {
             companyNameValue = value;
          }
    
       }
    
       property String^ ContactName 
       {
          String^ get()
          {
             return contactNameValue;
          }
    
          void set( String^ value )
          {
             contactNameValue = value;
          }
    
       }
    
    };
    
    public class Customer
    {
        private String companyNameValue;
        private String contactNameValue;
    
        public Customer()
        {
            // Leave fields empty.
        }
    
        public Customer(String companyName, String contactName)
        {
            companyNameValue = companyName;
            contactNameValue = contactName;
        }
    
        public String CompanyName
        {
            get
            {
                return companyNameValue;
            }
            set
            {
                companyNameValue = value;
            }
        }
    
        public String ContactName
        {
            get
            {
                return contactNameValue;
            }
            set
            {
                contactNameValue = value;
            }
        }
    }
    
    Public Class Customer
    
        Private companyNameValue As String
        Private contactNameValue As String
    
        Public Sub New()
            ' Leave fields empty.
        End Sub
    
        Public Sub New(ByVal companyName As String, ByVal contactName As String)
            companyNameValue = companyName
            contactNameValue = contactName
        End Sub
    
        Public Property CompanyName() As String
            Get
                Return companyNameValue
            End Get
            Set(ByVal value As String)
                companyNameValue = value
            End Set
        End Property
    
        Public Property ContactName() As String
            Get
                Return contactNameValue
            End Get
            Set(ByVal value As String)
                contactNameValue = value
            End Set
        End Property
    
    End Class
    

测试应用程序Testing the Application

现在可以测试窗体,以确保其行为符合预期。You can now test the form to make sure it behaves as expected.

若要测试窗体To test the form

  • 编译并运行该应用程序。Compile and run the application.

    你将看到DataGridView控件填充三个客户记录。You will see a DataGridView control populated with three customer records. 可以修改行中的多个单元格的值,并在编辑模式中两次,一次非编辑模式,若要还原到其原始值的整行,请按 esc 键。You can modify the values of multiple cells in a row and press ESC twice in edit mode and once outside of edit mode to revert the entire row to its original values. 当你修改、 添加或删除控件中的行时Customer修改、 添加或删除数据存储中的对象。When you modify, add, or delete rows in the control, Customer objects in the data store are modified, added, or deleted as well.

后续步骤Next Steps

此应用程序为您提供了必须处理实现中的虚拟模式的事件的一个基本的了解DataGridView控件。This application gives you a basic understanding of the events you must handle to implement virtual mode in the DataGridView control. 您可以提高在多方面此基本应用程序:You can improve this basic application in a number of ways:

  • 实现缓存来自外部数据库的值的数据存储。Implement a data store that caches values from an external database. 缓存应检索并放弃根据需要的值,使其仅包含必要的操作时使用少量内存客户端计算机上的显示。The cache should retrieve and discard values as necessary so that it only contains what is necessary for display while consuming a small amount of memory on the client computer.

  • 对数据存储,具体取决于你的需求的性能进行微调。Fine-tune the performance of the data store depending on your requirements. 例如,你可能想要通过使用更大的缓存大小和最大程度减少数据库查询的次数补偿慢速网络连接,而客户端计算机的内存限制。For example, you might want to compensate for slow network connections rather than client-computer memory limitations by using a larger cache size and minimizing the number of database queries.

有关缓存来自外部数据库的值的详细信息,请参阅如何:实现虚拟模式在 Windows 中实时数据加载窗体 DataGridView 控件For more information about caching values from an external database, see How to: Implement Virtual Mode with Just-In-Time Data Loading in the Windows Forms DataGridView Control.

请参阅See also