如何:向集合添加限制和阻塞功能

本示例演示如何通过实现类中的 System.Collections.Concurrent.IProducerConsumerCollection<T> 接口,然后将类实例用作 System.Collections.Concurrent.BlockingCollection<T> 的内部存储机制,来向自定义集合类添加限制和阻塞功能。 有关限制和阻塞的详细信息,请参阅 BlockingCollection 概述

示例

自定义集合类是一个基本优先级别队列,优先级别在其中表示为 System.Collections.Concurrent.ConcurrentQueue<T> 对象的数组。 在每个队列中不进行其他排序。

客户端代码中启动了三个任务。 第一个任务仅轮询键盘键击以便在执行过程中的任意时刻启用取消。 第二个任务是制造者线程;它会向阻塞集合添加新项并根据随机值为每个项分配一个优先级。 第三个任务在项可用时将其从集合中移除。

可以通过使其中一个线程运行速度快于另一个线程来调整应用程序的行为。 如果制造者运行速度更快,则在阻塞集合阻止添加项(如果该集合已包含构造函数中所指定的项数)时,你会注意到限制功能。 如果使用者运行速度更快,则在使用者等待添加新项时,你会注意到阻塞功能。

namespace ProdConsumerCS
{
    using System;
    using System.Collections;
    using System.Collections.Concurrent;
    using System.Collections.Generic;
    using System.Diagnostics;
    using System.Linq;
    using System.Text;
    using System.Threading;
    using System.Threading.Tasks;

    // Implementation of a priority queue that has bounding and blocking functionality.
    public class SimplePriorityQueue<TPriority, TValue> : IProducerConsumerCollection<KeyValuePair<int, TValue>>
    {
        // Each internal queue in the array represents a priority level.
        // All elements in a given array share the same priority.
        private ConcurrentQueue<KeyValuePair<int, TValue>>[] _queues = null;

        // The number of queues we store internally.
        private int priorityCount = 0;
        private int m_count = 0;

        public SimplePriorityQueue(int priCount)
        {
            this.priorityCount = priCount;
            _queues = new ConcurrentQueue<KeyValuePair<int, TValue>>[priorityCount];
            for (int i = 0; i < priorityCount; i++)
                _queues[i] = new ConcurrentQueue<KeyValuePair<int, TValue>>();
        }

        // IProducerConsumerCollection members
        public bool TryAdd(KeyValuePair<int, TValue> item)
        {
            _queues[item.Key].Enqueue(item);
            Interlocked.Increment(ref m_count);
            return true;
        }

        public bool TryTake(out KeyValuePair<int, TValue> item)
        {
            bool success = false;

            // Loop through the queues in priority order
            // looking for an item to dequeue.
            for (int i = 0; i < priorityCount; i++)
            {
                // Lock the internal data so that the Dequeue
                // operation and the updating of m_count are atomic.
                lock (_queues)
                {
                    success = _queues[i].TryDequeue(out item);
                    if (success)
                    {
                        Interlocked.Decrement(ref m_count);
                        return true;
                    }
                }
            }

            // If we get here, we found nothing.
            // Assign the out parameter to its default value and return false.
            item = new KeyValuePair<int, TValue>(0, default(TValue));
            return false;
        }

        public int Count
        {
            get { return m_count; }
        }

        // Required for ICollection
        void ICollection.CopyTo(Array array, int index)
        {
            CopyTo(array as KeyValuePair<int, TValue>[], index);
        }

        // CopyTo is problematic in a producer-consumer.
        // The destination array might be shorter or longer than what
        // we get from ToArray due to adds or takes after the destination array was allocated.
        // Therefore, all we try to do here is fill up destination with as much
        // data as we have without running off the end.
        public void CopyTo(KeyValuePair<int, TValue>[] destination, int destStartingIndex)
        {
            if (destination == null) throw new ArgumentNullException();
            if (destStartingIndex < 0) throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException();

            int remaining = destination.Length;
            KeyValuePair<int, TValue>[] temp = this.ToArray();
            for (int i = 0; i < destination.Length && i < temp.Length; i++)
                destination[i] = temp[i];
        }

        public KeyValuePair<int, TValue>[] ToArray()
        {
            KeyValuePair<int, TValue>[] result;

            lock (_queues)
            {
                result = new KeyValuePair<int, TValue>[this.Count];
                int index = 0;
                foreach (var q in _queues)
                {
                    if (q.Count > 0)
                    {
                        q.CopyTo(result, index);
                        index += q.Count;
                    }
                }
                return result;
            }
        }

        IEnumerator IEnumerable.GetEnumerator()
        {
            return GetEnumerator();
        }

        public IEnumerator<KeyValuePair<int, TValue>> GetEnumerator()
        {
            for (int i = 0; i < priorityCount; i++)
            {
                foreach (var item in _queues[i])
                    yield return item;
            }
        }

        public bool IsSynchronized
        {
            get
            {
                throw new NotSupportedException();
            }
        }

        public object SyncRoot
        {
            get { throw new NotSupportedException(); }
        }
    }

    public class TestBlockingCollection
    {
        static void Main()
        {

            int priorityCount = 7;
            SimplePriorityQueue<int, int> queue = new SimplePriorityQueue<int, int>(priorityCount);
            var bc = new BlockingCollection<KeyValuePair<int, int>>(queue, 50);

            CancellationTokenSource cts = new CancellationTokenSource();

            Task.Run(() =>
                {
                    if (Console.ReadKey(true).KeyChar == 'c')
                        cts.Cancel();
                });

            // Create a Task array so that we can Wait on it
            // and catch any exceptions, including user cancellation.
            Task[] tasks = new Task[2];

            // Create a producer thread. You can change the code to
            // make the wait time a bit slower than the consumer
            // thread to demonstrate the blocking capability.
            tasks[0] = Task.Run(() =>
            {
                // We randomize the wait time, and use that value
                // to determine the priority level (Key) of the item.
                Random r = new Random();

                int itemsToAdd = 40;
                int count = 0;
                while (!cts.Token.IsCancellationRequested && itemsToAdd-- > 0)
                {
                    int waitTime = r.Next(2000);
                    int priority = waitTime % priorityCount;
                    var item = new KeyValuePair<int, int>(priority, count++);

                    bc.Add(item);
                    Console.WriteLine("added pri {0}, data={1}", item.Key, item.Value);
                }
                Console.WriteLine("Producer is done adding.");
                bc.CompleteAdding();
            },
             cts.Token);

            //Give the producer a chance to add some items.
            Thread.SpinWait(1000000);

            // Create a consumer thread. The wait time is
            // a bit slower than the producer thread to demonstrate
            // the bounding capability at the high end. Change this value to see
            // the consumer run faster to demonstrate the blocking functionality
            // at the low end.

            tasks[1] = Task.Run(() =>
                {
                    while (!bc.IsCompleted && !cts.Token.IsCancellationRequested)
                    {
                        Random r = new Random();
                        int waitTime = r.Next(2000);
                        Thread.SpinWait(waitTime * 70);

                        // KeyValuePair is a value type. Initialize to avoid compile error in if(success)
                        KeyValuePair<int, int> item = new KeyValuePair<int, int>();
                        bool success = false;
                        success = bc.TryTake(out item);
                        if (success)
                        {
                            // Do something useful with the data.
                            Console.WriteLine("removed Pri = {0} data = {1} collCount= {2}", item.Key, item.Value, bc.Count);
                        }
                        else
                        {
                            Console.WriteLine("No items to retrieve. count = {0}", bc.Count);
                        }
                    }
                    Console.WriteLine("Exited consumer loop");
                },
                cts.Token);

            try {
                Task.WaitAll(tasks, cts.Token);
            }
            catch (OperationCanceledException e) {
                if (e.CancellationToken == cts.Token)
                    Console.WriteLine("Operation was canceled by user. Press any key to exit");
            }
            catch (AggregateException ae) {
                foreach (var v in ae.InnerExceptions)
                    Console.WriteLine(v.Message);
            }
            finally {
                cts.Dispose();
            }

            Console.ReadKey(true);
        }
    }
}

默认情况下,System.Collections.Concurrent.BlockingCollection<T> 的存储为 System.Collections.Concurrent.ConcurrentQueue<T>

另请参阅