垃圾回收通知Garbage Collection Notifications

在有些情况下,公共语言运行时执行的完整垃圾回收(即第 2 代回收)可能会对性能产生负面影响。There are situations in which a full garbage collection (that is, a generation 2 collection) by the common language runtime may adversely affect performance. 特别是,处理大量请求的服务器可能会出现此问题;在这种情况下,长时间垃圾回收会导致请求超时。为了防止在关键时期发生完全回收,可以接收即将执行完全垃圾回收的通知,再采取措施将工作负载重定向到另一个服务器实例。This can be an issue particularly with servers that process large volumes of requests; in this case, a long garbage collection can cause a request time-out. To prevent a full collection from occurring during a critical period, you can be notified that a full garbage collection is approaching and then take action to redirect the workload to another server instance. 也可以自行诱导回收,前提是当前服务器实例不需要处理请求。You can also induce a collection yourself, provided that the current server instance does not need to process requests.

RegisterForFullGCNotification 方法注册为,在运行时检测到即将执行完全垃圾回收时发出通知。The RegisterForFullGCNotification method registers for a notification to be raised when the runtime senses that a full garbage collection is approaching. 此通知分为两个部分:完全垃圾回收何时即将执行,以及完全垃圾回收何时完成。There are two parts to this notification: when the full garbage collection is approaching and when the full garbage collection has completed.

警告

只有阻止垃圾回收会引发通知。Only blocking garbage collections raise notifications. 如果 <gcConcurrent> 配置元素已启用,后台垃圾回收不会发出通知。When the <gcConcurrent> configuration element is enabled, background garbage collections will not raise notifications.

若要确定何时发出通知,请使用 WaitForFullGCApproachWaitForFullGCComplete 方法。To determine when a notification has been raised, use the WaitForFullGCApproach and WaitForFullGCComplete methods. 通常,在 while 循环中使用这些方法,以持续获取表示通知状态的 GCNotificationStatus 枚举。Typically, you use these methods in a while loop to continually obtain a GCNotificationStatus enumeration that shows the status of the notification. 如果值为 Succeeded,可以执行下列操作:If that value is Succeeded, you can do the following:

  • 为了响应使用 WaitForFullGCApproach 方法获得的通知,可以重定向工作负载,并能自行诱导回收。In response to a notification obtained with the WaitForFullGCApproach method, you can redirect the workload and possibly induce a collection yourself.

  • 为了响应使用 WaitForFullGCComplete 方法获得的通知,可以让当前服务器实例再次用于处理请求。In response to a notification obtained with the WaitForFullGCComplete method, you can make the current server instance available to process requests again. 也可以收集信息。You can also gather information. 例如,可以使用 CollectionCount 方法记录回收次数。For example, you can use the CollectionCount method to record the number of collections.

WaitForFullGCApproachWaitForFullGCComplete 方法要配合使用。The WaitForFullGCApproach and the WaitForFullGCComplete methods are designed to work together. 使用一个方法,而不使用另一个方法,可能会生成不确定的结果。Using one without the other can produce indeterminate results.

完全垃圾回收Full Garbage Collection

如果发生下列任一情况,运行时就会执行完全垃圾回收:The runtime causes a full garbage collection when any of the following scenarios are true:

  • 足够多的内存已提升到第 2 代,导致执行下一个第 2 代回收。Enough memory has been promoted into generation 2 to cause the next generation 2 collection.

  • 足够多的内存已提升到大型对象堆,导致执行下一个第 2 代回收。Enough memory has been promoted into the large object heap to cause the next generation 2 collection.

  • 由于其他因素,导致第 1 代回收升级为第 2 代回收。A collection of generation 1 is escalated to a collection of generation 2 due to other factors.

RegisterForFullGCNotification 方法中指定的阈值适用于前两种情况。The thresholds you specify in the RegisterForFullGCNotification method apply to the first two scenarios. 不过,在第一种情况下,不一定会在与指定的阈值相称的时间收到通知,原因有下面两个:However, in the first scenario you will not always receive the notification at the time proportional to the threshold values you specify for two reasons:

  • 运行时不检查每个小型对象分配(出于性能考虑)。The runtime does not check each small object allocation (for performance reasons).

  • 只有第 1 代回收将内存提升到第 2 代。Only generation 1 collections promote memory into generation 2.

第三种情况也加剧了通知接收时间的不确定性。The third scenario also contributes to the uncertainty of when you will receive the notification. 可以在此期间重定向请求,或在可以更好适应时自行诱导回收,从而减轻不合时宜的完全垃圾回收造成的影响。尽管并不保证有效,但确实证明这是非常实用的方法。Although this is not a guarantee, it does prove to be a useful way to mitigate the effects of an inopportune full garbage collection by redirecting the requests during this time or inducing the collection yourself when it can be better accommodated.

通知阈值参数Notification Threshold Parameters

RegisterForFullGCNotification 方法包含两个参数,用于指定第 2 代对象和大型对象堆的阈值。The RegisterForFullGCNotification method has two parameters to specify the threshold values of the generation 2 objects and the large object heap. 如果达到这些值,就应发出垃圾回收通知。When those values are met, a garbage collection notification should be raised. 下表介绍了这些参数。The following table describes these parameters.

参数Parameter 说明Description
maxGenerationThreshold 介于 1 和 99 之间的数字,指定根据在第 2 代中提升的对象,应何时发出通知。A number between 1 and 99 that specifies when the notification should be raised based on the objects promoted in generation 2.
largeObjectHeapThreshold 介于 1 和 99 之间的数字,指定根据大型对象堆中分配的对象,应何时发出通知。A number between 1 and 99 that specifies when the notification should be raised based on the objects that are allocated in the large object heap.

如果指定的值过高,很可能会出现的情况是,将会收到通知,但在运行时执行回收前等待的时间太长。If you specify a value that is too high, there is a high probability that you will receive a notification, but it could be too long a period to wait before the runtime causes a collection. 如果自行诱导回收,回收的对象可能会多于在运行时执行回收时回收的对象。If you induce a collection yourself, you may reclaim more objects than would be reclaimed if the runtime causes the collection.

如果指定的值过低,在运行时执行回收前等待通知的时间可能不够长。If you specify a value that is too low, the runtime may cause the collection before you have had sufficient time to be notified.

示例Example

说明Description

在下面的示例中,一组服务器处理传入的 Web 请求。In the following example, a group of servers service incoming Web requests. 为了模拟处理请求的工作负载,将字节数组添加到 List<T> 集合中。To simulate the workload of processing requests, byte arrays are added to a List<T> collection. 每个服务器都会注册获取垃圾回收通知,再对 WaitForFullGCProc 用户方法启动线程,以持续监视 WaitForFullGCApproachWaitForFullGCComplete 方法返回的 GCNotificationStatus 枚举。Each server registers for a garbage collection notification and then starts a thread on the WaitForFullGCProc user method to continuously monitor the GCNotificationStatus enumeration that is returned by the WaitForFullGCApproach and the WaitForFullGCComplete methods.

在通知发出时,WaitForFullGCApproachWaitForFullGCComplete 方法调用它们各自的事件处理用户方法:The WaitForFullGCApproach and the WaitForFullGCComplete methods call their respective event-handling user methods when a notification is raised:

  • OnFullGCApproachNotify

    此方法调用 RedirectRequests 用户方法,指示请求队列服务器暂停向服务器发送请求。This method calls the RedirectRequests user method, which instructs the request queuing server to suspend sending requests to the server. 具体模拟方式是,将类级别变量 bAllocate 设置为 false,这样就不会再分配对象。This is simulated by setting the class-level variable bAllocate to false so that no more objects are allocated.

    接下来,调用 FinishExistingRequests 用户方法,完成处理挂起的服务器请求。Next, the FinishExistingRequests user method is called to finish processing the pending server requests. 具体模拟方式是,清除 List<T> 集合。This is simulated by clearing the List<T> collection.

    最后,由于工作负载很轻,诱导垃圾回收。Finally, a garbage collection is induced because the workload is light.

  • OnFullGCCompleteNotify

    此方法调用用户方法 AcceptRequests 以继续接受请求,因为服务器不再易受完全垃圾回收影响。This method calls the user method AcceptRequests to resume accepting requests because the server is no longer susceptible to a full garbage collection. 此操作的具体模拟方式是,将 bAllocate 变量设置为 true,以便能够继续将对象添加到 List<T> 集合。This action is simulated by setting the bAllocate variable to true so that objects can resume being added to the List<T> collection.

下面的代码包含示例的 Main 方法。The following code contains the Main method of the example.

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;
using namespace System::Threading;

namespace GCNotify
{
    ref class Program
    {
    private:
        // Variable for continual checking in the
        // While loop in the WaitForFullGCProc method.
        static bool checkForNotify = false;

        // Variable for suspending work
        // (such servicing allocated server requests)
        // after a notification is received and then
        // resuming allocation after inducing a garbage collection.
        static bool bAllocate = false;

        // Variable for ending the example.
        static bool finalExit = false;

        // Collection for objects that
        // simulate the server request workload.
        static List<array<Byte>^>^ load = gcnew List<array<Byte>^>();


    public:
        static void Main()
        {
            try
            {
                // Register for a notification.
                GC::RegisterForFullGCNotification(10, 10);
                Console::WriteLine("Registered for GC notification.");

                checkForNotify = true;
                bAllocate = true;

                // Start a thread using WaitForFullGCProc.
                Thread^ thWaitForFullGC = gcnew Thread(gcnew ThreadStart(&WaitForFullGCProc));
                thWaitForFullGC->Start();

                // While the thread is checking for notifications in
                // WaitForFullGCProc, create objects to simulate a server workload.
                try
                {
                    int lastCollCount = 0;
                    int newCollCount = 0;


                    while (true)
                    {
                        if (bAllocate)
                        {
                            load->Add(gcnew array<Byte>(1000));
                            newCollCount = GC::CollectionCount(2);
                            if (newCollCount != lastCollCount)
                            {
                                // Show collection count when it increases:
                                Console::WriteLine("Gen 2 collection count: {0}", GC::CollectionCount(2).ToString());
                                lastCollCount = newCollCount;
                            }

                            // For ending the example (arbitrary).
                            if (newCollCount == 500)
                            {
                                finalExit = true;
                                checkForNotify = false;
                                break;
                            }
                        }
                    }

                }
                catch (OutOfMemoryException^)
                {
                    Console::WriteLine("Out of memory.");
                }


                finalExit = true;
                checkForNotify = false;
                GC::CancelFullGCNotification();

            }
            catch (InvalidOperationException^ invalidOp)
            {

                Console::WriteLine("GC Notifications are not supported while concurrent GC is enabled.\n"
                    + invalidOp->Message);
            }
        }

    public:
        static void OnFullGCApproachNotify()
        {
            Console::WriteLine("Redirecting requests.");

            // Method that tells the request queuing
            // server to not direct requests to this server.
            RedirectRequests();

            // Method that provides time to
            // finish processing pending requests.
            FinishExistingRequests();

            // This is a good time to induce a GC collection
            // because the runtime will induce a full GC soon.
            // To be very careful, you can check precede with a
            // check of the GC.GCCollectionCount to make sure
            // a full GC did not already occur since last notified.
            GC::Collect();
            Console::WriteLine("Induced a collection.");

        }


    public:
        static void OnFullGCCompleteEndNotify()
        {
            // Method that informs the request queuing server
            // that this server is ready to accept requests again.
            AcceptRequests();
            Console::WriteLine("Accepting requests again.");
        }

    public:
        static void WaitForFullGCProc()
        {
            while (true)
            {
                // CheckForNotify is set to true and false in Main.
                while (checkForNotify)
                {
                    // Check for a notification of an approaching collection.
                    GCNotificationStatus s = GC::WaitForFullGCApproach();
                    if (s == GCNotificationStatus::Succeeded)
                    {
                        Console::WriteLine("GC Notifiction raised.");
                        OnFullGCApproachNotify();
                    }
                    else if (s == GCNotificationStatus::Canceled)
                    {
                        Console::WriteLine("GC Notification cancelled.");
                        break;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        // This can occur if a timeout period
                        // is specified for WaitForFullGCApproach(Timeout)
                        // or WaitForFullGCComplete(Timeout)
                        // and the time out period has elapsed.
                        Console::WriteLine("GC Notification not applicable.");
                        break;
                    }

                    // Check for a notification of a completed collection.
                    s = GC::WaitForFullGCComplete();
                    if (s == GCNotificationStatus::Succeeded)
                    {
                        Console::WriteLine("GC Notification raised.");
                        OnFullGCCompleteEndNotify();
                    }
                    else if (s == GCNotificationStatus::Canceled)
                    {
                        Console::WriteLine("GC Notification cancelled.");
                        break;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        // Could be a time out.
                        Console::WriteLine("GC Notification not applicable.");
                        break;
                    }
                }


                Thread::Sleep(500);
                // FinalExit is set to true right before
                // the main thread cancelled notification.
                if (finalExit)
                {
                    break;
                }
            }
        }

    private:
        static void RedirectRequests()
        {
            // Code that sends requests
            // to other servers.

            // Suspend work.
            bAllocate = false;

        }

        static void FinishExistingRequests()
        {
            // Code that waits a period of time
            // for pending requests to finish.

            // Clear the simulated workload.
            load->Clear();

        }

        static void AcceptRequests()
        {
            // Code that resumes processing
            // requests on this server.

            // Resume work.
            bAllocate = true;
        }
    };
}

int main()
{
    GCNotify::Program::Main();
}
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Threading;

namespace GCNotify
{
    class Program
    {
        // Variable for continual checking in the 
        // While loop in the WaitForFullGCProc method.
        static bool checkForNotify = false;

        // Variable for suspending work 
        // (such servicing allocated server requests)
        // after a notification is received and then 
        // resuming allocation after inducing a garbage collection.
        static bool bAllocate = false;

        // Variable for ending the example.
        static bool finalExit = false;

        // Collection for objects that  
        // simulate the server request workload.
        static List<byte[]> load = new List<byte[]>();


        public static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            try
            {
                // Register for a notification. 
                GC.RegisterForFullGCNotification(10, 10);
                Console.WriteLine("Registered for GC notification.");

                checkForNotify = true;
                bAllocate = true;

                // Start a thread using WaitForFullGCProc.
                Thread thWaitForFullGC = new Thread(new ThreadStart(WaitForFullGCProc));
                thWaitForFullGC.Start();

                // While the thread is checking for notifications in
                // WaitForFullGCProc, create objects to simulate a server workload.
                try
                {

                    int lastCollCount = 0;
                    int newCollCount = 0;
                    
                    
                    while (true)
                    {
                        if (bAllocate)
                        {
                            load.Add(new byte[1000]);
                            newCollCount = GC.CollectionCount(2);
                            if (newCollCount != lastCollCount)
                            {
                                // Show collection count when it increases:
                                Console.WriteLine("Gen 2 collection count: {0}", GC.CollectionCount(2).ToString());
                                lastCollCount = newCollCount;
                            }
                           
                            // For ending the example (arbitrary).
                            if (newCollCount == 500)
                            {
                                finalExit = true;
                                checkForNotify = false;
                                break;
                            }
                        }
                    }

                }
                catch (OutOfMemoryException)
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("Out of memory.");
                }


                finalExit = true;
                checkForNotify = false;
                GC.CancelFullGCNotification();

            }
            catch (InvalidOperationException invalidOp)
            {

                Console.WriteLine("GC Notifications are not supported while concurrent GC is enabled.\n"
                    + invalidOp.Message);
            }
        }

        public static void OnFullGCApproachNotify()
        {

            Console.WriteLine("Redirecting requests.");

            // Method that tells the request queuing  
            // server to not direct requests to this server. 
            RedirectRequests();

            // Method that provides time to 
            // finish processing pending requests. 
            FinishExistingRequests();

            // This is a good time to induce a GC collection
            // because the runtime will induce a full GC soon.
            // To be very careful, you can check precede with a
            // check of the GC.GCCollectionCount to make sure
            // a full GC did not already occur since last notified.
            GC.Collect();
            Console.WriteLine("Induced a collection.");

        }


        public static void OnFullGCCompleteEndNotify()
        {
            // Method that informs the request queuing server
            // that this server is ready to accept requests again.
            AcceptRequests();
            Console.WriteLine("Accepting requests again.");
        }

        public static void WaitForFullGCProc()
        {
            while (true)
            {
                // CheckForNotify is set to true and false in Main.
                while (checkForNotify)
                {
                    // Check for a notification of an approaching collection.
                    GCNotificationStatus s = GC.WaitForFullGCApproach();
                    if (s == GCNotificationStatus.Succeeded)
                    {
                        Console.WriteLine("GC Notification raised.");
                        OnFullGCApproachNotify();
                    }
                    else if (s == GCNotificationStatus.Canceled)
                    {
                        Console.WriteLine("GC Notification cancelled.");
                        break;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        // This can occur if a timeout period
                        // is specified for WaitForFullGCApproach(Timeout) 
                        // or WaitForFullGCComplete(Timeout)  
                        // and the time out period has elapsed. 
                        Console.WriteLine("GC Notification not applicable.");
                        break;
                    }

                    // Check for a notification of a completed collection.
                    GCNotificationStatus status = GC.WaitForFullGCComplete();
                    if (status == GCNotificationStatus.Succeeded)
                    {
                        Console.WriteLine("GC Notification raised.");
                        OnFullGCCompleteEndNotify();
                    }
                    else if (status == GCNotificationStatus.Canceled)
                    {
                        Console.WriteLine("GC Notification cancelled.");
                        break;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        // Could be a time out.
                        Console.WriteLine("GC Notification not applicable.");
                        break;
                    }
                }


                Thread.Sleep(500);
                // FinalExit is set to true right before  
                // the main thread cancelled notification.
                if (finalExit)
                {
                    break;
                }
            }

        }

        private static void RedirectRequests()
        {
            // Code that sends requests
            // to other servers.

            // Suspend work.
            bAllocate = false;

        }

        private static void FinishExistingRequests()
        {
            // Code that waits a period of time
            // for pending requests to finish.

            // Clear the simulated workload.
            load.Clear();

        }

        private static void AcceptRequests()
        {
            // Code that resumes processing
            // requests on this server.

            // Resume work.
            bAllocate = true;

        }
    }
}
Imports System.Collections.Generic
Imports System.Threading

Class Program
    ' Variables for continual checking in the
    ' While loop in the WaitForFullGcProc method.
    Private Shared checkForNotify As Boolean = False

    ' Variable for suspending work 
    ' (such as servicing allocated server requests)
    ' after a notification is received and then 
    ' resuming allocation after inducing a garbage collection.
    Private Shared bAllocate As Boolean = False

    ' Variable for ending the example.
    Private Shared finalExit As Boolean = False

    ' Collection for objects that  
    ' simulate the server request workload.
    Private Shared load As New List(Of Byte())


    Public Shared Sub Main(ByVal args() As String)
        Try
            ' Register for a notification. 
            GC.RegisterForFullGCNotification(10, 10)
            Console.WriteLine("Registered for GC notification.")

            bAllocate = True
            checkForNotify = True

            ' Start a thread using WaitForFullGCProc.
            Dim thWaitForFullGC As Thread = _
                New Thread(New ThreadStart(AddressOf WaitForFullGCProc))
            thWaitForFullGC.Start()

            ' While the thread is checking for notifications in
            ' WaitForFullGCProc, create objects to simulate a server workload.
            Try
                Dim lastCollCount As Integer = 0
                Dim newCollCount As Integer = 0
                
                
                While (True)
                    If bAllocate = True Then

                        load.Add(New Byte(1000) {})
                        newCollCount = GC.CollectionCount(2)
                        If (newCollCount <> lastCollCount) Then
                            ' Show collection count when it increases:
                            Console.WriteLine("Gen 2 collection count: {0}", _
                                              GC.CollectionCount(2).ToString)
                            lastCollCount = newCollCount
                        End If

                        ' For ending the example (arbitrary).
                        If newCollCount = 500 Then
                            finalExit = True
                            checkForNotify = False
                            bAllocate = False
                            Exit While
                        End If

                    End If
                End While
                
            Catch outofMem As OutOfMemoryException
                Console.WriteLine("Out of memory.")
            End Try

            finalExit = True
            checkForNotify = False
            GC.CancelFullGCNotification()

        Catch invalidOp As InvalidOperationException
            Console.WriteLine("GC Notifications are not supported while concurrent GC is enabled." _
                              & vbLf & invalidOp.Message)
        End Try
    End Sub

    Public Shared Sub OnFullGCApproachNotify()
        Console.WriteLine("Redirecting requests.")

        ' Method that tells the request queuing  
        ' server to not direct requests to this server. 
        RedirectRequests()

        ' Method that provides time to 
        ' finish processing pending requests. 
        FinishExistingRequests()

        ' This is a good time to induce a GC collection
        ' because the runtime will induce a ful GC soon.
        ' To be very careful, you can check precede with a
        ' check of the GC.GCCollectionCount to make sure
        ' a full GC did not already occur since last notified.
        GC.Collect()
        Console.WriteLine("Induced a collection.")
    End Sub

    Public Shared Sub OnFullGCCompleteEndNotify()
        ' Method that informs the request queuing server
        ' that this server is ready to accept requests again.
        AcceptRequests()
        Console.WriteLine("Accepting requests again.")
    End Sub

    Public Shared Sub WaitForFullGCProc()

        While True
            ' CheckForNotify is set to true and false in Main.

            While checkForNotify
                ' Check for a notification of an approaching collection.
                Dim s As GCNotificationStatus = GC.WaitForFullGCApproach
                If (s = GCNotificationStatus.Succeeded) Then
                    Console.WriteLine("GC Notification raised.")
                    OnFullGCApproachNotify()
                ElseIf (s = GCNotificationStatus.Canceled) Then
                    Console.WriteLine("GC Notification cancelled.")
                    Exit While
                Else
                    ' This can occur if a timeout period
                    ' is specified for WaitForFullGCApproach(Timeout) 
                    ' or WaitForFullGCComplete(Timeout)  
                    ' and the time out period has elapsed. 
                    Console.WriteLine("GC Notification not applicable.")
                    Exit While
                End If

                ' Check for a notification of a completed collection.
                s = GC.WaitForFullGCComplete
                If (s = GCNotificationStatus.Succeeded) Then
                    Console.WriteLine("GC Notifiction raised.")
                    OnFullGCCompleteEndNotify()
                ElseIf (s = GCNotificationStatus.Canceled) Then
                    Console.WriteLine("GC Notification cancelled.")
                    Exit While
                Else
                    ' Could be a time out.
                    Console.WriteLine("GC Notification not applicable.")
                    Exit While
                End If

            End While
            Thread.Sleep(500)
            ' FinalExit is set to true right before  
            ' the main thread cancelled notification.
            If finalExit Then
                Exit While
            End If

        End While
    End Sub

    Private Shared Sub RedirectRequests()
        ' Code that sends requests
        ' to other servers.

        ' Suspend work.
        bAllocate = False
    End Sub

    Private Shared Sub FinishExistingRequests()
        ' Code that waits a period of time
        ' for pending requests to finish.

        ' Clear the simulated workload.
        load.Clear()

    End Sub

    Private Shared Sub AcceptRequests()
        ' Code that resumes processing
        ' requests on this server.

        ' Resume work.
        bAllocate = True
    End Sub
End Class

下面的代码包含 WaitForFullGCProc 用户方法,其中包括持续 while 循环,用于检查是否有垃圾回收通知。The following code contains the WaitForFullGCProc user method, that contains a continuous while loop to check for garbage collection notifications.

public:
    static void WaitForFullGCProc()
    {
        while (true)
        {
            // CheckForNotify is set to true and false in Main.
            while (checkForNotify)
            {
                // Check for a notification of an approaching collection.
                GCNotificationStatus s = GC::WaitForFullGCApproach();
                if (s == GCNotificationStatus::Succeeded)
                {
                    Console::WriteLine("GC Notifiction raised.");
                    OnFullGCApproachNotify();
                }
                else if (s == GCNotificationStatus::Canceled)
                {
                    Console::WriteLine("GC Notification cancelled.");
                    break;
                }
                else
                {
                    // This can occur if a timeout period
                    // is specified for WaitForFullGCApproach(Timeout)
                    // or WaitForFullGCComplete(Timeout)
                    // and the time out period has elapsed.
                    Console::WriteLine("GC Notification not applicable.");
                    break;
                }

                // Check for a notification of a completed collection.
                s = GC::WaitForFullGCComplete();
                if (s == GCNotificationStatus::Succeeded)
                {
                    Console::WriteLine("GC Notification raised.");
                    OnFullGCCompleteEndNotify();
                }
                else if (s == GCNotificationStatus::Canceled)
                {
                    Console::WriteLine("GC Notification cancelled.");
                    break;
                }
                else
                {
                    // Could be a time out.
                    Console::WriteLine("GC Notification not applicable.");
                    break;
                }
            }


            Thread::Sleep(500);
            // FinalExit is set to true right before
            // the main thread cancelled notification.
            if (finalExit)
            {
                break;
            }
        }
    }
public static void WaitForFullGCProc()
{
    while (true)
    {
        // CheckForNotify is set to true and false in Main.
        while (checkForNotify)
        {
            // Check for a notification of an approaching collection.
            GCNotificationStatus s = GC.WaitForFullGCApproach();
            if (s == GCNotificationStatus.Succeeded)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("GC Notification raised.");
                OnFullGCApproachNotify();
            }
            else if (s == GCNotificationStatus.Canceled)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("GC Notification cancelled.");
                break;
            }
            else
            {
                // This can occur if a timeout period
                // is specified for WaitForFullGCApproach(Timeout) 
                // or WaitForFullGCComplete(Timeout)  
                // and the time out period has elapsed. 
                Console.WriteLine("GC Notification not applicable.");
                break;
            }

            // Check for a notification of a completed collection.
            GCNotificationStatus status = GC.WaitForFullGCComplete();
            if (status == GCNotificationStatus.Succeeded)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("GC Notification raised.");
                OnFullGCCompleteEndNotify();
            }
            else if (status == GCNotificationStatus.Canceled)
            {
                Console.WriteLine("GC Notification cancelled.");
                break;
            }
            else
            {
                // Could be a time out.
                Console.WriteLine("GC Notification not applicable.");
                break;
            }
        }


        Thread.Sleep(500);
        // FinalExit is set to true right before  
        // the main thread cancelled notification.
        if (finalExit)
        {
            break;
        }
    }

}
Public Shared Sub WaitForFullGCProc()

    While True
        ' CheckForNotify is set to true and false in Main.

        While checkForNotify
            ' Check for a notification of an approaching collection.
            Dim s As GCNotificationStatus = GC.WaitForFullGCApproach
            If (s = GCNotificationStatus.Succeeded) Then
                Console.WriteLine("GC Notification raised.")
                OnFullGCApproachNotify()
            ElseIf (s = GCNotificationStatus.Canceled) Then
                Console.WriteLine("GC Notification cancelled.")
                Exit While
            Else
                ' This can occur if a timeout period
                ' is specified for WaitForFullGCApproach(Timeout) 
                ' or WaitForFullGCComplete(Timeout)  
                ' and the time out period has elapsed. 
                Console.WriteLine("GC Notification not applicable.")
                Exit While
            End If

            ' Check for a notification of a completed collection.
            s = GC.WaitForFullGCComplete
            If (s = GCNotificationStatus.Succeeded) Then
                Console.WriteLine("GC Notifiction raised.")
                OnFullGCCompleteEndNotify()
            ElseIf (s = GCNotificationStatus.Canceled) Then
                Console.WriteLine("GC Notification cancelled.")
                Exit While
            Else
                ' Could be a time out.
                Console.WriteLine("GC Notification not applicable.")
                Exit While
            End If

        End While
        Thread.Sleep(500)
        ' FinalExit is set to true right before  
        ' the main thread cancelled notification.
        If finalExit Then
            Exit While
        End If

    End While
End Sub

下面的代码包含 OnFullGCApproachNotify 方法,调用自 The following code contains the OnFullGCApproachNotify method as called from the

WaitForFullGCProc 方法。WaitForFullGCProc method.

public:
    static void OnFullGCApproachNotify()
    {
        Console::WriteLine("Redirecting requests.");

        // Method that tells the request queuing
        // server to not direct requests to this server.
        RedirectRequests();

        // Method that provides time to
        // finish processing pending requests.
        FinishExistingRequests();

        // This is a good time to induce a GC collection
        // because the runtime will induce a full GC soon.
        // To be very careful, you can check precede with a
        // check of the GC.GCCollectionCount to make sure
        // a full GC did not already occur since last notified.
        GC::Collect();
        Console::WriteLine("Induced a collection.");

    }
public static void OnFullGCApproachNotify()
{

    Console.WriteLine("Redirecting requests.");

    // Method that tells the request queuing  
    // server to not direct requests to this server. 
    RedirectRequests();

    // Method that provides time to 
    // finish processing pending requests. 
    FinishExistingRequests();

    // This is a good time to induce a GC collection
    // because the runtime will induce a full GC soon.
    // To be very careful, you can check precede with a
    // check of the GC.GCCollectionCount to make sure
    // a full GC did not already occur since last notified.
    GC.Collect();
    Console.WriteLine("Induced a collection.");

}
Public Shared Sub OnFullGCApproachNotify()
    Console.WriteLine("Redirecting requests.")

    ' Method that tells the request queuing  
    ' server to not direct requests to this server. 
    RedirectRequests()

    ' Method that provides time to 
    ' finish processing pending requests. 
    FinishExistingRequests()

    ' This is a good time to induce a GC collection
    ' because the runtime will induce a ful GC soon.
    ' To be very careful, you can check precede with a
    ' check of the GC.GCCollectionCount to make sure
    ' a full GC did not already occur since last notified.
    GC.Collect()
    Console.WriteLine("Induced a collection.")
End Sub

下面的代码包含 OnFullGCApproachComplete 方法,调用自 The following code contains the OnFullGCApproachComplete method as called from the

WaitForFullGCProc 方法。WaitForFullGCProc method.

public:
    static void OnFullGCCompleteEndNotify()
    {
        // Method that informs the request queuing server
        // that this server is ready to accept requests again.
        AcceptRequests();
        Console::WriteLine("Accepting requests again.");
    }
public static void OnFullGCCompleteEndNotify()
{
    // Method that informs the request queuing server
    // that this server is ready to accept requests again.
    AcceptRequests();
    Console.WriteLine("Accepting requests again.");
}
Public Shared Sub OnFullGCCompleteEndNotify()
    ' Method that informs the request queuing server
    ' that this server is ready to accept requests again.
    AcceptRequests()
    Console.WriteLine("Accepting requests again.")
End Sub

下面的代码包含调用自 OnFullGCApproachNotifyOnFullGCCompleteNotify 方法的用户方法。The following code contains the user methods that are called from the OnFullGCApproachNotify and OnFullGCCompleteNotify methods. 用户方法重定向请求,完成现有请求,再在发生完全垃圾回收后继续执行请求。The user methods redirect requests, finish existing requests, and then resume requests after a full garbage collection has occurred.

private:
    static void RedirectRequests()
    {
        // Code that sends requests
        // to other servers.

        // Suspend work.
        bAllocate = false;

    }

    static void FinishExistingRequests()
    {
        // Code that waits a period of time
        // for pending requests to finish.

        // Clear the simulated workload.
        load->Clear();

    }

    static void AcceptRequests()
    {
        // Code that resumes processing
        // requests on this server.

        // Resume work.
        bAllocate = true;
    }
private static void RedirectRequests()
{
    // Code that sends requests
    // to other servers.

    // Suspend work.
    bAllocate = false;

}

private static void FinishExistingRequests()
{
    // Code that waits a period of time
    // for pending requests to finish.

    // Clear the simulated workload.
    load.Clear();

}

private static void AcceptRequests()
{
    // Code that resumes processing
    // requests on this server.

    // Resume work.
    bAllocate = true;

}
Private Shared Sub RedirectRequests()
    ' Code that sends requests
    ' to other servers.

    ' Suspend work.
    bAllocate = False
End Sub

Private Shared Sub FinishExistingRequests()
    ' Code that waits a period of time
    ' for pending requests to finish.

    ' Clear the simulated workload.
    load.Clear()

End Sub

Private Shared Sub AcceptRequests()
    ' Code that resumes processing
    ' requests on this server.

    ' Resume work.
    bAllocate = True
End Sub

整个代码示例如下所示:The entire code sample is as follows:

using namespace System;
using namespace System::Collections::Generic;
using namespace System::Threading;

namespace GCNotify
{
    ref class Program
    {
    private:
        // Variable for continual checking in the
        // While loop in the WaitForFullGCProc method.
        static bool checkForNotify = false;

        // Variable for suspending work
        // (such servicing allocated server requests)
        // after a notification is received and then
        // resuming allocation after inducing a garbage collection.
        static bool bAllocate = false;

        // Variable for ending the example.
        static bool finalExit = false;

        // Collection for objects that
        // simulate the server request workload.
        static List<array<Byte>^>^ load = gcnew List<array<Byte>^>();


    public:
        static void Main()
        {
            try
            {
                // Register for a notification.
                GC::RegisterForFullGCNotification(10, 10);
                Console::WriteLine("Registered for GC notification.");

                checkForNotify = true;
                bAllocate = true;

                // Start a thread using WaitForFullGCProc.
                Thread^ thWaitForFullGC = gcnew Thread(gcnew ThreadStart(&WaitForFullGCProc));
                thWaitForFullGC->Start();

                // While the thread is checking for notifications in
                // WaitForFullGCProc, create objects to simulate a server workload.
                try
                {
                    int lastCollCount = 0;
                    int newCollCount = 0;


                    while (true)
                    {
                        if (bAllocate)
                        {
                            load->Add(gcnew array<Byte>(1000));
                            newCollCount = GC::CollectionCount(2);
                            if (newCollCount != lastCollCount)
                            {
                                // Show collection count when it increases:
                                Console::WriteLine("Gen 2 collection count: {0}", GC::CollectionCount(2).ToString());
                                lastCollCount = newCollCount;
                            }

                            // For ending the example (arbitrary).
                            if (newCollCount == 500)
                            {
                                finalExit = true;
                                checkForNotify = false;
                                break;
                            }
                        }
                    }

                }
                catch (OutOfMemoryException^)
                {
                    Console::WriteLine("Out of memory.");
                }


                finalExit = true;
                checkForNotify = false;
                GC::CancelFullGCNotification();

            }
            catch (InvalidOperationException^ invalidOp)
            {

                Console::WriteLine("GC Notifications are not supported while concurrent GC is enabled.\n"
                    + invalidOp->Message);
            }
        }

    public:
        static void OnFullGCApproachNotify()
        {
            Console::WriteLine("Redirecting requests.");

            // Method that tells the request queuing
            // server to not direct requests to this server.
            RedirectRequests();

            // Method that provides time to
            // finish processing pending requests.
            FinishExistingRequests();

            // This is a good time to induce a GC collection
            // because the runtime will induce a full GC soon.
            // To be very careful, you can check precede with a
            // check of the GC.GCCollectionCount to make sure
            // a full GC did not already occur since last notified.
            GC::Collect();
            Console::WriteLine("Induced a collection.");

        }


    public:
        static void OnFullGCCompleteEndNotify()
        {
            // Method that informs the request queuing server
            // that this server is ready to accept requests again.
            AcceptRequests();
            Console::WriteLine("Accepting requests again.");
        }

    public:
        static void WaitForFullGCProc()
        {
            while (true)
            {
                // CheckForNotify is set to true and false in Main.
                while (checkForNotify)
                {
                    // Check for a notification of an approaching collection.
                    GCNotificationStatus s = GC::WaitForFullGCApproach();
                    if (s == GCNotificationStatus::Succeeded)
                    {
                        Console::WriteLine("GC Notifiction raised.");
                        OnFullGCApproachNotify();
                    }
                    else if (s == GCNotificationStatus::Canceled)
                    {
                        Console::WriteLine("GC Notification cancelled.");
                        break;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        // This can occur if a timeout period
                        // is specified for WaitForFullGCApproach(Timeout)
                        // or WaitForFullGCComplete(Timeout)
                        // and the time out period has elapsed.
                        Console::WriteLine("GC Notification not applicable.");
                        break;
                    }

                    // Check for a notification of a completed collection.
                    s = GC::WaitForFullGCComplete();
                    if (s == GCNotificationStatus::Succeeded)
                    {
                        Console::WriteLine("GC Notification raised.");
                        OnFullGCCompleteEndNotify();
                    }
                    else if (s == GCNotificationStatus::Canceled)
                    {
                        Console::WriteLine("GC Notification cancelled.");
                        break;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        // Could be a time out.
                        Console::WriteLine("GC Notification not applicable.");
                        break;
                    }
                }


                Thread::Sleep(500);
                // FinalExit is set to true right before
                // the main thread cancelled notification.
                if (finalExit)
                {
                    break;
                }
            }
        }

    private:
        static void RedirectRequests()
        {
            // Code that sends requests
            // to other servers.

            // Suspend work.
            bAllocate = false;

        }

        static void FinishExistingRequests()
        {
            // Code that waits a period of time
            // for pending requests to finish.

            // Clear the simulated workload.
            load->Clear();

        }

        static void AcceptRequests()
        {
            // Code that resumes processing
            // requests on this server.

            // Resume work.
            bAllocate = true;
        }
    };
}

int main()
{
    GCNotify::Program::Main();
}
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Threading;

namespace GCNotify
{
    class Program
    {
        // Variable for continual checking in the 
        // While loop in the WaitForFullGCProc method.
        static bool checkForNotify = false;

        // Variable for suspending work 
        // (such servicing allocated server requests)
        // after a notification is received and then 
        // resuming allocation after inducing a garbage collection.
        static bool bAllocate = false;

        // Variable for ending the example.
        static bool finalExit = false;

        // Collection for objects that  
        // simulate the server request workload.
        static List<byte[]> load = new List<byte[]>();


        public static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            try
            {
                // Register for a notification. 
                GC.RegisterForFullGCNotification(10, 10);
                Console.WriteLine("Registered for GC notification.");

                checkForNotify = true;
                bAllocate = true;

                // Start a thread using WaitForFullGCProc.
                Thread thWaitForFullGC = new Thread(new ThreadStart(WaitForFullGCProc));
                thWaitForFullGC.Start();

                // While the thread is checking for notifications in
                // WaitForFullGCProc, create objects to simulate a server workload.
                try
                {

                    int lastCollCount = 0;
                    int newCollCount = 0;
                    
                    
                    while (true)
                    {
                        if (bAllocate)
                        {
                            load.Add(new byte[1000]);
                            newCollCount = GC.CollectionCount(2);
                            if (newCollCount != lastCollCount)
                            {
                                // Show collection count when it increases:
                                Console.WriteLine("Gen 2 collection count: {0}", GC.CollectionCount(2).ToString());
                                lastCollCount = newCollCount;
                            }
                           
                            // For ending the example (arbitrary).
                            if (newCollCount == 500)
                            {
                                finalExit = true;
                                checkForNotify = false;
                                break;
                            }
                        }
                    }

                }
                catch (OutOfMemoryException)
                {
                    Console.WriteLine("Out of memory.");
                }


                finalExit = true;
                checkForNotify = false;
                GC.CancelFullGCNotification();

            }
            catch (InvalidOperationException invalidOp)
            {

                Console.WriteLine("GC Notifications are not supported while concurrent GC is enabled.\n"
                    + invalidOp.Message);
            }
        }

        public static void OnFullGCApproachNotify()
        {

            Console.WriteLine("Redirecting requests.");

            // Method that tells the request queuing  
            // server to not direct requests to this server. 
            RedirectRequests();

            // Method that provides time to 
            // finish processing pending requests. 
            FinishExistingRequests();

            // This is a good time to induce a GC collection
            // because the runtime will induce a full GC soon.
            // To be very careful, you can check precede with a
            // check of the GC.GCCollectionCount to make sure
            // a full GC did not already occur since last notified.
            GC.Collect();
            Console.WriteLine("Induced a collection.");

        }


        public static void OnFullGCCompleteEndNotify()
        {
            // Method that informs the request queuing server
            // that this server is ready to accept requests again.
            AcceptRequests();
            Console.WriteLine("Accepting requests again.");
        }

        public static void WaitForFullGCProc()
        {
            while (true)
            {
                // CheckForNotify is set to true and false in Main.
                while (checkForNotify)
                {
                    // Check for a notification of an approaching collection.
                    GCNotificationStatus s = GC.WaitForFullGCApproach();
                    if (s == GCNotificationStatus.Succeeded)
                    {
                        Console.WriteLine("GC Notification raised.");
                        OnFullGCApproachNotify();
                    }
                    else if (s == GCNotificationStatus.Canceled)
                    {
                        Console.WriteLine("GC Notification cancelled.");
                        break;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        // This can occur if a timeout period
                        // is specified for WaitForFullGCApproach(Timeout) 
                        // or WaitForFullGCComplete(Timeout)  
                        // and the time out period has elapsed. 
                        Console.WriteLine("GC Notification not applicable.");
                        break;
                    }

                    // Check for a notification of a completed collection.
                    GCNotificationStatus status = GC.WaitForFullGCComplete();
                    if (status == GCNotificationStatus.Succeeded)
                    {
                        Console.WriteLine("GC Notification raised.");
                        OnFullGCCompleteEndNotify();
                    }
                    else if (status == GCNotificationStatus.Canceled)
                    {
                        Console.WriteLine("GC Notification cancelled.");
                        break;
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        // Could be a time out.
                        Console.WriteLine("GC Notification not applicable.");
                        break;
                    }
                }


                Thread.Sleep(500);
                // FinalExit is set to true right before  
                // the main thread cancelled notification.
                if (finalExit)
                {
                    break;
                }
            }

        }

        private static void RedirectRequests()
        {
            // Code that sends requests
            // to other servers.

            // Suspend work.
            bAllocate = false;

        }

        private static void FinishExistingRequests()
        {
            // Code that waits a period of time
            // for pending requests to finish.

            // Clear the simulated workload.
            load.Clear();

        }

        private static void AcceptRequests()
        {
            // Code that resumes processing
            // requests on this server.

            // Resume work.
            bAllocate = true;

        }
    }
}
Imports System.Collections.Generic
Imports System.Threading

Class Program
    ' Variables for continual checking in the
    ' While loop in the WaitForFullGcProc method.
    Private Shared checkForNotify As Boolean = False

    ' Variable for suspending work 
    ' (such as servicing allocated server requests)
    ' after a notification is received and then 
    ' resuming allocation after inducing a garbage collection.
    Private Shared bAllocate As Boolean = False

    ' Variable for ending the example.
    Private Shared finalExit As Boolean = False

    ' Collection for objects that  
    ' simulate the server request workload.
    Private Shared load As New List(Of Byte())


    Public Shared Sub Main(ByVal args() As String)
        Try
            ' Register for a notification. 
            GC.RegisterForFullGCNotification(10, 10)
            Console.WriteLine("Registered for GC notification.")

            bAllocate = True
            checkForNotify = True

            ' Start a thread using WaitForFullGCProc.
            Dim thWaitForFullGC As Thread = _
                New Thread(New ThreadStart(AddressOf WaitForFullGCProc))
            thWaitForFullGC.Start()

            ' While the thread is checking for notifications in
            ' WaitForFullGCProc, create objects to simulate a server workload.
            Try
                Dim lastCollCount As Integer = 0
                Dim newCollCount As Integer = 0
                
                
                While (True)
                    If bAllocate = True Then

                        load.Add(New Byte(1000) {})
                        newCollCount = GC.CollectionCount(2)
                        If (newCollCount <> lastCollCount) Then
                            ' Show collection count when it increases:
                            Console.WriteLine("Gen 2 collection count: {0}", _
                                              GC.CollectionCount(2).ToString)
                            lastCollCount = newCollCount
                        End If

                        ' For ending the example (arbitrary).
                        If newCollCount = 500 Then
                            finalExit = True
                            checkForNotify = False
                            bAllocate = False
                            Exit While
                        End If

                    End If
                End While
                
            Catch outofMem As OutOfMemoryException
                Console.WriteLine("Out of memory.")
            End Try

            finalExit = True
            checkForNotify = False
            GC.CancelFullGCNotification()

        Catch invalidOp As InvalidOperationException
            Console.WriteLine("GC Notifications are not supported while concurrent GC is enabled." _
                              & vbLf & invalidOp.Message)
        End Try
    End Sub

    Public Shared Sub OnFullGCApproachNotify()
        Console.WriteLine("Redirecting requests.")

        ' Method that tells the request queuing  
        ' server to not direct requests to this server. 
        RedirectRequests()

        ' Method that provides time to 
        ' finish processing pending requests. 
        FinishExistingRequests()

        ' This is a good time to induce a GC collection
        ' because the runtime will induce a ful GC soon.
        ' To be very careful, you can check precede with a
        ' check of the GC.GCCollectionCount to make sure
        ' a full GC did not already occur since last notified.
        GC.Collect()
        Console.WriteLine("Induced a collection.")
    End Sub

    Public Shared Sub OnFullGCCompleteEndNotify()
        ' Method that informs the request queuing server
        ' that this server is ready to accept requests again.
        AcceptRequests()
        Console.WriteLine("Accepting requests again.")
    End Sub

    Public Shared Sub WaitForFullGCProc()

        While True
            ' CheckForNotify is set to true and false in Main.

            While checkForNotify
                ' Check for a notification of an approaching collection.
                Dim s As GCNotificationStatus = GC.WaitForFullGCApproach
                If (s = GCNotificationStatus.Succeeded) Then
                    Console.WriteLine("GC Notification raised.")
                    OnFullGCApproachNotify()
                ElseIf (s = GCNotificationStatus.Canceled) Then
                    Console.WriteLine("GC Notification cancelled.")
                    Exit While
                Else
                    ' This can occur if a timeout period
                    ' is specified for WaitForFullGCApproach(Timeout) 
                    ' or WaitForFullGCComplete(Timeout)  
                    ' and the time out period has elapsed. 
                    Console.WriteLine("GC Notification not applicable.")
                    Exit While
                End If

                ' Check for a notification of a completed collection.
                s = GC.WaitForFullGCComplete
                If (s = GCNotificationStatus.Succeeded) Then
                    Console.WriteLine("GC Notifiction raised.")
                    OnFullGCCompleteEndNotify()
                ElseIf (s = GCNotificationStatus.Canceled) Then
                    Console.WriteLine("GC Notification cancelled.")
                    Exit While
                Else
                    ' Could be a time out.
                    Console.WriteLine("GC Notification not applicable.")
                    Exit While
                End If

            End While
            Thread.Sleep(500)
            ' FinalExit is set to true right before  
            ' the main thread cancelled notification.
            If finalExit Then
                Exit While
            End If

        End While
    End Sub

    Private Shared Sub RedirectRequests()
        ' Code that sends requests
        ' to other servers.

        ' Suspend work.
        bAllocate = False
    End Sub

    Private Shared Sub FinishExistingRequests()
        ' Code that waits a period of time
        ' for pending requests to finish.

        ' Clear the simulated workload.
        load.Clear()

    End Sub

    Private Shared Sub AcceptRequests()
        ' Code that resumes processing
        ' requests on this server.

        ' Resume work.
        bAllocate = True
    End Sub
End Class

请参阅See also