Exchange 2013 存储配置选项Exchange 2013 storage configuration options

适用于: Exchange Server 2013Applies to: Exchange Server 2013

了解 Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 中邮箱服务器角色的存储选项和要求是邮箱服务器存储设计解决方案的重要组成部分。Understanding storage options and requirements for the Mailbox server role in Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 is an important part of your Mailbox server storage design solution.

存储结构Storage architectures

下表介绍支持的存储体系结构,并为每种类型的存储体系结构提供最佳实践指南(如果适用)。The following table describes supported storage architectures and provides best practice guidance for each type of storage architecture where appropriate.

支持的存储体系结构Supported storage architectures

存储体系结构Storage architecture 说明Description 最佳实践Best practice

直接附加存储 (DAS)Direct-attached storage (DAS)

DAS 是一种直接附加到服务器或工作站(中间不使用存储网络)的数字存储系统。例如,DAS 传输包括串行附加小型计算机系统接口 (SCSI) 和串行附加高级技术附件 (ATA)。DAS is a digital storage system directly attached to a server or workstation, without a storage network in between. For example, DAS transports include Serial Attached Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) and Serial Attached Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA).

不可用。Not available.

存储区域网络 (SAN):Internet 小型计算机系统接口 (iSCSI)Storage area network (SAN): Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI)

SAN 是一种将远程计算机存储设备(如磁盘阵列和磁带库)附加到服务器的体系结构,这样一来设备就像是在本地附加到操作系统(例如块存储)一样。iSCSI SAN 将 SCSI 命令封装在 IP 数据包内,使用标准网络基础结构作为存储传输(例如以太网)。SAN is an architecture to attach remote computer storage devices (such as disk arrays and tape libraries) to servers in such a way that the devices appear as locally attached to the operating system (for example, block storage). iSCSI SANs encapsulate SCSI commands within IP packets and use standard networking infrastructure as the storage transport (for example, Ethernet).

请勿与其他应用程序共享物理磁盘备份 Exchange 数据。Don't share physical disks backing up Exchange data with other applications.

使用专用存储网络。Use dedicated storage networks.

对独立配置使用多个网络路径。Use multiple network paths for stand-alone configurations.

SAN:光纤通道SAN: Fibre Channel

光纤通道 SAN 将 SCSI 命令封装在光纤通道数据包内,通常利用专用光纤通道网络作为存储传输。Fibre Channel SANs encapsulate SCSI commands within Fibre Channel packets and generally utilize specialized Fibre Channel networks as the storage transport.

请勿与其他应用程序共享物理磁盘备份 Exchange 数据。Don't share physical disks backing up Exchange data with other applications.

对独立配置使用多个光纤通道网络路径。Use multiple Fibre Channel network paths for stand-alone configurations.

按照存储供应商的最佳实践调整光纤通道主机总线适配器 (HBA),例如队列深度和队列目标。Follow storage vendor's best practices for tuning Fibre Channel host bus adapters (HBAs), for example, Queue Depth and Queue Target.

网络连接存储 (NAS) 单元是连接到网络的自包含计算机,唯一用途是向网络上的其他设备提供基于文件的数据存储服务。A network-attached storage (NAS) unit is a self-contained computer connected to a network, with the sole purpose of supplying file-based data storage services to other devices on the network. NAS 设备上的操作系统和其他软件提供数据存储、文件系统和文件访问功能以及对这些功能的管理(例如文件存储)。The operating system and other software on the NAS unit provide the functionality of data storage, file systems, and access to files, and the management of these functionalities (for example, file storage).

Exchange 用于存储 Exchange 数据的所有存储必须都是块级存储,因为 Exchange 2013 不支持使用 NAS 卷,而不支持在exchange 2013 虚拟化主题中概述的 SMB 3.0 方案中。All storage used by Exchange for storage of Exchange data must be block-level storage because Exchange 2013 doesn't support the use of NAS volumes, other than in the SMB 3.0 scenario outlined in the topic Exchange 2013 virtualization. 此外,在虚拟化环境中,不支持通过虚拟机监控程序以块级存储形式向来宾提供的 NAS 存储。Also, in a virtualized environment, NAS storage that's presented to the guest as block-level storage via the hypervisor isn't supported.

不建议使用存储层,因为它可能会降低系统性能。出于此原因,请勿允许存储控制器自动将最常访问的文件移到"更快"的存储。Using storage tiers is not recommended, as it could adversely affect system performance. For this reason, do not allow the storage controller to automatically move the most accessed files to "faster" storage.

物理磁盘类型Physical disk types

下表列出了支持的物理磁盘类型,并为每种物理磁盘类型提供最佳实践指南(如果适用)。The following table provides a list of supported physical disk types and provides best practice guidance for each physical disk type where appropriate.

支持的物理磁盘类型Supported physical disk types

物理磁盘类型Physical disk type 说明Description 支持的实践或最佳实践Supported or best practice

串行 ATA (SATA)Serial ATA (SATA)

SATA 是用于 ATA 和集成驱动电子设备 (IDE) 磁盘的串行接口。SATA 磁盘具有各种尺寸、速度和容量。SATA is a serial interface for ATA and integrated device electronics (IDE) disks. SATA disks are available in a variety of form factors, speeds, and capacities.

一般情况下,当您具有以下设计要求时,请为 Exchange 2013 邮箱存储选择 SATA 磁盘:In general, choose SATA disks for Exchange 2013 mailbox storage when you have the following design requirements:

  • 高容量High capacity

  • 中等性能Moderate performance

  • 中等电源利用率Moderate power utilization

支持: 512-字节扇区磁盘,适用于 Windows Server 2008 和 Windows Server 2008 R2。Supported:  512-byte sector disks for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2. 另外,具有以下内容的 Windows Server 2008 R2 支持 512e 磁盘:In addition, 512e disks are supported for Windows Server 2008 R2 with the following:

  • Microsoft 知识库文章 982018"现已推出可改善 Windows 7 和 Windows Server 2008 R2 与高级格式磁盘之间兼容性的更新"中介绍的修补程序。The hotfix described in Microsoft Knowledge Base article 982018, An update that improves the compatibility of Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 with Advanced Format Disks is available.

  • Windows Server 2008 R2 Service Pack 1 (SP1) 和 Exchange Server 2010 SP1。Windows Server 2008 R2 with Service Pack 1 (SP1) and Exchange Server 2010 SP1.

Exchange 2013 和更高版本支持本机 4 千字节 (KB) 扇区磁盘和 512e 磁盘。支持要求数据库的所有副本均位于同一类型的物理磁盘上。例如,以下配置不受支持:在 512 字节扇区磁盘上托管给定数据库的一个副本,而在 512e 磁盘或 4 K 磁盘上托管同一数据库的另一个副本。Exchange 2013 and later supports native 4-kilobyte (KB) sector disks and 512e disks. Support requires that all copies of a database reside on the same physical disk type. For example, it is not a supported configuration to host one copy of a given database on a 512-byte sector disk and another copy of that same database on a 512e disk or 4K disk.

最佳实践:考虑企业级 SATA 磁盘,这类磁盘通常具有更好的热量、震动和可靠性特征。Best practice: Consider enterprise class SATA disks, which generally have better heat, vibration, and reliability characteristics.

串行附加 SCSISerial Attached SCSI

串行附加 SCSI 是用于 SCSI 磁盘的串行接口。串行附加 SCSI 磁盘具有各种尺寸、速度和容量。Serial Attached SCSI is a serial interface for SCSI disks. Serial Attached SCSI disks are available in a variety of form factors, speeds, and capacities.

一般情况下,当您具有以下设计要求时,请为 Exchange 2013 邮箱存储选择串行连接 SCSI 磁盘:In general, choose Serial Attached SCSI disks for Exchange 2013 mailbox storage when you have the following design requirements:

  • 中等容量Moderate capacity

  • 高性能High performance

  • 中等电源利用率Moderate power utilization

支持: 512-字节扇区磁盘,适用于 Windows Server 2008 和 Windows Server 2008 R2。Supported:  512-byte sector disks for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2. 另外,具有以下内容的 Windows Server 2008 R2 支持 512e 磁盘:In addition, 512e disks are supported for Windows Server 2008 R2 with the following:

  • Microsoft 知识库文章 982018"现已推出可改善 Windows 7 和 Windows Server 2008 R2 与高级格式磁盘之间兼容性的更新"中介绍的修补程序。The hotfix described in Microsoft Knowledge Base article 982018, An update that improves the compatibility of Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 with Advanced Format Disks is available.

  • Windows Server 2008 R2 Service Pack 1 (SP1) 和 Exchange Server 2010 SP1。Windows Server 2008 R2 with Service Pack 1 (SP1) and Exchange Server 2010 SP1.

Exchange 2013 和更高版本支持本机 4 千字节 (KB) 扇区磁盘和 512e 磁盘。支持要求数据库的所有副本均位于同一类型的物理磁盘上。例如,以下配置不受支持:在 512 字节扇区磁盘上托管给定数据库的一个副本,而在 512e 磁盘或 4 K 磁盘上托管同一数据库的另一个副本。Exchange 2013 and later supports native 4-kilobyte (KB) sector disks and 512e disks. Support requires that all copies of a database reside on the same physical disk type. For example, it is not a supported configuration to host one copy of a given database on a 512-byte sector disk and another copy of that same database on a 512e disk or 4K disk.

最佳实践:在没有 UPS 的情况下使用时,必须禁用物理磁盘写入缓存。Best practice: Physical disk-write caching must be disabled when used without a UPS.

光纤通道Fibre Channel

光纤通道是用于将磁盘连接到基于光纤通道的 SAN 的电气接口。光纤通道磁盘具有各种速度和容量。Fibre Channel is an electrical interface used to connect disks to Fibre Channel-based SANs. Fibre Channel disks are available in a variety of speeds and capacities.

一般情况下,当您有以下设计要求时,请选择 Exchange 2013 邮箱存储的光纤通道磁盘:In general, choose Fibre Channel disks for Exchange 2013 mailbox storage when you have the following design requirements:

  • 中等容量Moderate capacity

  • 高性能High performance

  • SAN 连接SAN connectivity

支持: 512-字节扇区磁盘,适用于 Windows Server 2008 和 Windows Server 2008 R2。Supported:  512-byte sector disks for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2. 另外,具有以下内容的 Windows Server 2008 R2 支持 512e 磁盘:In addition, 512e disks are supported for Windows Server 2008 R2 with the following:

  • Microsoft 知识库文章 982018"现已推出可改善 Windows 7 和 Windows Server 2008 R2 与高级格式磁盘之间兼容性的更新"中介绍的修补程序。The hotfix described in Microsoft Knowledge Base article 982018, An update that improves the compatibility of Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 with Advanced Format Disks is available.

  • Windows Server 2008 R2 Service Pack 1 (SP1) 和 Exchange Server 2010 SP1。Windows Server 2008 R2 with Service Pack 1 (SP1) and Exchange Server 2010 SP1.

Exchange 2013 和更高版本支持本机 4 千字节 (KB) 扇区磁盘和 512e 磁盘。支持要求数据库的所有副本均位于同一类型的物理磁盘上。例如,以下配置不受支持:在 512 字节扇区磁盘上托管给定数据库的一个副本,而在 512e 磁盘或 4 K 磁盘上托管同一数据库的另一个副本。Exchange 2013 and later supports native 4-kilobyte (KB) sector disks and 512e disks. Support requires that all copies of a database reside on the same physical disk type. For example, it is not a supported configuration to host one copy of a given database on a 512-byte sector disk and another copy of that same database on a 512e disk or 4K disk.

最佳实践:在没有 UPS 的情况下使用时,必须禁用物理磁盘写入缓存。Best practice: Physical disk-write caching must be disabled when used without a UPS.

固态驱动器 (SSD)(闪存磁盘)Solid-state drive (SSD) (flash disk)

SSD 是使用固态内存存储永久性数据的数据存储设备。SSD 会模拟硬盘驱动器接口。SSD 磁盘具有各种速度(不同的 I/O 性能)和容量。An SSD is a data storage device that uses solid-state memory to store persistent data. An SSD emulates a hard disk drive interface. SSD disks are available in a variety of speeds (different I/O performance capabilities) and capacities.

一般情况下,当您具有以下设计要求时,请为 Exchange 2013 邮箱存储选择 SSD 磁盘:In general, choose SSD disks for Exchange 2013 mailbox storage when you have the following design requirements:

  • 低容量Low capacity

  • 极高的性能Extremely high performance

支持: 512-字节扇区磁盘,适用于 Windows Server 2008 和 Windows Server 2008 R2。Supported:  512-byte sector disks for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2. 另外,具有以下内容的 Windows Server 2008 R2 支持 512e 磁盘:In addition, 512e disks are supported for Windows Server 2008 R2 with the following:

  • Microsoft 知识库文章 982018"现已推出可改善 Windows 7 和 Windows Server 2008 R2 与高级格式磁盘之间兼容性的更新"中介绍的修补程序。The hotfix described in Microsoft Knowledge Base article 982018, An update that improves the compatibility of Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 with Advanced Format Disks is available.

  • Windows Server 2008 R2 Service Pack 1 (SP1) 和 Exchange Server 2010 SP1。Windows Server 2008 R2 with Service Pack 1 (SP1) and Exchange Server 2010 SP1.

Exchange 2013 和更高版本支持本机 4 千字节 (KB) 扇区磁盘和 512e 磁盘。支持要求数据库的所有副本均位于同一类型的物理磁盘上。例如,以下配置不受支持:在 512 字节扇区磁盘上托管给定数据库的一个副本,而在 512e 磁盘或 4 K 磁盘上托管同一数据库的另一个副本。Exchange 2013 and later supports native 4-kilobyte (KB) sector disks and 512e disks. Support requires that all copies of a database reside on the same physical disk type. For example, it is not a supported configuration to host one copy of a given database on a 512-byte sector disk and another copy of that same database on a 512e disk or 4K disk.

最佳实践:在没有 UPS 的情况下使用时,必须禁用物理磁盘写入缓存。Best practice: Physical disk-write caching must be disabled when used without a UPS.

通常情况下,Exchange 2013 邮箱服务器不需要 SSD 存储的性能特征。In general, Exchange 2013 Mailbox servers don't require the performance characteristics of SSD storage.

选择磁盘类型时应考虑的因素Factors to consider when choosing disk types

在为 Exchange 2013 存储选择磁盘类型时,需要进行几项权衡。There are several trade-offs when choosing disk types for Exchange 2013 storage. 正确的磁盘需要在性能(同时包括顺序和随机)与容量、可靠性、电源利用率和资金成本之间达到平衡。The correct disk is one that balances performance (both sequential and random) with capacity, reliability, power utilization, and capital cost. 下表包含支持的物理磁盘类型,提供在考虑这些因素时对您有帮助的信息。The following table of supported physical disk types provides information to help you when considering these factors.

从性能角度来看,如果大型较慢的磁盘可以在负载下保持延迟为 20 毫秒左右的平均读写速度,则 Exchange 存储可以使用这些磁盘。From a performance perspective, using large, slower disks for Exchange storage is okay, provided the disks can maintain an average read and write latency of 20ms or less under load.

选择磁盘类型时应考虑的因素Factors in disk type choice

磁盘速度 (RPM)Disk speed (RPM) 磁盘尺寸Disk form factor 接口或传输Interface or transport 容量Capacity 随机 I/O 性能Random I/O performance 顺序 I/O 性能Sequential I/O performance 电源利用率Power utilization

5,4005,400

2.5 英寸2.5-inch

SATASATA

平均Average

较差Poor

较差Poor

极好Excellent

5,4005,400

3.5 英寸3.5-inch

SATASATA

极好Excellent

较差Poor

较差Poor

高于平均值Above average

7,2007,200

2.5 英寸2.5-inch

SATASATA

平均Average

平均Average

平均Average

极好Excellent

7,2007,200

2.5 英寸2.5-inch

串行附加 SCSISerial Attached SCSI

平均Average

平均Average

高于平均值Above average

极好Excellent

7,2007,200

3.5 英寸3.5-inch

SATASATA

极好Excellent

平均Average

高于平均值Above average

高于平均值Above average

7,2007,200

3.5 英寸3.5-inch

串行附加 SCSISerial Attached SCSI

极好Excellent

平均Average

高于平均值Above average

高于平均值Above average

7,2007,200

3.5 英寸3.5-inch

光纤通道Fibre Channel

极好Excellent

平均Average

高于平均值Above average

平均Average

10,00010,000

2.5 英寸2.5-inch

串行附加 SCSISerial Attached SCSI

低于平均值Below average

极好Excellent

高于平均值Above average

高于平均值Above average

10,00010,000

3.5 英寸3.5-inch

SATASATA

平均Average

平均Average

高于平均值Above average

高于平均值Above average

10,00010,000

3.5 英寸3.5-inch

串行附加 SCSISerial Attached SCSI

平均Average

高于平均值Above average

高于平均值Above average

低于平均值Below average

10,00010,000

3.5 英寸3.5-inch

光纤通道Fibre Channel

平均Average

高于平均值Above average

高于平均值Above average

低于平均值Below average

15,00015,000

2.5 英寸2.5-inch

串行附加 SCSISerial Attached SCSI

较差Poor

极好Excellent

极好Excellent

平均Average

15,00015,000

3.5 英寸3.5-inch

串行附加 SCSISerial Attached SCSI

平均Average

极好Excellent

极好Excellent

低于平均值Below average

15,00015,000

3.5 英寸3.5-inch

光纤通道Fibre Channel

平均Average

极好Excellent

极好Excellent

较差Poor

SSD:企业级SSD: enterprise class

不适用Not applicable

SATA、串行附加 SCSI、光纤通道SATA, Serial Attached SCSI, Fibre Channel

较差Poor

极好Excellent

极好Excellent

极好Excellent

支持的存储配置的最佳实践Best practices for supported storage configurations

此部分介绍了受支持的磁盘和阵列控制器配置的最佳做法信息。This section provides best practice information about supported disk and array controller configurations.

独立磁盘冗余阵列(RAID)通常用于提高各个磁盘的性能特征(通过跨多个磁盘对数据进行分条)以及提供对个别磁盘故障的保护。Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) is often used to both improve the performance characteristics of individual disks (by striping data across several disks) as well as to provide protection from individual disk failures. 随着 Exchange 2013 高可用性方面的改进,RAID 不是 Exchange 2013 存储设计的必需组件。With the advancements in Exchange 2013 high availability, RAID is not a required component for Exchange 2013 storage design. 但是,RAID 仍是适用于独立服务器的 Exchange 2013 存储设计的基本组件,以及需要存储容错能力的解决方案。However, RAID is still an essential component of Exchange 2013 storage design for standalone servers as well as solutions that require storage fault tolerance.

操作系统、系统或页面文件卷Operating System, System, or Pagefile Volume

对于操作系统、系统或页面文件卷,推荐的配置是利用 RAID 技术保护此数据类型。虽然推荐的 RAID 配置为 RAID-1 或 RAID-1/0,但支持所有的 RAID 类型。The recommended configuration for an operating system, system or pagefile volume is to utilize RAID technology to protect this data type. The recommended RAID configuration is either RAID-1 or RAID-1/0, however all RAID types are supported.

分开的邮箱数据库和日志卷Separated Mailbox Database and Log Volumes

如果您要部署独立的邮箱服务器角色体系结构,则邮箱数据库和日志卷需要 RAID 技术。对于邮箱卷的推荐 RAID 配置是 RAID-1/0(特别是如果您使用的是 5.4K 或 7.2K 磁盘);但是支持所有的 RAID 类型。对于日志卷,推荐的 RAID 配置是 RAID-1 或 RAID-1/0。If you are deploying a standalone Mailbox server role architecture, RAID technology is required for the mailbox database and log volumes. The recommended RAID configuration for mailbox volumes is RAID-1/0 (especially if you are using 5.4K or 7.2K disks); however all RAID types are supported. For log volumes, RAID-1 or RAID-1/0 is the recommended RAID configuration.

针对操作系统、页面文件或 Exchange 数据卷使用 RAID-5 或 RAID-6 配置时,请注意以下内容:When using RAID-5 or RAID-6 configurations for the operating system, pagefile, or Exchange data volumes, note the following:

  • 对于 RAID-5 配置(包括其变体如 RAID-50 和 RAID-51),每个阵列组应不多于 7 个磁盘,而且 RAID-5 配置应启用阵列控制器高优先级清理和表面扫描。RAID-5 configurations, including variations such as RAID-50 and RAID-51, should have no more than 7 disks per array group and array controller high-priority scrubbing and surface scanning enabled.

  • RAID-6 配置应启用阵列控制器高优先级清理和表面扫描。RAID-6 configurations should have array controller high-priority scrubbing and surface scanning enabled.

虽然在具有3个或更多高可用性数据库副本的高可用性体系结构中支持 JBOD,但由于日志和邮箱数据库卷是分开的,因此不建议使用 JBOD。While JBOD is supported in high availability architectures that have 3 or more highly available database copies, because the log and mailbox database volumes are separated, JBOD is not recommended.

邮箱数据库和日志卷共用同一位置Mailbox Database and Log Volume Co-Location

不建议在独立体系结构中使邮箱数据库和日志卷共用同一位置。在高可用性体系结构中,该方案有两种可能性:Mailbox database and log volume co-location is not recommended in standalone architectures. In high availability architectures, there are two possibilities for this scenario:

  1. 每个卷单个数据库Single database per volume

  2. 每个卷多个数据库Multiple databases per volume

每个卷单个数据库Single Database Per Volume

从 Exchange 角度来看,JBOD 意味着将数据库及其关联的日志存储在单个磁盘上。From an Exchange perspective, JBOD means having both the database and its associated logs stored on a single disk. 若要在 JBOD 上部署,必须至少部署三个高可用性数据库副本。To deploy on JBOD, you must deploy a minimum of three highly available database copies. 利用一个磁盘会导致形成单一故障点,因为当磁盘发生故障时,驻留在磁盘上的数据库副本会丢失。Utilizing a single disk is a single point of failure, because when the disk fails, the database copy residing on that disk is lost. 至少拥有三个数据库副本可确保实现容错,因为在一个副本(或一个磁盘)发生故障时还有其他两个副本。Having a minimum of three database copies ensures fault tolerance by having two additional copies in the event that one copy (or one disk) fails. 不过,三个高可用性数据库副本的放置以及滞后数据库副本的使用可能会影响存储设计。However, placement of three highly available database copies, as well as the use of lagged database copies, can affect storage design. 下表列出了针对 RAID 或 JBOD 注意事项的指南。The following table shows guidelines for RAID or JBOD considerations.

RAID 或 JBOD 注意事项RAID or JBOD Considerations

数据中心服务器Datacenter servers 两个高可用副本(总计)Two highly available copies (total) 三个高可用副本(总计)Three highly available copies (total) 每个数据中心具有两个或更多高可用副本Two or more highly available copies per datacenter 一个滞后副本One lagged copy 每个数据中心具有两个或更多滞后副本Two or more lagged copies per datacenter

主数据中心服务器Primary datacenter servers

RAIDRAID

RAID 或 JBOD(2 个副本)RAID or JBOD (2 copies)

RAID 或 JBODRAID or JBOD

RAIDRAID

RAID 或 JBODRAID or JBOD

辅助数据中心服务器Secondary datacenter servers

RAIDRAID

RAID(1 个副本)RAID (1 copy)

RAID 或 JBODRAID or JBOD

RAIDRAID

RAID 或 JBODRAID or JBOD

若要对主数据中心服务器在 JBOD 上进行部署,需要在 DAG 中包含三个或更多高可用数据库副本。如果在托管高可用数据库副本的同一个服务器上混合滞后副本(例如,不使用专用滞后数据库副本服务器),则至少需要两个滞后数据库副本。To deploy on JBOD with the primary datacenter servers, you need three or more highly available database copies within the DAG. If mixing lagged copies on the same server hosting highly available database copies (for example, not using dedicated lagged database copy servers), you need at least two lagged database copies.

若要使辅助数据中心服务器使用 JBOD,应在辅助数据中心中至少包含两个高可用数据库副本。辅助数据中心中的一个副本丢失不会导致需要跨 WAN 重新设定种子,也不会导致在激活辅助数据中心时形成单一故障点。如果在托管高可用数据库副本的同一个服务器上混合滞后数据库副本(例如,不使用专用滞后数据库副本服务器),则至少需要两个滞后数据库副本。For the secondary datacenter servers to use JBOD, you should have at least two highly available database copies in the secondary datacenter. The loss of a copy in the secondary datacenter won't result in requiring a reseed across the WAN or having a single point of failure in the event the secondary datacenter is activated. If mixing lagged database copies on the same server hosting highly available database copies (for example, not using dedicated lagged database copy servers), you need at least two lagged database copies.

对于专用滞后数据库副本服务器,在数据中心中应至少有两个滞后数据库副本使用 JBOD。否则,丢失磁盘会导致丢失滞后数据库副本,以及丢失保护机制。For dedicated lagged database copy servers, you should have at least two lagged database copies within a datacenter to use JBOD. Otherwise, the loss of disk results in the loss of the lagged database copy, as well as the loss of the protection mechanism.

每个卷多个数据库Multiple Databases Per Volume

每个卷的多个数据库是 Exchange 2013 中提供的新 JBOD 方案,允许将主动副本和被动副本(包括滞后副本)混合在一个磁盘上,从而实现更好的磁盘使用率。Multiple databases per volume is a new JBOD scenario available in Exchange 2013 that allows for active and passive copies (including lagged copies) to be mixed on a single disk, enabling better disk utilization. 但是,要以这种方式部署滞后副本,则必须启用自动滞后副本日志文件减少功能。However, to deploy lagged copies in this manner, automatic lagged copy log file play down must be enabled. 下表显示用于每个卷多个数据库的 JBOD 注意事项指南。The following table shows guidelines for JBOD considerations for multiple databases per volume.

JBOD 注意事项JBOD Considerations

数据中心服务器Datacenter Servers 3 个或更多副本(总计)3 or more copies (total) 每个数据中心具有两个或更多副本Two or more copies per datacenter

主数据中心服务器Primary datacenter servers

JBODJBOD

JBODJBOD

辅助数据中心服务器Secondary datacenter servers

不适用N/A

JBODJBOD

下表提供了有关 Exchange 2013 的存储阵列配置的指南。The following table provides guidance about storage array configurations for Exchange 2013.

Exchange 2013 邮箱服务器角色支持的 RAID 类型Supported RAID types for the Exchange 2013 Mailbox server role

RAID 类型RAID type 说明Description 支持的做法或最佳做法Supported or best practice

磁盘阵列 RAID 带区大小 (KB)Disk array RAID stripe size (KB)

条带大小是 RAID 集中每个磁盘的数据分布单位。条带大小也称为块大小The stripe size is the per disk unit of data distribution within a RAID set. Stripe size is also referred to as block size.

最佳实践:256 KB 或更大。遵循存储供应商的最佳实践。Best practice: 256 KB or greater. Follow storage vendor best practices.

存储阵列缓存设置Storage array cache settings

缓存设置由电池供电的缓存阵列控制器提供。The cache settings are provided by a battery-backed caching array controller.

最佳实践:在 RAID 或 JBOD 配置中,适用于 DAS 存储控制器的100% 写入缓存(电池或闪存支持的缓存)。Best practice: 100 percent write cache (battery or flash-backed cache) for DAS storage controllers in either a RAID or JBOD configuration. 75% 的写入缓存,25% 读缓存(电池或闪存支持的缓存),用于其他类型的存储解决方案(如 SAN)。75 percent write cache, 25 percent read cache (battery or flash-backed cache) for other types of storage solutions such as SAN. 如果 SAN 供应商在其平台上有针对不同缓存配置的最佳做法,请按照 SAN 供应商的指导进行操作。If your SAN vendor has different best practices for cache configuration on their platform, follow the guidance of your SAN vendor.

物理磁盘写入缓存Physical disk write caching

可对每个磁盘设置该缓存。The settings for the cache are on each individual disk.

支持:在没有 UPS 的情况下使用时,必须禁用物理磁盘写入缓存。Supported: Physical disk write caching must be disabled when used without a UPS.

下表提供有关数据库和日志文件选项的指南。The following table provides guidance about database and log file choices.

Exchange 2013 邮箱服务器角色的数据库和日志文件选项Database and log file choices for the Exchange 2013 Mailbox server role

数据库和日志文件选项Database and log file options 说明Description 独立:支持的做法或最佳做法Stand-alone: supported or best practice 高可用性:支持的做法或最佳做法High availability: supported or best practice

文件位置:数据库/日志隔离File placement: database per log isolation

数据库/日志隔离指将同一邮箱数据库中的数据库文件和日志放置在由不同物理磁盘支持的不同卷上。Database per log isolation refers to placing the database file and logs from the same mailbox database onto different volumes backed by different physical disks.

最佳实践:为实现可恢复性,将同一数据库中的数据库 (.edb) 文件和日志移动到由不同物理磁盘备份的不同卷中。Best practice: For recoverability, move database (.edb) file and logs from the same database to different volumes backed by different physical disks.

支持:日志和数据库的隔离不是必需的。Supported: Isolation of logs and databases isn't required.

文件位置:数据库文件/卷File placement: database files per volume

数据库文件/卷指如何在磁盘卷内或跨磁盘卷分布数据库文件。Database files per volume refers to how you distribute database files within or across disk volumes.

最佳实践:基于您的备份方法。Best practice: Based on your backup methodology.

支持:使用 JBOD 时,请为数据库和日志文件创建单个包含单独目录的卷。Supported: When using JBOD, create a single volume with separate directories for database(s) and for log files.

文件位置:日志流/卷File placement: log streams per volume

日志流/卷指如何在磁盘卷内或跨磁盘卷分布数据库日志文件。Log streams per volume refers to how you distribute database log files within or across disk volumes.

最佳实践:基于您的备份方法。Best practice: Based on your backup methodology.

支持:使用 JBOD 时,请为数据库和日志文件创建单个包含单独目录的卷。Supported: When using JBOD, create a single volume with separate directories for database(s) and for log files.

最佳实践:使用 JBOD 时,每卷利用多个数据库。Best practice: When using JBOD, leverage multiple databases per volume.

数据库大小Database size

数据库大小指磁盘数据库 (.edb) 文件大小。Database size refers to the disk database (.edb) file size.

支持:大约 16 TB。Supported: Approximately 16 terabytes.

最佳实践:Best practice:

  • 200 GB 或更少。200 gigabytes (GB) or less.

  • 按计算的最大数据库大小的 120% 设置。Provision for 120 percent of calculated maximum database size.

支持:大约 16 TB。Supported: Approximately 16 terabytes.

最佳实践:Best practice:

  • 2 TB 或更少。2 terabytes or less.

  • 按计算的最大数据库大小的 120% 设置。Provision for 120 percent of calculated maximum database size.

日志截断方法Log truncation method

日志截断方法是截断并删除旧数据库日志文件的过程。有两种机制:Log truncation method is the process for truncating and deleting old database log files. There are two mechanisms:

  • 循环日志记录,在这种机制中,Exchange 会删除日志。Circular logging, in which Exchange deletes the logs.

  • 日志截断,在完整或增量卷影复制服务 (VSS) 备份成功之后进行。Log truncation, which occurs after a successful full or incremental Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) backup.

最佳实践:Best practice:

  • 使用备份执行日志截断(例如,禁用循环日志记录)。Use backups for log truncation (for example, circular logging disabled).

  • 按三天的日志生成容量设置。Provision for three days of log generation capacity.

最佳实践:Best practice:

  • 为使用 Exchange 原生数据保护功能的部署启用循环日志记录。Enable circular logging for deployments that use Exchange native data protection features.

  • 按超过重播延迟设置三天的日志生成容量设置。Provision for three days beyond replay lag setting of log generation capacity.

下表提供有关 Windows 磁盘类型的指南。The following table provides guidance about Windows disk types.

用于 Exchange 2013 邮箱服务器角色的 Windows 磁盘类型Windows disk types for the Exchange 2013 Mailbox server role

Windows 磁盘类型Windows disk type 说明Description 独立:支持的做法或最佳做法Stand-alone: supported or best practice 高可用性:支持的做法或最佳做法High availability: supported or best practice

基本磁盘Basic disk

初始化为基本存储的磁盘称为基本磁盘。基本磁盘包含基本卷,如主分区、扩展分区和逻辑驱动器。A disk initialized for basic storage is called a basic disk. A basic disk contains basic volumes, such as primary partitions, extended partitions, and logical drives.

支持。Supported.

最佳实践:使用基本磁盘。Best practice: Use basic disks.

支持。Supported.

最佳实践:使用基本磁盘。Best practice: Use basic disks.

动态磁盘Dynamic disk

初始化为动态存储的磁盘称为动态磁盘。动态磁盘包含动态卷,如简单卷、跨区卷、带区卷、镜像卷和 RAID-5 卷。A disk initialized for dynamic storage is called a dynamic disk. A dynamic disk contains dynamic volumes, such as simple volumes, spanned volumes, striped volumes, mirrored volumes, and RAID-5 volumes.

支持。Supported.

支持。Supported.

下表提供有关卷配置的指南。The following table provides guidance on volume configurations.

Exchange 2013 邮箱服务器角色的卷配置Volume configurations for the Exchange 2013 Mailbox server role

卷配置Volume configuration 说明Description 独立:支持的做法或最佳做法Stand-alone: supported or best practice 高可用性:支持的做法或最佳做法High availability: supported or best practice

GUID 分区表 (GPT)GUID partition table (GPT)

GPT 是一种在旧式主启动记录 (MBR) 分区方案上扩展得到的磁盘体系结构。最大 NTFS 格式分区大小为 256 TB。GPT is a disk architecture that expands on the older master boot record (MBR) partitioning scheme. The maximum NTFS formatted partition size is 256 terabytes.

支持。Supported.

最佳实践:使用 GPT 分区。Best practice: Use GPT partitions.

支持。Supported.

最佳实践:使用 GPT 分区。Best practice: Use GPT partitions.

MBRMBR

MBR(或分区扇区)是作为已分区数据存储设备(如硬盘)的第一个扇区(LBA 扇区 0)的 512 字节启动扇区。最大 NTFS 格式分区大小为 2 TB。An MBR, or partition sector, is the 512-byte boot sector that is the first sector (LBA Sector 0) of a partitioned data storage device such as a hard disk. The maximum NTFS formatted partition size is 2 terabytes.

支持。Supported.

支持。Supported.

分区对齐Partition alignment

分区对齐指将分区在扇区边界上对齐以获得最佳性能。Partition alignment refers to aligning partitions on sector boundaries for optimal performance.

支持:Windows Server 2008 R2 和 Windows Server 2012 默认为 1MB。Supported: The Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2012 default is 1 megabyte (MB).

支持:Windows Server 2008 R2 和 Windows Server 2012 默认为 1MB。Supported: The Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2012 default is 1 MB.

卷路径Volume path

卷路径指访问卷的方式。Volume path refers to how a volume is accessed.

支持:驱动器号或装入点。Supported: Drive letter or mount point.

最佳实践:装入点主机卷必须启用 RAID。Best practice: Mount point host volume must be RAID enabled.

支持:驱动器号或装入点。Supported: Drive letter or mount point.

最佳实践:装入点主机卷必须启用 RAID。Best practice: Mount point host volume must be RAID-enabled.

文件系统File system

文件系统是一种用于存储和组织计算机文件及其中包含的数据的方法,以便可轻松地查找和访问这些文件。File system is a method for storing and organizing computer files and the data they contain to make it easy to find and access the files.

支持:NTFS 和 ReFS。Supported: NTFS and ReFS.

支持:NTFS 和 ReFS。Supported: NTFS and ReFS.

NTFS 碎片整理NTFS defragmentation

NTFS 碎片整理是一个用于减少 Windows 文件系统中碎片量的过程。此过程的具体操作为:以物理方式组织磁盘的内容,以便将每个文件的各部分紧密且连续地进行存储。NTFS defragmentation is a process that reduces the amount of fragmentation in Windows file systems. It does this by physically organizing the contents of the disk to store the pieces of each file close together and contiguously.

支持。Supported.

最佳做法:不要求并且不建议。在 Windows Server 2012 上,还建议禁用自动磁盘优化和碎片整理功能。Best practice: Not required and not recommended. On Windows Server 2012, we also recommend disabling the automatic disk optimization and defragmentation feature.

支持。Supported.

最佳做法:不要求并且不建议。在 Windows Server 2012 上,还建议禁用自动磁盘优化和碎片整理功能。Best practice: Not required and not recommended. On Windows Server 2012, we also recommend disabling the automatic disk optimization and defragmentation feature.

NTFS 分配单元大小NTFS allocation unit size

NTFS 分配单元大小表示可以分配用于存放文件的最小磁盘空间量。NTFS allocation unit size represents the smallest amount of disk space that can be allocated to hold a file.

支持:所有分配单元大小。Supported: All allocation unit sizes.

最佳实践:对于 .edb 和日志文件卷都为 64 KB。Best practice: 64 KB for both .edb and log file volumes.

支持:所有分配单元大小。Supported: All allocation unit sizes.

最佳实践:对于 .edb 和日志文件卷都为 64 KB。Best practice: 64 KB for both .edb and log file volumes.

NTFS 压缩NTFS compression

NTFS 压缩是减小硬盘上存储的文件实际大小的过程。NTFS compression is the process of reducing the actual size of a file stored on the hard disk.

支持:Exchange 数据库或日志文件不支持此配置。Supported: Not supported for Exchange database or log files.

支持:Exchange 数据库或日志文件不支持此配置。Supported: Not supported for Exchange database or log files.

NTFS 加密文件系统 (EFS)NTFS Encrypting File System (EFS)

用户使用 EFS 可以加密各个文件、文件夹或整个数据驱动器。由于 EFS 通过行业标准算法和公钥加密提供强加密,所以加密的文件可保持机密性,即使攻击者绕过系统安全保护也是如此。EFS enables users to encrypt individual files, folders, or entire data drives. Because EFS provides strong encryption through industry-standard algorithms and public key cryptography, encrypted files are confidential even if an attacker bypasses system security.

支持:Exchange 数据库或日志文件不支持此配置。Supported: Not supported for Exchange database or log files.

Exchange 数据库或日志文件不支持此配置。Not supported for Exchange database or log files.

Windows BitLocker(卷加密)Windows BitLocker (volume encryption)

Windows BitLocker 是 Windows Server 2008 中的一种数据保护功能。BitLocker 可防止丢失或被盗的计算机上的数据失窃或泄露,并可在计算机停止使用时提供更加安全的数据删除。Windows BitLocker is a data protection feature in Windows Server 2008. BitLocker protects against data theft or exposure on computers that are lost or stolen, and it offers more secure data deletion when computers are decommissioned.

支持:所有 Exchange 数据库和日志文件。Supported: All Exchange database and log files.

支持:所有 Exchange 数据库和日志文件。Windows 故障转移群集需要 Windows Server 2008 R2 或 Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 以及以下修补程序:如果计算机是故障转移群集节点,则无法在 Windows Server 2008 R2 中的磁盘卷上启用 BitLocker。运行早期版本的 Windows 的 Windows 故障转移群集上不支持启用了 Bitlocker 的 Exchange 卷。 Supported: All Exchange database and log files. Windows failover clusters require Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 and the following hotfix: You cannot enable BitLocker on a disk volume in Windows Server 2008 R2 if the computer is a failover cluster node. Exchange volumes with Bitlocker enabled are not supported on Windows failover clusters running earlier versions of Windows.

有关 Windows 7 BitLocker 加密的详细信息,请参阅 Windows 7 中的 BitLocker 驱动器加密:常见问题For more information about Windows 7 BitLocker encryption, see BitLocker Drive Encryption in Windows 7: Frequently Asked Questions.

服务器消息块 (SMB) 3.0Server Message Block (SMB) 3.0

服务器消息块 (SMB) 协议是一项网络文件共享协议(以 TCP/IP 或其他网络协议为依据),允许计算机上的应用访问远程服务器上的文件和资源。它还允许应用与任何设置为接收 SMB 客户端请求的服务器程序进行通信。Windows Server 2012 中引入了新的 3.0 版本 SMB 协议,其中包括下列功能:The Server Message Block (SMB) protocol is a network file sharing protocol (on top of TCP/IP or other network protocols) that allows applications on a computer to access files and resources on a remote server. It also allows applications to communicate with any server program that is set up to receive an SMB client request. Windows Server 2012 introduces the new 3.0 version of the SMB protocol with the following features:

  • SMB 透明故障转移SMB Transparent failover

  • SMB 横向扩展SMB Scaleout

  • SMB 多通道SMB Multichannel

  • SMB 直通SMB Direct

  • SMB 加密SMB Encryption

  • 适用于 SMB 文件共享的 VSSVSS for SMB file shares

  • SMB 目录租赁SMB Directory Leasing

  • SMB PowerShellSMB PowerShell

有限支持。受支持的情况是在 SMB 3.0 共享的 VHD 上托管磁盘的硬件虚拟化部署。这些 VHD 通过一个虚拟机监控程序呈现给主机。有关详细信息,请参阅Exchange 2013 虚拟化Limited Support. Supported scenario is a hardware virtualized deployment where the disks are hosted on VHDs on an SMB 3.0 share. These VHDs are presented to the host via a hypervisor. For more information, see Exchange 2013 virtualization.

有限支持。受支持的情况是在 SMB 3.0 共享的 VHD 上托管磁盘的硬件虚拟化部署。这些 VHD 通过一个虚拟机监控程序呈现给主机。有关详细信息,请参阅Exchange 2013 虚拟化Limited Support. Supported scenario is a hardware virtualized deployment where the disks are hosted on VHDs on an SMB 3.0 share. These VHDs are presented to the host via a hypervisor. For more information, see Exchange 2013 virtualization.

存储空间Storage Spaces

存储空间是新的存储解决方案,用于实现 Windows Server 2012 的虚拟化功能。使用存储空间,可以将物理磁盘整理到存储池中,只需简单地增加磁盘,就能轻松扩展空间。可以通过 USB、SATA 或 SAS 连接磁盘。也可以利用具有相关强大功能的虚拟磁盘(空间)(与物理磁盘的工作原理一样),如精简预配以及从基础物理媒体故障中复原的功能。若要详细了解存储空间,请参阅存储空间概述Storage Spaces is a new storage solution that delivers virtualization capabilities for Windows Server 2012. Storage Spaces allow you to organize physical disks into storage pools, which can be easily expanded by simply adding disks. These disks can be connected either through USB, SATA or SAS. It also utilizes virtual disks (spaces), which behave just like physical disks, with associated powerful capabilities such as thin provisioning, as well as resiliency to failures of underlying physical media. For more information on Storage Spaces, see Storage Spaces Overview.

支持。Supported. 此主题列出了物理磁盘类型的一些限制。Same restrictions as for physical disk types outlined in this topic.

支持。此主题列出了物理磁盘类型的一些限制。Supported. Same restrictions as for physical disk types outlined in this topic.

复原文件系统 (ReFS)Resilient File System (ReFS)

ReFS 是新设计的用于 Windows Server 2012 的文件系统,基于 NTFS 的基础构建。ReFS is a newly engineered file system for Windows Server 2012 that is built on the foundations of NTFS. ReFS 保持 NTFS 的高兼容性,同时提供增强的数据验证和自动更正技术,以及集成的端到端损坏复原,与存储空间功能一起使用时尤为如此。ReFS maintains high degree of compatibility with NTFS while providing enhanced data verification and auto-correction techniques as well as an integrated end-to-end resiliency to corruptions especially when used in conjunction with the storage spaces feature. 若要详细了解 ReFS,请参阅复原文件系统概述For more information on ReFS, see Resilient File System Overview.

支持包含 Exchange 数据库文件、日志文件和内容索引文件的卷。Supported for volumes containing Exchange database files, log files and content indexing files. 如果在 Windows Server 2012 上部署,请确保在 Windows Server 2012 上安装了以下修补程序:If deploying on Windows Server 2012, ensure the following hotfixes are installed on Windows Server 2012:

OS 卷不支持 ReFS。ReFS is not supported for OS volumes.

最佳做法:必须为 Exchange 数据库 (.edb) 文件或托管这些文件的卷禁用数据完整性功能。Best practice: Data integrity features must be disabled for the Exchange database (.edb) files or the volume that hosts these files.

支持包含 Exchange 数据库文件、日志文件和内容索引文件的卷。Supported for volumes containing Exchange database files, log files and content indexing files. 如果在 Windows Server 2012 上部署,请确保在 Windows Server 2012 上安装了以下修补程序:If deploying on Windows Server 2012, ensure the following hotfixes are installed on Windows Server 2012:

OS 卷不支持 ReFS。ReFS is not supported for OS volumes.

最佳做法:必须为 Exchange 数据库 (.edb) 文件或托管这些文件的卷禁用数据完整性功能。Best practice: Data integrity features must be disabled for the Exchange database (.edb) files or the volume that hosts these files.

重复数据删除Data De-Duplication

重复数据删除是一项优化 Windows Server 2012 存储利用的新技术。它是一种在不影响保真度或完整性的情况下,发现和删除重复数据的方法。其目标是将文件分割为各种大小的小区块,标识重复的区块并保留每个区块的各个副本,用更少的空间存储更多的数据。多余的区块副本会替换为对单个副本的引用,将区块整理到容器文件中,再压缩容器文件,从而进一步优化空间。Data deduplication is a new technique to optimize storage utilization for Windows Server 2012. It is a method of finding and removing duplication within data without compromising its fidelity or integrity. The goal is to store more data in less space by segmenting files into small variable-sized chunks, identifying duplicate chunks, and maintaining a single copy of each chunk. Redundant copies of the chunk are replaced by a reference to the single copy, the chunks are organized into container files, and the containers are compressed for further space optimization.

不支持 Exchange 数据库文件。注意:适用于完全处于脱机模式的 Exchange 数据库文件(作为备份或存档)。Not Supported for Exchange database files. Note: Can be used for Exchange database files that are completely offline (used as backups or archives).

不支持 Exchange 数据库文件。注意:适用于完全处于脱机模式的 Exchange 数据库文件(作为备份或存档)。Not Supported for Exchange database files. Note: Can be used for Exchange database files that are completely offline (used as backups or archives).