收件人Recipients

适用于: Exchange Server 2013Applies to: Exchange Server 2013

接收和发送邮件的人员和资源是任何邮件和协作系统的核心。The people and resources that send and receive messages are the core of any messaging and collaboration system. 在 Exchange 组织中,这些人员和资源称为 "收件人"。In an Exchange organization, these people and resources are referred to as recipients. 收件人是 Active Directory(Microsoft Exchange 可以将邮件传递或路由至其中)中的已启用邮件功能的对象。A recipient is any mail-enabled object in Active Directory to which Microsoft Exchange can deliver or route messages.

Exchange 收件人类型Exchange recipient types

Exchange 包含几种显式收件人类型。Exchange includes several explicit recipient types. 每个收件人类型在 Exchange 管理中心 (EAC) ,在 Exchange 命令行管理程序 的 RecipientTypeDetails 属性中具有唯一值。Each recipient type is identified in the Exchange admin center (EAC) and has a unique value in the RecipientTypeDetails property in the Exchange Management Shell. 使用显式收件人类型具有下列优点:The use of explicit recipient types has the following benefits:

  • 可以快速区分出各种收件人类型。At a glance, you can differentiate between various recipient types.

  • 您可以按各种收件人类型进行搜索和排序。You can search and sort by each recipient type.

  • 您可以更轻松地对选定收件人类型执行批量管理操作。You can more easily perform bulk management operations for selected recipient types.

  • 由于 EAC 使用收件人类型呈现不同的属性页,因此您可以更轻松地查看收件人属性。例如,您可以查看会议室邮箱的资源容量,但无法查看用户邮箱的资源容量。You can more easily view recipient properties because the EAC uses the recipient types to render different property pages. For example, the resource capacity is displayed for a room mailbox, but isn't present for a user mailbox.

下表列出了可用的收件人类型。本主题下文中详细讨论了所有这些收件人类型。The following table lists the available recipient types. All these recipient types are discussed in more detail later in this topic.

收件人类型Recipient type 说明Description

动态通讯组Dynamic distribution group

发送邮件时使用收件人筛选器和条件派生其成员身份的通讯组。A distribution group that uses recipient filters and conditions to derive its membership at the time messages are sent.

设备邮箱Equipment mailbox

分配给非特定于位置的资源的资源邮箱,例如便携式计算机、投影仪、麦克风或公司汽车。A resource mailbox that's assigned to a resource that's not location-specific, such as a portable computer, projector, microphone, or a company car. 您可以将设备邮箱作为资源包含在会议请求中,从而为用户提供一种简单有效的资源使用方式。Equipment mailboxes can be included as resources in meeting requests, providing a simple and efficient way of using resources for your users.

链接邮箱Linked mailbox

分配给独立的受信任林中单个用户的邮箱。A mailbox that's assigned to an individual user in a separate, trusted forest.

邮件联系人Mail contact

启用邮件的 Active Directory 联系人,包含有关 Exchange 组织外部存在的人员或组织的信息。A mail-enabled Active Directory contact that contains information about people or organizations that exist outside the Exchange organization. 每个邮件联系人都有一个外部电子邮件地址。Each mail contact has an external email address. 发送给邮件联系人的所有邮件都会路由到此外部电子邮件地址。All messages sent to the mail contact are routed to this external email address.

邮件林联系人Mail forest contact

表示另一个林中收件人对象的邮件联系人。A mail contact that represents a recipient object from another forest. 邮件林联系人通常由 Microsoft Identity Integration Server 创建, (MIIS) 同步。Mail forest contacts are typically created by Microsoft Identity Integration Server (MIIS) synchronization.

重要

邮件林联系人是只读的收件人对象,只能通过 MIIS 或类似的自定义同步来更新。不能使用 EAC 或命令行管理程序删除或修改邮件林联系人。Mail forest contacts are read-only recipient objects that are updated only through MIIS or similar custom synchronization. You can't use the EAC or the Shell to remove or modify a mail forest contact.

邮件用户Mail user

启用邮件的 Active Directory 用户,表示 Exchange 组织外部的用户。A mail-enabled Active Directory user that represents a user outside the Exchange organization. 每个邮件用户都有一个外部电子邮件地址。Each mail user has an external email address. 发送给邮件用户的所有邮件都会路由到此外部电子邮件地址。All messages sent to the mail user are routed to this external email address.

邮件用户类似于邮件联系人,只是邮件用户具有 Active Directory 登录凭据并且可以访问资源。A mail user is similar to a mail contact, except that a mail user has Active Directory logon credentials and can access resources.

启用邮件的非通用组Mail-enabled non-universal group

启用邮件的 Active Directory 全局或本地组对象。A mail-enabled Active Directory global or local group object. 启用邮件的非通用组在 Exchange Server 2007 中已停用,并且仅在从 Exchange 2003 或早期版本的 Exchange 迁移时才能存在。Mail-enabled non-universal groups were discontinued in Exchange Server 2007 and can exist only if they were migrated from Exchange 2003 or earlier versions of Exchange. You can't use Exchange Server 2013 to create non-universal distribution groups.You can't use Exchange Server 2013 to create non-universal distribution groups.

已启用邮件的公用文件夹Mail-enabled public folder

配置为接收邮件的 Exchange 公用文件夹。An Exchange public folder that's configured to receive messages.

通讯组Distribution groups

通讯组是启用邮件的 Active Directory 通讯组对象,只能用于将邮件分发给一组收件人。A distribution group is a mail-enabled Active Directory distribution group object that can be used only to distribute messages to a group of recipients.

启用邮件的安全组Mail-enabled security group

启用邮件的安全组是一个 Active Directory 通用安全组对象,可用于向 Active Directory 中的资源分配访问权限,还可用于分发邮件。A mail-enabled security group is an Active Directory universal security group object that can be used to assign access permissions to resources in Active Directory and can also be used to distribute messages.

Microsoft Exchange 收件人Microsoft Exchange recipient

它是提供统一的已知邮件发件人的一个特殊收件人对象,可以使用该收件人来将系统生成的邮件与其他邮件区分开来。A special recipient object that provides a unified and well-known message sender that differentiates system-generated messages from other messages. 它取代了在 Exchange 早期版本中用于系统生成邮件的系统管理员发件人。It replaces the System Administrator sender used for system-generated messages in earlier versions of Exchange.

会议室邮箱Room mailbox

分配给会议地点(例如会议室、礼堂或培训室)的资源邮箱。会议室邮箱可以包含在会议请求的资源中,从而可以为用户的会议组织活动提供了一种简单有效的方法。A resource mailbox that's assigned to a meeting location, such as a conference room, auditorium, or training room. Room mailboxes can be included as resources in meeting requests, providing a simple and efficient way of organizing meetings for your users.

共享邮箱Shared mailbox

一种基本上不与单个用户相关联且通常配置为允许多个用户访问的邮箱。A mailbox that's not primarily associated with a single user and is generally configured to allow access for multiple users.

网站邮箱Site mailbox

一种由用于存储电子邮件的 Exchange 邮箱和用于存储文档的 SharePoint 站点组成的邮箱。A mailbox comprised of an Exchange mailbox to store email messages and a SharePoint site to store documents. 用户可使用同一客户端接口访问电子邮件和文档。Users can access both email messages and documents using the same client interface. 有关详细信息,请参阅站点 邮箱For more information, see Site mailboxes.

用户邮箱User mailbox

分配给 Exchange 组织中单个用户的邮箱。A mailbox that's assigned to an individual user in your Exchange organization. 用户邮箱通常包含邮件、日历项目、联系人、任务、文档以及其它重要的业务数据。It typically contains messages, calendar items, contacts, tasks, documents, and other important business data.

Microsoft 365 或 Office 365 邮箱Microsoft 365 or Office 365 mailbox

在混合部署中,Microsoft 365 或 Office 365 邮箱由存在于本地 Active Directory 中的邮件用户和 Exchange Online 中的关联云邮箱组成。In hybrid deployments, a Microsoft 365 or Office 365 mailbox consists of a mail user that exists in Active Directory on-premises and an associated cloud mailbox that exists in Exchange Online.

链接用户Linked user

链接用户是指邮箱位于其所在林以外的其他林的用户。A linked user is a user whose mailbox resides in a different forest than the forest in which the user resides.

邮箱Mailboxes

邮箱是 Exchange 组织中信息工作者最常用的收件人类型。Mailboxes are the most common recipient type used by information workers in an Exchange organization. 每个邮箱都与一个 Active Directory 用户帐户关联。Each mailbox is associated with an Active Directory user account. 用户可以使用邮箱发送和接收邮件,并可以存储邮件、约会、任务、便笺和文档。The user can use the mailbox to send and receive messages, and to store messages, appointments, tasks, notes, and documents. 邮箱是 Exchange 组织中用户的主要消息传递和协作工具。Mailboxes are the primary messaging and collaboration tool for the users in your Exchange organization.

邮箱组件Mailbox components

每个邮箱包含一个 Active Directory 用户和存储在 Exchange 邮箱数据库中的邮箱 (如下图) 。Each mailbox consists of an Active Directory user and the mailbox data that's stored in the Exchange mailbox database (as shown in the following figure). 邮箱的所有配置数据存储在 Active Directory 用户对象的 Exchange 属性中。All configuration data for the mailbox is stored in the Exchange attributes of the Active Directory user object. 邮箱数据库包含与用户帐户关联的邮箱中的实际数据。The mailbox database contains the actual data that's in the mailbox associated with the user account.

重要

为新的或现有的用户创建邮箱时,邮箱所需的 Exchange 属性将添加到 Active Directory 中的用户对象。When you create a mailbox for a new or existing user, the Exchange attributes required for a mailbox are added to the user object in Active Directory. 在邮箱收到邮件或用户登录邮箱之前,系统不会创建相关的邮箱数据。The associated mailbox data isn't created until the mailbox either receives a message or the user signs in to it.

邮箱组件Mailbox components

组成邮箱的部分Parts that make up a mailbox

警告

如果删除邮箱,Exchange 邮箱数据库中存储的邮箱数据将标记为删除,并且关联的用户帐户也将从 Active Directory 中删除。If you remove a mailbox, the mailbox data stored in the Exchange mailbox database is marked for deletion and the associated user account is also deleted from Active Directory. 若要保留用户帐户,仅删除邮箱数据,则必须禁用邮箱。To retain the user account and delete only the mailbox data, you must disable the mailbox.

邮箱类型Mailbox types

Exchange 支持下列邮箱类型:Exchange supports the following mailbox types:

  • 用户邮箱 用户邮箱将分配给 Exchange 组织中单个用户。User mailboxes User mailboxes are assigned to individual users in your Exchange organization. 用户邮箱为用户提供了丰富的协作平台。User mailboxes provide your users with a rich collaboration platform. 用户可以发送和接收邮件、管理其联系人、安排会议和维护任务列表。Users can send and receive messages, manage their contacts, schedule meetings, and maintain a task list. 他们还可以将语音邮件发送到自己的邮箱中。They can also have voice mail messages delivered to their mailboxes. 用户邮箱是最常用的邮箱类型,而且通常是分配给组织中用户的邮箱类型。User mailboxes are the most commonly used mailbox type and are typically the mailbox type assigned to users in your organization.

  • 链接邮箱:链接邮箱是单独的受信任林中的用户访问的邮箱。Linked mailboxes: Linked mailboxes are mailboxes that are accessed by users in a separate, trusted forest. 在资源林中部署 Exchange 的组织可能需要链接邮箱。Linked mailboxes may be necessary for organizations that deploy Exchange in a resource forest. 资源林方案允许组织将 Exchange 集中到单个林中,同时允许使用一个或多个受信任林中的用户帐户访问 Exchange 组织。The resource forest scenario allows an organization to centralize Exchange in a single forest, while allowing access to the Exchange organization with user accounts in one or more trusted forests.

    如前所述,每个邮箱必须具有一个与其相关联的用户帐户。As stated earlier, every mailbox must have a user account associated with it. 但是,访问链接邮箱的用户帐户不存在于部署 Exchange 的林中。However, the user account that accesses the linked mailbox doesn't exist in the forest where Exchange is deployed. 因此,与 Exchange 位于同一林中的已禁用用户帐户将与每个链接邮箱关联。Therefore, a disabled user account that exists in the same forest as Exchange is associated with each linked mailbox. 下图说明了用于访问链接邮箱的已链接用户帐户和与链接邮箱关联的 Exchange 资源林中已禁用用户帐户之间的关系。The following figure illustrates the relationship between the linked user account used to access the linked mailbox and the disabled user account in the Exchange resource forest associated with the linked mailbox.

    链接邮箱Linked mailbox

    具有资源林的复杂 Exchange 组织Complex Exchange organization with resource forest

  • Microsoft 365 或 Office 365 邮箱 在混合部署中的 Exchange Online 中创建 Microsoft 365 或 Office 365 邮箱时,邮件用户在本地 Active Directory 中创建。Microsoft 365 or Office 365 mailboxes When you create a Microsoft 365 or Office 365 mailbox in Exchange Online in a hybrid deployment, the mail user is created in Active Directory on-premises. 目录同步(如果已配置)会自动将这个新用户对象同步到 Microsoft 365 或 Office 365,在 Microsoft 365 或 Office 365 中,该对象将在其中转换为 Exchange Online 中的云邮箱。Directory synchronization, if it's configured, automatically synchronizes this new user object to Microsoft 365 or Office 365, where it's converted to a cloud mailbox in Exchange Online. 可以将 Microsoft 365 或 Office 365 邮箱创建为常规用户邮箱、会议室和设备的资源邮箱以及共享邮箱。You can create Microsoft 365 or Office 365 mailboxes as regular user mailboxes, resource mailboxes for meeting rooms and equipment, and shared mailboxes.

  • 共享邮箱:共享邮箱不主要与单个用户关联,通常配置为允许多个用户访问。Shared mailboxes: Shared mailboxes aren't primarily associated with individual users and are generally configured to allow access by multiple users.

    虽然也可以授予其他用户登录访问任意类型邮箱的权限,但共享邮箱专用于此用途。Although it's possible to assign additional users the logon access permissions to any mailbox type, shared mailboxes are dedicated for this functionality. 与共享邮箱关联的 Active Directory 用户必须是已禁用的帐户。The Active Directory user associated with a shared mailbox must be a disabled account. 在创建共享邮箱后,您必须为所有需要访问此共享邮箱的用户授予权限。After you create a shared mailbox, you must assign permissions to all users that require access to the shared mailbox.

备注

无法直接登录共享邮箱。A shared mailbox is not designed for direct logon. 共享邮箱本身的用户帐户应保持“禁用”(或“断开连接”)状态。The user account for the shared mailbox itself should stay in a Disabled (or "disconnected") state.

  • 资源邮箱:资源邮箱是专门用于计划资源的特殊邮箱。Resource mailboxes: Resource mailboxes are special mailboxes designed to be used for scheduling resources. 与所有邮箱类型一样,资源邮箱具有关联的 Active Directory 用户帐户,但它必须是已禁用的帐户。Like all mailbox types, a resource mailbox has an associated Active Directory user account, but it must be a disabled account. 资源邮箱分为以下几种类型:The following are the types of resource mailboxes:

    • 会议室邮箱:这些邮箱分配给会议地点,如会议室、礼堂和培训室。Room mailboxes: These mailboxes are assigned to meeting locations, such as conference rooms, auditoriums, and training rooms.

    • 设备邮箱:这些邮箱分配给不特定于位置的资源,例如便携计算机、投影仪、麦克风或公司汽车。Equipment mailboxes: These mailboxes are assigned to resources that aren't location-specific, such as portable computers, projectors, microphones, or company cars.

    您可以将这两种类型的资源邮箱包含在会议请求中,从而为用户提供一种简单有效的资源使用方式。可以配置资源邮箱,使其根据资源所有者定义的资源预订策略来自动处理传入会议请求。例如,可以配置会议室,以自动接受除定期会议外的传入会议请求,这要获取资源所有者的批准。You can include both types of resource mailboxes in meeting requests, providing a simple and efficient way for your users to use resources. You can configure resource mailboxes to automatically process incoming meeting requests based on the resource booking policies that are defined by the resource owners. For example, you can configure a conference room to automatically accept incoming meeting requests except recurring meetings, which can be subject to approval by the resource owner.

系统邮箱System mailboxes

系统邮箱由 Exchange 在安装期间在 Active Directory 林的根域中创建。System mailboxes are created by Exchange in the root domain of the Active Directory forest during installation. 用户或管理员不能登录此类邮箱。Users or administrators can't sign in to these mailboxes. 系统邮箱是为统一消息 (UM)、迁移、邮件审批和就地电子数据展示等 Exchange 功能创建的邮箱。System mailboxes are created for Exchange features such as Unified Messaging (UM), migration, message approval, and In-Place eDiscovery. 此表列出了在 Active Directory 中显示系统邮箱时有关这些邮箱的信息。This table lists information about system mailboxes as they're displayed in Active Directory.

邮箱Mailbox 名称Name

组织Organization

SystemMailbox {bb558c35-97f1-4cb9-8ff7-d53741dc928c}SystemMailbox {bb558c35-97f1-4cb9-8ff7-d53741dc928c}

邮件审批Message approval

SystemMailbox {1f05a927-xxxx xxxx- xxxx - xxxx -xxxxxxxxxxxx}SystemMailbox {1f05a927-xxxx- xxxx - xxxx -xxxxxxxxxxxx}

其中 x 是为各个 Exchange 林随机分配的唯一编号where x is a randomly assigned and unique number for each Exchange forest

UM 数据存储UM data storage

SystemMailbox {e0dc1c29-89c3-4034-b678-e6c29d823ed9}SystemMailbox {e0dc1c29-89c3-4034-b678-e6c29d823ed9}

DiscoveryDiscovery

DiscoverySearchMailbox {D919BA05-46A6-415f-80AD-7E09334BB852}DiscoverySearchMailbox {D919BA05-46A6-415f-80AD-7E09334BB852}

联合电子邮件Federated email

FederatedEmail.4c1f4d8b-8179-4148-93bf-00a95fa1e042FederatedEmail.4c1f4d8b-8179-4148-93bf-00a95fa1e042

迁移Migration

Migration.8f3e7716-2011-43e4-96b1-aba62d229136Migration.8f3e7716-2011-43e4-96b1-aba62d229136

如果您要停用 Exchange 组织中的最后一台邮箱服务器,则应该先使用 Disable-Mailbox cmdlet 禁用这些系统邮箱。If you want to decommission the last Mailbox server in your Exchange organization, you should first disable these system mailboxes by using the Disable-Mailbox cmdlet. 停用包含这些系统邮箱的邮箱服务器时,应该将这些系统邮箱移到另一个邮箱服务器中,以确保功能不会丧失。When you decommission a Mailbox server that contains these system mailboxes, you should move the system mailboxes to another Mailbox server to make sure that you don't lose functionality.

规划邮箱Planning for mailboxes

邮箱是在安装了邮箱服务器角色的 Exchange 服务器的邮箱数据库中创建的。Mailboxes are created in mailbox databases on Exchange servers that have the Mailbox server role installed. 为了向邮箱用户提供可靠和有效的平台,对邮箱服务器和数据库部署进行详细规划是至关重要的。To help provide a reliable and effective platform for your mailbox users, detailed planning for the deployment of Mailbox servers and databases is essential. 若要了解有关规划邮箱服务器和数据库的信息,请参阅 规划和部署To learn more about planning for Mailbox servers and databases, see Planning and deployment.

通讯组Distribution groups

通讯组是启用邮件的 Active Directory 组对象,主要用于将邮件分发到多个收件人。Distribution groups are mail-enabled Active Directory group objects that are primarily used for distributing messages to multiple recipients. 任何收件人类型都可以是通讯组的成员。Any recipient type can be a member of a distribution group.

重要

请注意 Active Directory 和 Exchange 之间的术语差异。Note the terminology differences between Active Directory and Exchange. 在 Active Directory 中,通讯组是指任何不具有安全上下文的组,而无论它是否已启用邮件。In Active Directory, a distribution group refers to any group that doesn't have a security context, whether it's mail-enabled or not. 在 Exchange 中,所有启用邮件的组都称为通讯组,无论它们是否具有安全性上下文。In Exchange, all mail-enabled groups are referred to as distribution groups, whether they have a security context or not.

Exchange 支持以下类型的通讯组:Exchange supports the following types of distribution groups:

  • 通讯组:这些是已启用邮件的 Active Directory 通用通讯组对象。Distribution groups: These are Active Directory universal distribution group objects that are mail-enabled. 它们只能用于将邮件分发给一组收件人。They can be used only to distribute messages to a group of recipients.

  • 启用邮件的安全组:这些是已启用邮件的 Active Directory 通用安全组对象。Mail-enabled security groups: These are Active Directory universal security group objects that are mail-enabled. 它们可用于向 Active Directory 中的资源分配访问权限,还可用于分发邮件。They can be used to assign access permissions to resources in Active Directory and can also be used to distribute messages.

  • 启用邮件的非通用组:这些是已启用邮件的 Active Directory 全局或本地组对象。Mail-enabled non-universal groups: These are Active Directory global or local group objects that are mail-enabled. 只能创建通用通讯组或对其启用邮件。You can create or mail-enable only universal distribution groups. 您可能具有从早期版本的 Exchange 中迁移的启用邮件的组,这些组不是通用组。You may have mail-enabled groups that were migrated from previous versions of Exchange that aren't universal groups. 这些组仍然可以使用 EAC 或命令行管理程序进行管理。These groups can still be managed by using the EAC or the Shell.

    备注

    若要将本地域或全局组转换为通用组,可以使用命令行管理程序中的 Set-Group cmdlet。To convert a domain-local or a global group to a universal group, you can use the Set-Group cmdlet in the Shell.

动态通讯组Dynamic distribution groups

动态通讯组是通讯组成员基于特定收件人筛选器而不是已定义的收件人组的通讯组。Dynamic distribution groups are distribution groups whose membership is based on specific recipient filters rather than a defined set of recipients.

与常规通讯组不同,每次向动态通讯组发送邮件时,都将根据指定的筛选器和条件来计算该动态通讯组的成员列表。当一封电子邮件发送到某个动态通讯组时,这封电子邮件会同时传递给组织中与此动态通讯组定义的条件匹配的所有收件人。Unlike regular distribution groups, the membership list for dynamic distribution groups is calculated each time a message is sent to them, based on the filters and conditions that you specify. When an email message is sent to a dynamic distribution group, it's delivered to all recipients in the organization that match the criteria defined for that dynamic distribution group.

重要

动态通讯组包括 Active Directory 中属性与发送邮件时组筛选器匹配的任何收件人。A dynamic distribution group includes any recipient in Active Directory that has attributes that match the group's filter at the time a message is sent. 如果将收件人属性修改为与组筛选器相匹配的属性,则该收件人可能会无意中成为组成员,并开始接收发送到动态通讯组的邮件。If a recipient's properties are modified to match the group's filter, that recipient could inadvertently become a group member and start receiving messages that are sent to the dynamic distribution group. 定义完善且一致的帐户设置过程可降低发生此问题的机率。Well-defined, consistent account provisioning processes can reduce the chances of this issue occurring.

若要创建动态通讯组的收件人筛选器,可以使用固有筛选器。“固有筛选器”是一种常用的筛选器,可用来满足各种收件人筛选标准。可以使用这些筛选器指定想要在动态通讯组中包含的收件人类型。此外,还可以指定收件人必须满足的条件列表。可以根据下列属性创建固有条件:To help you create recipient filters for dynamic distribution groups, you can use precanned filters. A precanned filter is a commonly used filter that you can use to meet a variety of recipient-filtering criteria. You can use these filters to specify the recipient types that you want to include in a dynamic distribution group. In addition, you can also specify a list of conditions that the recipients must meet. You can create precanned conditions based on the following properties:

  • 自定义属性 1-15Custom attributes 1-15

  • 省/市/自治区State or province

  • 公司Company

  • 部门Department

  • “收件人”容器Recipient container

您还可以根据收件人属性,而不根据以前列出的那些属性来指定条件。You can also specify conditions based on recipient properties other than those previously listed. 为此,必须使用命令行管理程序创建动态通讯组的自定义查询。To do this, you must use the Shell to create a custom query for the dynamic distribution group. 请注意,具有自定义收件人筛选器的动态通讯组的筛选器和条件设置只能使用命令行管理程序进行管理。Remember that the filter and condition settings for dynamic distribution groups that have custom recipient filters can be managed only by using the Shell. 有关如何使用自定义查询创建动态通讯组的示例,请参阅 管理动态通讯组For an example of how to create a dynamic distribution group by using a custom query, see Manage dynamic distribution groups.

邮件联系人Mail contacts

邮件联系人通常包含有关存在于 Exchange 组织外部的联系人或组织的信息。Mail contacts typically contain information about people or organizations that exist outside your Exchange organization. 邮件联系人可以出现在组织的共享通讯簿 (也称为全局地址列表或 GAL) 和其他地址列表中,并可以添加为通讯组的成员。Mail contacts can appear in your organization's shared address book (also called the global address list or GAL) and other address lists, and can be added as members to distribution groups. 每个联系人都有一个外部电子邮件地址,发送给联系人的所有电子邮件将自动转发到该地址。Each contact has an external email address, and all email messages that are sent to a contact are automatically forwarded to that address. 联系人非常适合表示 Exchange 组织外部人员 (共享通讯簿中) 无需访问任何内部资源。Contacts are ideal for representing people external to your Exchange organization (in the shared address book) who don't need access to any internal resources. 以下是邮件联系人类型:The following are mail contact types:

  • 邮件联系人:这些是启用邮件的 Active Directory 联系人,包含有关存在于 Exchange 组织外部的联系人或组织的信息。Mail contacts: These are mail-enabled Active Directory contacts that contain information about people or organizations that exist outside your Exchange organization.

  • 邮件林联系人:这些联系人表示另一个林中的收件人对象。Mail forest contacts: These represent recipient objects from another forest. 这些联系人通常是通过目录同步进行创建。These contacts are typically created by directory synchronization. 邮件林联系人是只读的收件人对象,可以通过同步来更新或删除。Mail forest contacts are read-only recipient objects that can be updated or removed only by means of synchronization. 不能通过 Exchange 管理界面修改或删除邮件林联系人。You can't use Exchange management interfaces to modify or remove a mail forest contact.

邮件用户Mail users

邮件用户与邮件联系人类似。Mail users are similar to mail contacts. 两者都有外部电子邮件地址,都包含有关 Exchange 组织外部人员的信息,并且都可以显示在共享通讯簿和其他地址列表中。Both have external email addresses, both contain information about people outside your Exchange organization, and both can be displayed in the shared address book and other address lists. 但是,与邮件联系人不同,邮件用户具有 Active Directory 登录凭据,并且可以访问为其分配权限的资源。However, unlike a mail contact, mail users have Active Directory logon credentials and can access resources to which they are assigned permissions.

如果组织外部的人员需要访问网络中的资源,应为其创建一个邮件用户而不是邮件联系人。例如,对于需要访问服务器基础结构但要使用自己的外部地址的短期顾问,可能需要为其创建邮件用户。If a person external to your organization requires access to resources on your network, you should create a mail user instead of a mail contact. For example, you may want to create mail users for short-term consultants who require access to your server infrastructure, but who will use their own external addresses.

另一种方案是,为不希望维护 Exchange 邮箱的用户在组织中创建邮件用户。Another scenario is to create mail users in your organization for users who you don't want to maintain an Exchange mailbox. 例如,收购后,被收购的公司可能自己维护其单独的邮件基础结构,但是可能还需要访问您的网络中的资源。For example, after an acquisition, the acquired company may maintain their separate messaging infrastructure, but may also need access to resources on your network. 对于这些用户,可为其创建邮件用户,而不为其创建邮箱用户。For those users, you may want to create mail users instead of mailbox users.

备注

在 EAC 中,可以使用" 收件人 > 联系人" 页来创建和管理邮件用户。In the EAC, you use the Recipients > Contacts page to create and manage mail users. 暂无单独的邮件用户页面。There isn't a separate page for mail users.

启用邮件的公用文件夹Mail-enabled public folders

公用文件夹旨在作为许多用户之间共享的一个信息库。Public folders are intended to serve as a repository for information shared among many users. 对公用文件夹启用邮件可以为用户提供更有用的功能。Mail-enabling a public folder provides an extra level of functionality to users. 用户除了能够将邮件投递到相应的文件夹以外,还能将电子邮件发送到公用文件夹,有时还能从公用文件夹接收电子邮件。In addition to being able to post messages to the folder, users can send email messages to, and sometimes receive email messages from, the public folder. 每个启用邮件的文件夹在 Active Directory 中都有一个对象,用于存储其电子邮件地址、通讯簿名称和其他与邮件相关的属性。Each mail-enabled folder has an object in Active Directory that stores its email address, address book name, and other mail-related attributes.

您可以使用 EAC 或命令行管理程序来管理公用文件夹。You can manage public folders by using either the EAC or the Shell. 有关管理公用文件夹的信息,请参阅公用 文件夹For more information about managing public folders, see Public folders.

Microsoft Exchange 收件人Microsoft Exchange recipient

Microsoft Exchange 收件人是一个特殊的收件人对象,可提供统一的已知邮件发件人,将系统生成的邮件与其他邮件区分。The Microsoft Exchange recipient is a special recipient object that provides a unified and well-known message sender that differentiates system-generated messages from other messages. 它取代了在 Exchange 早期版本中用于系统生成邮件的系统管理员发件人。It replaces the System Administrator sender that was used for system-generated messages in earlier versions of Exchange.

Microsoft Exchange 收件人不是典型的收件人对象,如邮箱、邮件用户或邮件联系人,并且它不是使用典型的收件人工具进行管理的。The Microsoft Exchange recipient isn't a typical recipient object, such as a mailbox, mail user, or mail contact, and it isn't managed by using the typical recipient tools. 但是,您可以使用命令行管理程序 中的 Set-OrganizationConfig cmdlet 配置 Microsoft Exchange 收件人。However, you can use the Set-OrganizationConfig cmdlet in the Shell to configure the Microsoft Exchange recipient.

备注

将系统生成的邮件发送给外部发件人时,Microsoft Exchange 收件人不用作邮件的发件人。When system-generated messages are sent to an external sender, the Microsoft Exchange recipient isn't used as the sender of the message. 使用 Set-TransportConfig cmdlet 中的 ExternalPostmasterAddress 参数所指定的电子邮件地址。Instead, the email address specified by the ExternalPostmasterAddress parameter in the Set-TransportConfig cmdlet is used.

收件人文档Recipients documentation

下表列出了各个主题的链接,可帮助您了解和管理 Exchange 收件人。The following table contains links to topics that will help you learn about and manage Exchange recipients.

主题Topic 说明Description

创建用户邮箱Create user mailboxes

了解如何使用 Exchange 管理中心或 Exchange 命令行管理程序来创建用户邮箱。Learn how to create user mailboxes using the Exchange admin center or the Exchange Management Shell.

管理用户邮箱Manage user mailboxes

了解如何创建用户邮箱、更改邮箱属性和批量编辑多个邮箱的选定属性。Learn how to create user mailboxes, change mailbox properties, and bulk-edit selected properties for multiple mailboxes.

管理关联邮箱Manage linked mailboxes

了解链接邮箱的要求、如何创建链接邮箱并将它们链接到主帐户,以及如何更改链接邮箱的属性。Learn about the requirements for linked mailboxes, how to create and link them to a master account, and change linked mailbox properties.

创建和管理通讯组Create and manage distribution groups

了解如何创建和管理通讯组,以及如何为组织创建组命名策略。Learn how to create and manage distribution groups, and create a group naming policy for your organization.

管理启用邮件的安全组Manage mail-enabled security groups

了解如何创建和管理启用邮件的安全组。Learn how to create and manage mail-enabled security groups.

管理动态通讯组Manage dynamic distribution groups

了解如何创建动态通讯组和管理动态通讯组属性,如使用自定义属性和其他属性确定组成员。Learn how to create dynamic distribution groups and manage dynamic distribution group properties, such as using custom attributes and other properties to determine group membership.

管理邮件联系人Manage mail contacts

了解如何创建和管理邮件联系人。Learn how to create and manage mail contacts.

管理邮件用户Manage mail users

了解如何创建和管理邮件用户。Learn how to create and manage mail users.

创建和管理会议室邮箱Create and manage room mailboxes

了解如何创建会议室邮箱和管理会议室邮箱属性,如启用定期会议和配置预订与调度选项。Learn how to create room mailboxes and manage room mailbox properties, such as enabling recurring meetings and configuring booking and scheduling options.

管理设备邮箱Manage equipment mailboxes

了解如何创建设备邮箱、配置预订与调度选项,以及如何管理其他邮箱属性。Learn how to create equipment mailboxes, configure booking and scheduling options, and manage other mailbox properties.

断开连接的邮箱Disconnected mailboxes

了解两类已断开连接的邮箱以及使用方法。Learn about the two types of disconnected mailboxes and how to work with them.

自定义属性Custom attributes

了解如何使用自定义属性添加收件人的信息。Learn how to add information about a recipient by using custom attributes.

收件人命令行管理程序命令中的筛选器Filters in recipient Shell commands

了解如何将固有筛选器或自定义筛选器与命令结合使用来筛选一组收件人。Learn how to use precanned or custom filters with commands to filter a set of recipients.

管理收件人的权限Manage permissions for recipients

了解如何使用 EAC 或命令行管理程序来为用户和组分配权限。Learn how to use the EAC or the Shell to assign permissions to users and groups.

自动邮箱分发Automatic mailbox distribution

了解自动邮箱分布的工作方式,以及如何控制为新邮箱和移动的邮箱选择哪些邮箱数据库。Learn about how automatic mailbox distribution works and how to control which mailbox databases are selected for new and moved mailboxes.