UM 拨号计划 [ONP]UM dial plans [ONP]

统一消息 (UM) 拨号计划是统一消息的主要组件并且是在网络上成功部署统一消息语音邮件必不可少的。以下各部分讨论了 UM 拨号计划以及如何在 UM 部署中使用它们。Unified Messaging (UM) dial plans are the main component of Unified Messaging and are required to successfully deploy Unified Messaging voice mail on your network. The following sections discuss UM dial plans and how they're used in a UM deployment.

UM 拨号计划概述Overview of UM dial plans

UM 拨号计划代表共享公用用户分机号码的专用交换机 (PBX) 或 IP PBX 组。在拨号计划中的 PBX 或 IP PBX 上托管的所有用户的分机号都包含相同的位数。用户在拨打其他用户的电话分机时,可以不必为分机加拨特殊号码,也不必拨打完整的电话号码。A UM dial plan represents a set of Private Branch eXchanges (PBXs) or IP PBXs that share common user extension numbers. All users' extensions hosted on PBXs or IP PBXs within a dial plan contain the same number of digits. Users can dial one another's telephone extensions without appending a special number to the extension or dialing a full telephone number.

UM 拨号计划镜像了电话服务拨号计划。电话拨号计划是在 PBX 或 IP PBX 上配置的。A UM dial plan mirrors a telephony dial plan. A telephony dial plan is configured on PBXs or IP PBXs.

在统一消息中可以存在下列 UM 拨号计划拓扑:In Unified Messaging, the following UM dial plan topologies can exist:

  • 代表拥有一台 PBX 或 IP PBX 的组织的部分分机或所有分机的一个拨号计划。A single dial plan that represents a subset of extensions or all extensions for an organization with one PBX or IP PBX.

  • 代表拥有多台联网 PBX 或 IP PBX 的组织的部分分机或所有分机的一个拨号计划。A single dial plan that represents a subset of extensions or all extensions for an organization with multiple networked PBXs or IP PBXs.

  • 代表拥有一台 PBX 或 IP PBX 的组织的部分分机或所有分机的多个拨号计划。Multiple dial plans that represent a subset of extensions or all extensions for an organization with one PBX or IP PBX.

  • 代表拥有多台 PBX 或 IP PBX 的组织的部分分机或所有分机的多个拨号计划。Multiple dial plans that represent a subset of extensions or all extensions for an organization with multiple PBXs or IP PBXs.

属于同一拨号计划的用户具有下列特征:Users who belong to the same dial plan have these characteristics:

  • 在拨号计划中唯一标识用户邮箱的分机号码。An extension number that uniquely identifies the user mailbox in the dial plan.

  • 可以只使用分机号码呼叫拨号计划中的其他成员或向拨号计划中的其他成员发送语音邮件。The ability to call or send voice messages to other members in the dial plan using only the extension number.

有关如何启用用户的统一消息的详细信息,请参阅为用户启用语音邮件For more information about how to enable a user for Unified Messaging, see Enable a user for voice mail.

在统一消息中使用 UM 拨号计划可以确保用户电话分机是唯一的。在某些电话网络中,可以存在多台 PBX 或 IP PBX。在此类电话网络中,可能会存在两个拥有相同电话分机号的用户。UM 拨号计划可以解决这种情况。将这两个用户放入两个不同的 UM 拨号计划中可以使他们的分机成为唯一分机。UM dial plans are used in Unified Messaging to make sure that user telephone extensions are unique. In some telephony networks, multiple PBXs or IP PBXs exist. In these telephony networks, there could be two users who have the same telephone extension number. UM dial plans resolve this situation. Putting the two users into two separate UM dial plans makes their extensions unique.

拨号计划的工作方式How dial plans work

将电话网络与统一消息集成在一起时,必须有一个或多个称为网络电话 (VoIP) 网关或 IP PBX 的硬件设备,将电话网络与基于 IP 的数据包交换网络连接在一起。VoIP 网关将电话网络中的来自 PBX 的电路交换协议转换为数据交换协议(例如 IP)。IP Pbx 还将电路交换协议转换为数据交换的协议。会话边界控制器 (SBC) 可让您在公共或私有 WAN 上将两个基于 IP 的网络连接到一起并在 UM 混合或联机部署中发现它们。组织中每个 VoIP 网关、IP PBX 或会话边界控制器 (SBC) 都用 UM IP 网关表示。有关 UM IP 网关的详细信息,请参阅UM IP 网关When you integrate a telephony network with Unified Messaging, there must be one or more hardware devices called Voice over IP (VoIP) gateways or IP PBXs that connect your telephony network to your IP-based packet switched network. VoIP gateways convert circuit-switched protocols from a PBX found in a telephony network to a data-switched protocol such as IP. IP PBXs also convert circuit-switched protocols to a data-switched protocol. Session Border Controllers (SBCs) enable you to connect two IP based networks together over a public or private WAN and are found in UM hybrid or online deployments. Each VoIP gateway, IP PBX, or Session Border Controller (SBC) in your organization is represented by a UM IP gateway. For more information about UM IP gateways, see UM IP gateways.

统一信息要求创建至少一个 UM 拨号计划。无论创建一个还是多个拨号计划,组织中的所有 Exchange 服务器将会应答传入呼叫。还必须有单个或多个与拨号计划关联的 UM IP 网关。在内部部署和混合部署中,在安装 Exchange 服务器和关联 UM IP 网关后,所有 Exchange 服务器将会应答所有拨号计划的传入呼叫。然而,对于内部部署和混合部署,当集成 Exchange 和 Lync Server 时,必须创建 SIP URI 拨号计划。Unified Messaging requires that you create at least one UM dial plan. Whether you create one or more dial plans, all the Exchange servers in your organization will answer incoming calls. There must also be a single or multiple UM IP gateways associated with the dial plan. In on-premises and hybrid deployments, after you install your Exchange servers and associate a UM IP gateway, all the Exchange servers will answer incoming calls for all dial plans. However, for on-premises or hybrid deployments, when you're integrating Exchange and Lync Server, you must create SIP URI dial plans.

重要

每次创建 UM 拨号计划时,也会创建一个默认 UM 邮箱策略。UM 邮箱策略将命名为 < Dial Plan Name> 默认策略。可以删除或以不同的方式配置此 UM 邮箱策略。Each time you create a UM dial plan, a default UM mailbox policy is also created. The UM mailbox policy is named < Dial Plan Name> Default Policy. This UM mailbox policy can be deleted or configured differently.

如果在创建第一个 UM IP 网关时指定了 UM 拨号计划,则还会创建默认 UM 智能寻线。创建这些组件可让 Exchange 服务器接收来自 VoIP 网关、IP PBX 或 SBC 的呼叫,然后为与 UM 拨号计划关联的用户处理那些传入呼叫。在内部部署或混合部署中,在有呼叫进入 VoIP 网关、IP PBX 或 SBC 时,它会将此呼叫转发到客户端访问服务器。然后客户端服务器会将呼叫转发至邮箱服务器,并且邮箱服务器将尝试将用户的分机号码与关联的 UM 拨号计划匹配。When you create the first UM IP gateway and specify a UM dial plan at the time you create it, a default UM hunt group is also created. Creating these components enables the Exchange servers to receive calls from a VoIP gateway, IP PBX, or SBC and then process those incoming calls for users who are associated with the UM dial plan. In on-premises or hybrid deployments, when a call comes in to the VoIP gateway, IP PBX, or SBC, it forwards the call to a Client Access server. The Client Access server then forwards the call to a Mailbox server and the Mailbox server tries to match the extension number of the user to the associated UM dial plan.

拨号计划的类型Types of dial plans

统一资源标识符 (URI) 是一个字符串(数字或字母),用来标识或命名资源。在统一消息中,URI 的主要用途是允许 VoIP 设备通过特定的协议与其他设备通信。URI 定义了用于呼叫方及被叫方信息的命名和编号格式或方案,该信息包含在传入或传出呼叫的会话初始协议 (SIP) 标头中。A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a string of characters (numbers or alphabetic) that's used to identify or name a resource. In Unified Messaging, the main purpose of a URI is to enable VoIP devices to communicate with other devices using specific protocols. A URI defines the naming and numbering format or scheme used for the calling and called party information contained within a Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) header for an incoming or outgoing call.

统一消息中创建的 UM 拨号计划类型取决于组织中受 VoIP 网关或 IP PBX 支持的 URI 类型。URI 类型为从 PBX 或 IP PBX 发送的字符串类型。在创建拨号计划时,应了解 PBX 或 IP PBX 所支持的特定 URI 类型。可以在 UM 拨号计划上配置以下三种格式或 URI 类型:The types of UM dial plans you create in Unified Messaging will depend on the URI types supported by the VoIP gateways or IP PBXs in your organization. The URI type is the type of string that's sent from the PBX or IP PBX. When you create a dial plan, you should know the specific URI types that are supported by your PBXs or IP PBXs. There are three formats or URI types that can be configured on UM dial plans:

  • 电话分机 (TelExtn)Telephone Extension (TeleExtn)

  • SIP URISIP URI

  • E.164E.164

默认情况下,每次在统一消息中创建拨号计划时,创建的拨号计划将使用电话分机 URI 类型。在创建拨号计划后,将无法更改该 URI 类型。您必须删除现有拨号计划并使用正确的 URI 类型另行创建一个。By default, each time you create a dial plan in Unified Messaging, the dial plan will be created to use the telephone extension URI type. After you create a dial plan, you won't be able to change the URI type. You must delete the existing dial plan and create another one with the correct URI type.

电话分机 URI 类型Telephone Extension URI type

电话分机 URI 类型是 UM 拨号计划中最常见的类型,与 IP PBX 和 PBX 配合使用。在配置电话分机 (TelExtn) 拨号计划时,使用的 VoIP 网关、PBX 和 IP PBX 必须支持 TelExtn URI 类型。如今,大多数 PBX 和 IP PBX 都支持此 URI 类型。The Telephone Extension URI type is the most common type of UM dial plan and is used with IP PBXs and PBXs. When you configure a telephone extension (TelExtn) dial plan, the VoIP gateways, PBXs, and IP PBXs you use must support the TelExtn URI type. Today, most PBXs and IP PBXs support this URI type.

当 PBX 接到呼叫而启用 UM 的用户无法应答呼叫时,PBX 将把该呼叫转发给 VoIP 网关。如果使用了 VoIP 网关或 IP PBX 中的一个,会将呼叫从基于电路的协议转换为基于 IP 的协议。在 SIP 包(该包从 VoIP 网关或 IP PBX 接收)的标头中,呼叫方和被叫方信息将采用以下某种格式列出:When a call is received by a PBX and the UM-enabled user isn't available to answer the call, the PBX will forward the call to a VoIP gateway. The VoIP gateway—or the IP PBX, if one is used—will translate the call from a circuit-based protocol to an IP based protocol. In the header for the SIP packet received from the VoIP gateway or IP PBX, the calling and called party information will be listed in one of the following formats:

  • 电话:512345Tel:512345

  • 512345@< IP 地址>512345@< IP address>

所用的电话分机 (TelExtn) 格式基于 VoIP 网关或 IP PBX 的配置。The telephone extension (TelExtn) format used is based on the configuration of the VoIP gateway or IP PBX.

SIP URI 类型SIP URI type

会话初始协议 (SIP) 是一种用于初始化交互用户会话(其中包括一些多媒体元素,如视频、音频、聊天和游戏)的标准协议。SIP 是一种基于请求到响应的协议,它回答来自客户端的请求和来自服务器的响应。客户端由 SIP URI 标识。可以通过任何传输协议(如 UDP 或 TCP)发送请求。SIP 通过选择通信介质和介质参数来确定用于会话的终结点。Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is a standard protocol for initiating interactive user sessions that involve multimedia elements such as video, voice, chat, and gaming. SIP is a request-to-response based protocol that answers requests from clients and responses from servers. Clients are identified by SIP URIs. Requests can be sent through any transport protocol, such as UDP or TCP. SIP determines the endpoint to be used for the session by selecting the communication media and media parameters.

在创建新的拨号计划时,如果您的环境部署有 Microsoft Office Communications Server 2007 R2 或 Microsoft Lync Server,则可选择创建 SIP URI 拨号计划。如果您的组织有 IP PBX 或启用 SIP 的 PBX,也可创建 SIP URI 拨号计划。在后一种情况中,您的组织还必须支持 SIP URI 和 SIP 路由。When you create a new dial plan, you have the option of creating a SIP URI dial plan if your environment has Microsoft Office Communications Server 2007 R2 or Microsoft Lync Server deployed. You can also create a SIP URI dial plan if your organization has IP PBXs or SIP-enabled PBXs. In the latter case, your organization must also support SIP URIs and SIP routing.

SIP URI 是用户的 SIP 电话号码。SIP URI 类似于电子邮件地址,并用以下格式书写:sip :<user name>@<domain or IP address>Port。当通过启用了 SIP 的 IP PBX 或 PBX 向 Exchange 服务器发送呼叫时,该设备将发送位于 SIP 标头中呼叫方或被叫方的 SIP URI,而不包括分机号码。A SIP URI is a user's SIP phone number. The SIP URI resembles an email address and is written in the following format: sip :<user name>@<domain or IP address>: Port. When a SIP-enabled IP PBX or PBX is used to send a call to the Exchange servers, the device will send the SIP URI for the calling and called party in the SIP header and will not include extension numbers.

E.164 URI 类型E.164 URI type

E.164 是一种标准的编号格式,它定义了在公用电话交换网 (PSTN) 和一些数据网络中所使用的国际公用电信编号计划。E.164 定义了电话号码的格式。E.164 号码最多可有 15 位数,并且一般在电话号码的数字前有一个加号 (+)。若要通过电话拨打 E.164 格式的电话号码,所拨的号码中必须包括正确的国际呼叫前缀。在公用电话系统的 E.164 编号计划中,每个指定的号码都包含一个国家/地区代码 (CC)、一个国内目的地代码 (NDC) 和一个订阅者号码 (SN)。E.164 is a standard numbering format that defines the international public telecommunication numbering plan used in the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) and some data networks. E.164 defines the format of telephone numbers. E.164 numbers can have a maximum of 15 digits and are usually written with a plus sign (+) before the digits of the telephone number. To dial an E.164-formatted telephone number from a telephone, the appropriate international call prefix must be included in the number dialed. In an E.164 numbering plan for public telephone systems, each assigned number contains a country code (CC), a national destination code (NDC), and a subscriber number (SN).

在创建新拨号计划时,可以选择创建 E.164 拨号计划。不过,如果创建和配置 E.164 拨号计划,PBX 和 IP PBX 必须支持 E.164 路由。从与 E.164 拨号计划关联的 VoIP 网关接收的 SIP 标头将包括呼叫方和被叫方的 E.164 格式的电话号码和信息,并且将采用以下格式列出:电话号码:+14255550123。对于与 Exchange 统一信息和 Lync Server 的 Exchange Online 部署,必须使用 Outlook Voice Access 格式正确的 E.164 号码和自动助理号码。When you create a new dial plan, you have the option to create an E.164 dial plan. However, if you create and configure an E.164 dial plan, the PBXs and IP PBXs must support E.164 routing. The SIP header received from a VoIP gateway associated with an E.164 dial plan will include the E.164-formatted telephone number and information about the calling and called party and will be listed in the following format: Tel:+14255550123. For Exchange Online deployments with Exchange Unified Messaging and Lync Server, you must use correctly formatted E.164 numbers for Outlook Voice Access and auto attendant numbers.

VoIP 安全性VoIP security

Exchange 服务器可以在不安全、SIP 安全或安全模式下与 VoIP 网关、IP PBX 及其他 Exchange 计算机进行通信,这具体取决于配置 UM 拨号计划的方式。在内部部署和混合部署中,客户端访问服务器和邮箱服务器可在拨号计划上配置的任何模式下工作,因为如果将 TCP 端口 5060 和 5061 配置为以双协议栈模式启动,服务器会针对不安全请求监听 TCP 端口 5060,同时针对安全请求监听 TCP 端口 5061。客户端访问和邮箱服务器会应答所有 UM 拨号计划的所有传入呼叫,但是这些拨号计划可具有不同的 VoIP 安全设置。Exchange servers communicate with VoIP gateways, IP PBXs, and other Exchange computers in either Unsecured, SIP secured, or Secured mode, depending on how the UM dial plan is configured. In on-premises and hybrid deployments, Client Access and Mailbox servers can operate in any mode configured on a dial plan because the servers listen on TCP port 5060 for Unsecured requests and TCP port 5061 for Secured requests at the same time if they're configured to start in dual mode. Client Access and Mailbox servers answer all incoming calls for all UM dial plans, but these dial plans can have different VoIP security settings.

在内部部署和混合部署中,默认情况下,创建 UM 拨号计划时,它将使用不安全模式进行通信,并且客户端访问和邮箱服务器将使用非加密方式收发来自 VoIP 网关、IP PBX 及 SBC 的数据。在非安全模式下,实时传输协议 (RTP) 媒体通道与 SIP 信号信息都不会进行加密。可以使用命令行管理程序中的 Get-UMDialPlan cmdlet 来确定特定 UM 拨号计划的安全设置。In on-premises and hybrid deployments, by default, when you create a UM dial plan, it will communicate in Unsecured mode, and the Client Access and Mailbox servers will send and receive data from VoIP gateways, IP PBXs, and SBCs without using encryption. In Unsecured mode, neither the Realtime Transport Protocol (RTP) media channel nor the SIP signaling information is encrypted. You can use the Get-UMDialPlan cmdlet in the Shell to determine the security setting for a specific UM dial plan.

在内部部署和混合部署中,可以将客户端访问和邮箱服务器配置为使用相互传输层安全性(相互 TLS)对从其他设备和服务器发送和接收的 SIP 和 RTP 通信进行加密。在配置拨号计划以使用 SIP 安全模式时,只对 SIP 信号通信进行加密,RTP 媒体通道将仍然使用不进行加密的 TCP。但是,如果您配置拨号计划以使用安全模式,会将 SIP 信号通信和 RTP 媒体通道加密。使用安全实时传输协议 (SRTP) 的加密信号媒体通道还将使用相互 TLS 来加密 VoIP 数据。In on-premises and hybrid deployments, you can configure a Client Access and Mailbox server to use mutual Transport Layer Security (mutual TLS) to encrypt the SIP and RTP traffic sent and received from other devices and servers. When you configure the dial plan to use SIP secured mode, only the SIP signaling traffic will be encrypted, and the RTP media channels will still use TCP, which isn't encrypted. However, when you configure the dial plan to use Secured mode, both the SIP signaling traffic and the RTP media channels are encrypted. An encrypted signaling media channel that uses Secure Realtime Transport Protocol (SRTP) also uses mutual TLS to encrypt the VoIP data.

在创建新拨号计划时或在创建拨号计划之后,可以通过在命令行管理程序中使用 EAC 或 Set-UMDialPlan cmdlet 来配置 VoIP 安全模式。将 UM 拨号计划配置为使用 SIP 安全或安全模式时,客户端访问和邮箱服务器将加密 SIP 信号通信或 RTP 媒体通道,或者同时加密两者。但是,为了能够通过 Exchange 服务器收发加密数据,必须正确配置 UM 拨号计划,并且 VoIP 设备(例如 VoIP 网关、IP PBX 和 SBC)必须支持相互 TLS。You can configure the VoIP security mode either when you're creating a new dial plan or after you've created a dial plan using the EAC or the Set-UMDialPlan cmdlet in the Shell. When you configure the UM dial plan to use SIP secured or Secured mode, Client Access and Mailbox servers will encrypt the SIP signaling traffic or the RTP media channels or both. However, to be able to send encrypted data to and from Exchange servers, you must correctly configure the UM dial plan, and VoIP devices such as VoIP gateways, IP PBXs, and SBCs must support mutual TLS.

Outlook Voice AccessOutlook Voice Access

下列两种类型的呼叫者将使用 UM 拨号计划中配置的 Outlook Voice Access 号码来访问语音邮件系统:未经身份验证的呼叫者和经过身份验证的呼叫者。当呼叫者拨打拨号计划中配置的 Outlook Voice Access 号码时,则在输入包括语音邮件分机和 PIN 在内的信息之前,这些呼叫者将被视为匿名呼叫者或未经身份验证的呼叫者。为匿名或未经身份验证的呼叫者提供的唯一选项是目录搜索功能。呼叫者输入其语音邮件分机号和 PIN 后,系统将对其进行身份验证,并给予他们访问其邮箱的权限。呼叫者获取对语音邮件系统的访问权限后,可以使用 Outlook Voice Access 功能。There are two types of callers who access the voice mail system using the Outlook Voice Access number configured on a UM dial plan: unauthenticated callers and authenticated callers. When callers dial the Outlook Voice Access number configured on a dial plan, they're considered anonymous or unauthenticated until they input information including their voice mail extension and a PIN. The only option available to anonymous or unauthenticated callers is the directory search feature. After callers input their voice mail extension and their PIN, they'll be authenticated and given access to their mailbox. After they gain access to the voice mail system, they're using the Outlook Voice Access feature.

Outlook Voice Access 是一系列语音提示,这些提示给予呼叫者访问电子邮件、语音邮件、日历和其他信息的权限。Outlook Voice Access 可使经过身份验证的呼叫者使用双音多频 (DTMF)(也称为按键)或语音输入在其邮箱中导航个人信息、发出呼叫或查找用户。Outlook Voice Access is a series of voice prompts that give the caller access to email, voice mail, calendar, and other information. Outlook Voice Access lets authenticated callers navigate their personal information in their mailbox, place calls, or locate users using dual tone multi-frequency (DTMF), also known as touchtone, inputs or voice inputs.

Outlook Voice Access 号码Outlook Voice Access numbers

创建 UM 拨号计划之后,您需要至少添加一个 Outlook Voice Access 号码。Outlook 语音访问号码也称为拨号计划引导号码。此号码供 Outlook Voice Access 用户用来访问其邮箱,并使他们可以搜索目录。After you've created a UM dial plan, you need to add at least one Outlook Voice Access number. Outlook Voice Access numbers are also called dial plan pilot numbers. This number is used by Outlook Voice Access users to access their mailboxes and lets them search the directory.

默认情况下,创建 UM 拨号计划时,不会配置 Outlook Voice Access 号码。要让用户使用 Outlook Voice Access 功能,必须至少配置一个电话或分机号码。Outlook Voice Access 号码中的字母数字字符数不能超过 20 个。在拨号计划上配置此号码后,此号码将显示在 Microsoft Outlook 中的语音邮件选项中和 Outlook Web App 中。By default, when you create a UM dial plan, no Outlook Voice Access number is configured. To enable users to use the Outlook Voice Access feature, you must configure at least one telephone or extension number. The number of alphanumeric characters in the Outlook Voice Access number can't exceed 20. After you configure this number on the dial plan, the number will be displayed in the voice mail options in Microsoft Outlook, and in Outlook Web App.

您可以使用 UM 拨号计划Outlook Voice Access 号码框中添加电话号码或分机号的用户将调用访问语音邮件系统使用 Outlook Voice Access。在大多数情况下,您将输入分机号或外部电话号码。但是,因为此字段接受字母数字字符,SIP URI 可用如果您正在使用的 IP PBX、 启用 SIP 的 PBX,Office Communications Server 2007 R2 或 Microsoft Lync Server。You can use the Outlook Voice Access numbers box on the UM dial plan to add a telephone number or extension that a user will call to access the voice mail system using Outlook Voice Access. In most cases, you'll enter an extension number or an external telephone number. However, because this field accepts alphanumeric characters, a SIP URI can be used if you're using an IP PBX, a SIP-enabled PBX, Office Communications Server 2007 R2 or Microsoft Lync Server.

根据您组织的需求,可能需要配置一个或多个 Outlook Voice Access 号码。您可以在一个 UM 拨号计划中配置一个 Outlook Voice Access 号码,也可以在一个 UM 拨号计划中拥有多个 Outlook Voice Access 号码,但是您不能配有一个跨多个 UM 拨号计划的单个 Outlook Voice Access 号码。Depending on the needs of your organization, you may want to configure one or more Outlook Voice Access number. You can have a single Outlook Voice Access number configured on a single UM dial plan or you can have multiple Outlook Voice Access numbers in a single UM dial plan, but you can't have a single Outlook Voice Access number that spans multiple UM dial plans.