UM 智能寻线UM hunt groups

电话智能寻线提供了一种将来自单个号码的电话呼叫分配到多个分机或电话号码的方法。在统一消息 (UM) 中,UM 智能寻线是电话智能寻线的逻辑表示形式,它将 UM IP 网关与 UM 拨号计划关联起来。A telephony hunt group provides a way to distribute telephone calls from a single number to multiple extensions or telephone numbers. In Unified Messaging (UM), a UM hunt group is a logical representation of a telephony hunt group, and it links a UM IP gateway to a UM dial plan.

若要了解与统一消息智能寻线相关的管理任务,请参阅 UM 查寻组过程Looking for management tasks related to Unified Messaging hunt groups? See UM hunt group procedures.

智能寻线的定义What is a hunt group?

"智能寻线"一词用于描述由用户共享的一组专用交换机 (PBX) 或者 IP PBX 分机号码。使用智能寻线可以有效地将呼叫转接进或转接出特定的业务单位。创建并定义智能寻线,可以使接到传入呼叫时,呼叫者听到忙音的几率最小。Hunt group is a term used to describe a group of Private Branch eXchange (PBX) or IP PBX extension numbers that are shared by users. Hunt groups are used to efficiently distribute calls into or out of a specific business unit. Creating and defining a hunt group minimizes the chance that a caller who places an incoming call will receive a busy signal when the call is received.

在接到传入呼叫时,使用智能寻线可以找到空闲线路、分机或通道。当主线路忙或未应答时,呼叫被转接到下一个可用线路。仅当组中没有空闲的分机时,呼叫方才会收到忙音或者被转到语音邮件。例如,PBX 或 IP PBX 可能配置为销售部门有 10 个分机号码。这 10 个销售分机号码将配置为一个智能寻线。Hunt groups are used to locate an open line, extension, or channel when an incoming call is received. Calls are "rolled over" to the next available line when a primary phone line is busy or isn't answered. The calling party gets a busy signal or is sent to voice mail only if no extensions in the group are open. For example, a PBX or IP PBX might be configured to have 10 extension numbers for the sales department. The 10 sales extension numbers would be configured as one hunt group.

简单智能寻线的设置包括名称、分机号、可用组成员列表以及智能寻线选择方法。智能寻线选择方法确定将传入呼叫呈现给智能寻线成员的顺序。The settings for a simple hunt group include a name, an extension number, a list of available group members, and a hunt group selection method. The hunt group selection method determines the order in which incoming calls are presented to the members of the hunt group.

PBX 或 IP PBX 可以使用多种算法或方法来查找空闲线路、分机或信道。这些方法包括:There are multiple algorithms or methods that a PBX or IP PBX can use to locate an open line, extension, or channel. These include:

  • 智能寻线或者所有分机震铃 在智能寻线分机号上收到传入呼叫时,PBX 或 IP PBX 让组中的所有分机号震铃。Group hunt or ring all extensions When an incoming call is received on the hunt group extension number, the PBX or IP PBX rings all extension numbers in the group.

  • 从最小号码开始或线性智能寻线 这是大多数 PBX 和 IP PBX 上的默认设置。使用此方法时,会将呼叫路由至顺序中的第一条空闲线路,从组中的第一条线路开始。这种配置在小型企业的多路电话上最常见。Start with lowest number or linear hunting This is the default setting on most PBXs and IP PBXs. With this method, calls are routed to the first idle line in sequential order, starting with the first line in the group. This configuration is most often found on multiline phones at small businesses.

  • 循环或环形智能寻线 使用此方法时,会将呼叫路由至第一条空闲线路,从最后处理呼叫的线路之后的那条线路开始。使用循环方法分配呼叫时,如果将某个呼叫传递到线路 1,则下一个呼叫将传递到线路 2,再下一个传递到线路 3,依此类推。即使之前的线路已经变为空闲,也会继续这个过程。在智能寻线到达末尾时,从第一条线路重新开始智能寻线。仅当线路仍被之前的呼叫占用时,才会跳过。环形或循环智能寻线在所有呼叫之间均匀分布呼叫中断,最大程度地降低服务中出现严重中断的可能性。Round-robin or circular hunting With this method, calls are routed to the first idle line, starting with the line after the one that last handled a call. When calls are distributed using the "round-robin" method, if a call is delivered to line 1, the next call goes to line 2, the next to line 3, and so on. This process continues even if one of the previous lines becomes free. When the end of the hunt group is reached, the hunting starts over at the first line. Lines are skipped only if they are still busy on a previous call. Circular or round-robin hunting spreads call disruption evenly throughout all the calls, minimizing the possibility for a major disruption in service.

  • 最空闲或统一分配智能寻线 使用此方法时,会将呼叫路由至组中空闲时间最长的第一条可用线路。此方法使用呼叫者占用线路的时长(而不是线路是否可用)。此方法通常用于大型呼叫中心;在大型呼叫中心中,传入呼叫是由人来应答的,负载在分机号组中均匀分布。Most-idle or uniform-distribution hunting With this method, the call is routed to the first available line in the group that has been idle the longest. This method uses the length of time that the person taking the call has been busy instead of whether the line is available. This method is typically used in large call centers where the incoming calls are being answered by people and the load is distributed evenly across the group of extension numbers.

可以配置一个或多个智能寻线。每个智能寻线必须至少包含两条线路。如果一个智能寻线中已经在使用某个号码,则该号码在另一个智能寻线中将不可用。You can configure one or more hunt groups. Each hunt group must include a minimum of two lines. If a number is already being used in one hunt group, it won't be available in another.

以下是简单的电话智能寻线及其工作原理的示例。Following are examples of simple telephony hunt groups and how they work.

示例 1Example 1

分机 300(引导号码)被设置为在呼叫传入时依次对分机 301、302、303 和 304 震铃。Extension 300 (pilot number) is programmed so that when a call comes in, it rings extension 301, then 302, then 303, then 304.

  1. 分机 301 正忙。Extension 301 is busy.

  2. 分机 302 震铃,没有应答。Extension 302 rings and isn't answered.

  3. 分机 303 应答了该呼叫。Extension 303 answers the call.

  4. 分机 304 空闲,正在等待传入呼叫。Extension 304 is free and waiting for an incoming call.

示例 2Example 2

分机 1000(引导号码)被设置为在呼叫传入时同时对从 2000 到 2003 的所有分机震铃:Extension 1000 (pilot number) is programmed so that when a call comes in, it rings all the extensions 2000 through 2003 at the same time:

  1. 分机 2000 空闲。Extension 2000 is free.

  2. 分机 2001 空闲。Extension 2001 is free.

  3. 分机 2002 空闲。Extension 2002 is free.

  4. 分机 2003 应答了该传入呼叫。Extension 2003 answers the incoming call.

引导号码的定义What is a pilot number?

在电话网络中,可以将 PBX 或 IP PBX 配置为拥有一个或多个智能寻线。PBX 或 IP PBX 上创建的每个智能寻线必须有关联的引导号码。使用引导号码有助于避免忙音,并将传入呼叫路由到可用的分机号。PBX 或 IP PBX 使用引导号码找到智能寻线,继而找到接到传入呼叫的电话分机号码,以及分配给智能寻线的分机。如果没有定义引导号码,PBX 或 IP PBX 将无法找到接到传入呼叫的分机号码。In a telephony network, a PBX or an IP PBX can be configured to have a single hunt group or multiple hunt groups. Each hunt group created on a PBX or IP PBX must have an associated pilot number. Using a pilot number helps to eliminate busy signals and to route incoming calls to the extension numbers that are available. The PBX or IP PBX uses the pilot number to locate the hunt group and in turn to locate the telephone extension number on which the incoming call was received and the extensions that are assigned to the hunt group. Without a defined pilot number, the PBX or IP PBX can't locate where the incoming call was received.

引导号码是智能寻线在 PBX 或 IP PBX 内部的地址、分机或位置。引导号码通常定义为空白分机号码,或定义为分机号码智能寻线中没有关联个人或电话的一个分机号码。例如,将 PBX 或 IP PBX 上的智能寻线配置为包含分机号码 4100、4101、4102、4103、4104 和 4105。智能寻线的引导号码配置为分机 4100。在分机号码 4100 接到传入呼叫时,PBX 或 IP PBX 会寻找下一个可用的分机号码,以便确定将传入呼叫转接到的位置。在此示例中,PBX 或 IP PBX 将使用其设置的搜索算法查看分机号码 4101、4102、4103、4104 和 4105。A pilot number is the address, extension, or location of the hunt group inside the PBX or IP PBX. It's generally a blank extension number or one extension number from a hunt group of extension numbers that doesn't have a person or telephone associated with it. For example, you might configure a hunt group on a PBX or IP PBX to contain extension numbers 4100, 4101, 4102, 4103, 4104, and 4105. The pilot number for the hunt group is configured as extension 4100. When a call is received on extension number 4100, the PBX or IP PBX looks for the next available extension number to determine where to deliver the call. In this example, the PBX or IP PBX will use its programmed search algorithm to look at extension numbers 4101, 4102, 4103, 4104, and 4105.

使用引导号码有助于避免忙音,并帮助将传入呼叫转接到可用的分机号码。在统一消息中,PBX 或 IP PBX 引导号码用作目标。如果智能寻线中没有分机号应答传入呼叫,则将呼叫路由至运行 Microsoft Exchange 统一消息服务的邮箱服务器。Using a pilot number helps eliminate busy signals and helps route incoming calls to the extension numbers that are available. In Unified Messaging, the PBX or IP PBX pilot number is used as the target. If none of the extension numbers in the hunt group answer an incoming call, the call is routed to a Mailbox server running the Microsoft Exchange Unified Messaging service.

UM 智能寻线的定义What is a UM hunt group?

统一消息智能寻线对 UM 系统的运行至关重要。UM 智能寻线是现有 PBX 或 IP PBX 智能寻线的逻辑表示。智能寻线用于将 UM IP 网关与 UM 拨号计划关联。单个 UM 智能寻线还可以将多个 UM IP 网关与一个 UM 拨号计划关联。默认情况下,在创建 UM IP 网关并将其与某个 UM 拨号计划关联时,就会创建一个 UM 智能寻线,您还可以创建其他智能寻线。必须至少创建一个 UM 智能寻线。Unified Messaging hunt groups are critical to the operation of the UM system. A UM hunt group is a logical representation of an existing PBX or IP PBX hunt group. It's used to link a UM IP gateway with a UM dial plan. A single UM hunt group can also link multiple UM IP gateways with a UM dial plan. By default, when you create a UM IP gateway and associate it with a UM dial plan, a UM hunt group is created, and you can also create other hunt groups. You must create at least one UM hunt group.

使用 UM 智能寻线可以找到接到传入呼叫的 PBX 或 IP PBX 智能寻线。为 PBX 或 IP PBX 上的智能寻线定义的引导号码也必须为 UM 智能寻线定义。引导号码用于使用语音邮件上的会话初始协议 (SIP) 信号邮件信息匹配提供的传入呼叫信息。引导号码使 Exchange 服务器可以与正确的拨号计划一起解释传入呼叫,以便可以正确地转接传入呼叫。如果没有智能寻线,Exchange 服务器就无法了解传入呼叫的位置。通过了解传入呼叫的位置,Exchange 服务器可以接受从 VoIP 网关、IP PBX 或启用 SIP 的 PBX 传递过来的呼叫标头信息。正确地配置 UM 智能寻线非常重要,因为与 UM 智能寻线上定义的引导号码不匹配的传入呼叫将得不到应答,传入呼叫的路由将失败。UM hunt groups are used to locate the PBX or IP PBX hunt group from which an incoming call is received. A pilot number defined for a hunt group on the PBX or IP PBX must also be defined for the UM hunt group. The pilot number is used to match the information presented for incoming calls using the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) signaling information on the voice message. The pilot number enables Exchange servers to interpret the call together with the correct dial plan so that the call can be routed correctly. The absence of a hunt group prevents Exchange servers from knowing the location of the incoming call. Knowing the location of incoming calls enables the Exchange servers to accept the call header information that's passed from the VoIP gateway, IP PBX, or SIP-enabled PBX. It's very important that you configure your UM hunt groups correctly, because incoming calls that don't match the pilot number defined on the UM hunt group won't be answered, and routing of incoming calls will fail.

在内部部署和混合部署中创建 UM 智能寻线时,要使所有客户端访问服务器和邮箱服务器(不管它们是否已添加到 UM 拨号计划中)都能与 VoIP 网关、IP PBX 或启用 SIP 的 PBX 通信。这是因为所有客户端访问服务器和邮箱服务器会应答所有拨号计划的传入呼叫,而不是像以前版本的 Exchange 中的 UM 服务器那样应答特定 UM 拨号计划的传入呼叫。如果删除 UM 智能寻线,则关联的 UM IP 网关将无法应答来自 VoIP 网关、IP PBX 或启用 SIP 的 PBX 的传入呼叫,或者使用指定的引导号码通过 VoIP 网关、IP PBX 或启用 SIP 的 PBX 进行传出呼叫。In on-premises and hybrid deployments when you create a UM hunt group, you're enabling all Client Access and Mailbox servers, regardless of whether they've been added to a UM dial plan, to communicate with a VoIP gateway, IP PBX, or SIP-enabled PBX. This is because all Client Access and Mailbox servers answer incoming calls for all dial plans, instead of for a specific UM dial plan like the UM server did in previous versions of Exchange. If you delete the UM hunt group, the associated UM IP gateway won't be able to answer incoming calls from a VoIP gateway, IP PBX, or SIP-enabled PBX or place outgoing calls through the VoIP gateway, IP PBX or SIP-enabled PBX using the specified pilot number.

但是,对于内部部署和混合部署而言,如果要将 UM 与 Microsoft Office Communications Server 2007 R2 或 Microsoft Lync Server 集成,则必须将所有客户端访问服务器和邮箱服务器添加到已创建的所有 SIP URI 拨号计划,以便与 Communications Server 2007 R2 或 Lync Server 配合使用。这将使呼叫路由和外拨能够正确工作。However, for on-premises and hybrid deployments if you're integrating UM with Microsoft Office Communications Server 2007 R2 or Microsoft Lync Server, you must add all Client Access and Mailbox servers to all SIP URI dial plans that have been created to work with Communications Server 2007 R2 or Lync Server. This enables call routing and outdialing to work correctly.

有关 UM IP 网关的详细信息,请参阅UM IP 网关For more information about UM IP gateways, see UM IP gateways.