配置 Configuration Manager 的发现方法Configure discovery methods for Configuration Manager

适用范围:Configuration Manager (Current Branch)Applies to: Configuration Manager (current branch)

配置发现方法,从网络、Active Directory 和 Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) 找到要管理的资源。Configure discovery methods to find resources to manage from your network, Active Directory, and Azure Active Directory (Azure AD). 首先启用要用于搜索环境的每种方法,然后对这些方法进行配置。First enable and then configure each method that you want to use to search your environment. 也可通过使用与启用相同的过程来禁用某种方法。You can also disable a method by using the same procedure that you use to enable it. 此过程的其中两个例外情况是检测信号发现和服务器发现:The only exceptions to this process are Heartbeat Discovery and Server Discovery:

  • 默认情况下,检测信号发现在安装 Configuration Manager 主站点时就已经启用。By default, Heartbeat Discovery is already enabled when you install a Configuration Manager primary site. 它配置为按照一个基本计划运行。It's configured to run on a basic schedule. 请保持检测信号发现为启用状态。Keep Heartbeat Discovery enabled. 此方法可确保设备的发现数据记录 (DDR) 保持最新。It makes sure that the discovery data records (DDRs) for devices are up-to-date. 有关检测信号发现的详细信息,请参阅关于检测信号发现For more information about Heartbeat Discovery, see About Heartbeat Discovery.

  • 服务器发现是一种自动发现方法。Server Discovery is an automatic discovery method. 它查找用作站点系统的计算机。It finds computers that you use as site systems. 不能对其进行配置或将其禁用。You can't configure or disable it.

Active Directory 林发现Active Directory Forest Discovery

若要完成 Active Directory 林发现的配置,请在 Configuration Manager 控制台的以下位置中配置这些设置:To finish the configuration of Active Directory Forest Discovery, configure settings in the following locations of the Configuration Manager console:

  • 在“发现方法”节点中:In the Discovery Methods node:

    • 启用此发现方法。Enable this discovery method.

    • 设置轮询计划。Set a polling schedule.

    • 选择发现是否为其发现的 Active Directory 站点和子网自动创建边界。Select whether discovery automatically creates boundaries for the Active Directory sites and subnets that it discovers.

  • 在“Active Directory 林”节点中:In the Active Directory Forests node:

    • 添加想要发现的林。Add forests that you want to discover.

    • 启用对该林中 Active Directory 站点和子网的发现。Enable discovery of Active Directory sites and subnets in that forest.

    • 将启用 Configuration Manager 站点的设置配置为将其站点信息发布到林。Configure settings that enable Configuration Manager sites to publish their site information to the forest.

    • 为每个林分配一个帐户以用作 Active Directory 林帐户。Assign an account to use as the Active Directory Forest Account for each forest.

使用以下过程来启用 Active Directory 林发现,并配置单独的林以用于 Active Directory 林发现。Use the following procedures to enable Active Directory Forest Discovery, and to configure individual forests for use with Active Directory Forest Discovery.

配置 Active Directory 林发现Configure Active Directory Forest Discovery

  1. 在 Configuration Manager 控制台中的“管理”工作区中,展开“层次结构配置”,然后选择“发现方法”节点。In the Configuration Manager console, go to the Administration workspace, expand Hierarchy Configuration, and select the Discovery Methods node.

  2. 为要在其中配置发现的站点选择“Active Directory 林发现”方法。Select the Active Directory Forest Discovery method for the site where you want to configure discovery.

  3. 在功能区的“主页”选项卡上,选择“属性” 。On the Home tab of the ribbon, select Properties.

  4. 在属性的“常规”选项卡上,配置下列设置:On the General tab of the properties, configure the following settings:

    • 启用发现方法。Enable the discovery method.

    • 指定为发现的位置创建站点边界的选项。Specify options to create site boundaries for discovered locations.

    • 指定有关发现何时运行的计划。Specify a schedule for when discovery runs.

  5. 选择“确定”保存配置。Select OK to save the configuration.

为 Active Directory 林发现配置林Configure a forest for Active Directory Forest Discovery

  1. 在“管理”工作区中,展开“层次结构配置”,然后选择“Active Directory 林”节点。In the Administration workspace, expand Hierarchy Configuration, and select the Active Directory Forests node. 如果 Active Directory 林发现之前已运行,你将在结果窗格中看到每个发现的林。If Active Directory Forest Discovery has previously run, you see each discovered forest in the results pane. 此发现方法运行时,将发现本地林和任何受信任的林。When this discovery method runs, it discovers the local forest and any trusted forests. 手动添加不受信任的林。Manually add untrusted forests.

    • 若要配置先前发现的林,请在结果窗格中选择林。To configure a previously discovered forest, select the forest in the results pane. 在功能区中,选择“属性”以打开林属性。In the ribbon, select Properties to open the forest properties.

    • 若要配置未列出的新林,请在功能区“主页”选项卡上的“创建”组中,选择“添加林”。To configure a new forest that isn't listed, on the Home tab of the ribbon, in the Create group, select Add Forest. 此操作将打开“添加林”对话框。This action opens the Add Forests dialog box.

  2. 在“常规”选项卡上,为要发现的林完成配置,并指定“Active Directory 林帐户”。On the General tab, finish configurations for the forest that you want to discover, and specify the Active Directory Forest Account. 有关此帐户的详细信息,请参阅帐户For more information on this account, see Accounts.

    备注

    Active Directory 林发现需要全局帐户才能发现和发布到不受信任林。Active Directory Forest Discovery requires a global account to discover and publish to untrusted forests. 如果不使用站点服务器的计算机帐户,则只能选择全局帐户。If you don't use the computer account of the site server, you can only select a global account.

  3. 如果打算允许站点将站点数据发布到此林,请在“发布”选项卡上完成用于发布到此林的配置。If you plan to let sites publish site data to this forest, on the Publishing tab, finish configurations for publishing to this forest.

    备注

    如果允许站点发布到林,则为 Configuration Manager 扩展该林的 Active Directory 架构。If you let sites publish to a forest, extend the Active Directory schema of that forest for Configuration Manager. Active Directory 林帐户必须对该林中的“系统”容器拥有“完全控制”权限。The Active Directory Forest Account must have Full Control permissions to the System container in that forest.

  4. 选择“确定”保存配置。Select OK to save the configuration.

计算机、用户或组的 Active Directory 发现Active Directory discovery for computers, users, or groups

若要配置计算机、用户或组的发现,开始执行以下常见步骤:To configure discovery of computers, users, or groups, start with these common steps:

  1. 在 Configuration Manager 控制台中的“管理”工作区中,展开“层次结构配置”,然后选择“发现方法”节点。In the Configuration Manager console, go to the Administration workspace, expand Hierarchy Configuration, and select the Discovery Methods node.

  2. 为要在其中配置发现的站点选择方法。Select the method for the site where you want to configure discovery.

  3. 在功能区的“主页”选项卡上,选择“属性” 。On the Home tab of the ribbon, select Properties.

  4. 在属性的“常规”选项卡上,选中复选框以启用发现。On the General tab of the properties, select the checkbox to enable discovery. 或者可以立即配置发现,然后稍后返回以启用发现。Or you can configure discovery now, and then return to enable discovery later.

然后使用下列部分中的信息来配置特定发现方法:Then use the information in the following sections to configure the specific discovery methods:

备注

本部分中的信息不适用于 Active Directory 林发现。The information in this section doesn't apply to Active Directory Forest Discovery.

尽管每种发现方法都相互独立,但它们共用类似的选项。Although each of these discovery methods is independent of the others, they share similar options. 有关这些配置选项的详细信息,请参阅组、系统和用户发现的共享选项For more information about these configuration options, see Shared options for group, system, and user discovery.

警告

每种发现方法进行的 Active Directory 轮询可能会产生大量的网络流量。The Active Directory polling by each of these discovery methods can generate significant network traffic. 请考虑将每种发现方法安排为在此网络流量不会对企业的网络使用造成负面影响时运行。Consider scheduling each discovery method to run at a time when this network traffic doesn't adversely affect business uses of your network.

配置 Active Directory 组发现Configure Active Directory Group Discovery

  1. 在“Active Directory 组属性”窗口的“常规”选项卡上,选择“添加”以配置发现作用域。On the General tab of the Active Directory Group Discovery Properties window, select Add to configure a discovery scope. 选择“组”或“位置”。Select either Groups or Location. 然后在“添加组”或“添加 Active Directory 位置”对话框中完成以下配置:Then finish the following configurations in the Add Groups or Add Active Directory Location dialog box:

    1. 为此发现作用域指定“名称” 。Specify a Name for this discovery scope.

    2. 指定要搜索的“Active Directory 域” 或“位置” :Specify an Active Directory Domain or Location to search:

      • 如果选择了“组”,请指定要发现的一个或多个 Active Directory 组。If you chose Groups, specify one or more Active Directory groups to discover.

      • 如果选择了“位置”,请指定 Active Directory 容器作为要发现的位置。If you chose Location, specify an Active Directory container as a location to discover. 你也可以为此位置启用对 Active Directory 子容器的递归搜索。You can also enable a recursive search of Active Directory child containers for this location.

    3. 指定站点用于搜索此发现作用域的“Active Directory 组发现帐户”。Specify the Active Directory Group Discovery Account that the site uses to search this discovery scope. 有关详细信息,请参阅帐户For more information, see Accounts.

    4. 选择“确定”保存发现作用域配置。Select OK to save the discovery scope configuration.

  2. 为要定义的每个其他发现作用域重复以上步骤。Repeat the previous steps for each additional discovery scope that you want to define.

  3. 在“轮询计划” 选项卡上,配置完整发现轮询计划和增量发现。On the Polling Schedule tab, configure both the full discovery polling schedule and delta discovery.

  4. 在“选项”选项卡上,可以配置这些设置,以从发现中筛选出或排除过期的计算机记录。On the Options tab, configure settings to filter out or exclude stale computer records from discovery. 同时配置对分发组成员身份的发现。Also configure the discovery of the membership of distribution groups.

    备注

    默认情况下,Active Directory 组发现只会发现安全组的成员身份。By default, Active Directory Group Discovery discovers only the membership of security groups.

  5. 选择“确定”保存配置。Select OK to save the configuration.

配置 Active Directory 系统发现Configure Active Directory System Discovery

  1. 在“Active Directory 系统发现属性”窗口的“常规”选项卡中,选择“新建”图标新建图标,以指定新的 Active Directory 容器。On the General tab of the Active Directory System Discovery Properties window, select the New icon New icon to specify a new Active Directory container. 在“Active Directory 容器”对话框框中,完成以下配置:In the Active Directory Container dialog box, finish the following configurations:

    1. 键入或浏览到“路径”位置。Type or browse to a location for the Path. 此值是容器或组织单位 (OU) 的有效 LDAP 路径。This value is a valid LDAP path to a container or organizational unit (OU). 在站点查询此资源路径。The site queries this path for resources. 例如 LDAP://CN=Computers,DC=contoso,DC=comFor example, LDAP://CN=Computers,DC=contoso,DC=com

    2. 指定更改搜索行为的选项:Specify options that change the search behavior:

      • 发现 Active Directory 组内的对象:该站点还会查看此路径中的组的成员资格。Discover objects within Active Directory groups: The site also looks at the membership of groups in this path.

      • 以递归方式搜索 Active Directory 子容器: :如果启用此选项,该站点将搜索以上路径中的任何其他容器或 OU。Recursively search Active Directory child containers: If you enable this option, the site searches any additional containers or OUs within the above path. 如果禁用此选项,该站点仅搜索特定路径中的资源。If you disable this option, the site only searches for resources in the specific path.

        从版本 1806 开始,请选择要从此递归搜索中排除的子容器。Starting in version 1806, select subcontainers to exclude from this recursive search. 此选项有助于减少发现的对象数。This option helps to reduce the number of discovered objects. 选择“添加”选择以上路径下的容器。Select Add to choose the containers under the above path. 在“选择新容器”对话框中,选择要排除的子容器。In the Select New Container dialog box, select a child container to exclude. 选择“确定”,以关闭“选择新容器”对话框。Select OK to close the Select New Container dialog box.

        提示

        “Active Directory 系统发现属性”窗口中的 Active Directory 容器列表包含列“已排除”。The list of Active Directory containers in the Active Directory System Discovery Properties window includes a column Has Exclusions. 当选择要排除的容器,此值为“是”。When you select containers to exclude, this value is Yes.

    3. 对于每个位置,指定要用作“Active Directory 发现帐户” 的帐户。For each location, specify the account to use as the Active Directory Discovery Account. 有关详细信息,请参阅帐户For more information, see Accounts.

      提示

      对于指定的每个位置,可以配置一组发现选项和唯一的 Active Directory 发现帐户。For each specified location, you can configure a set of discovery options and a unique Active Directory Discovery Account.

    4. 选择“确定”保存 Active Directory 容器配置。Select OK to save the Active Directory container configuration.

  2. 在“轮询计划” 选项卡上,配置完整发现轮询计划和增量发现。On the Polling Schedule tab, configure both the full discovery polling schedule and delta discovery.

  3. 在“Active Directory 属性”选项卡上,为要发现的计算机配置其他 Active Directory 属性。On the Active Directory Attributes tab, configure additional Active Directory attributes for computers that you want to discover. 此选项卡会列出默认对象属性。This tab lists the default object attributes.

    提示

    例如,你的组织在 Active Directory 中的计算机帐户上使用 Description 属性。For example, your organization uses the Description attribute on the computer account in Active Directory. 选择“自定义”,然后将 Description 添加为自定义属性。Select Custom, and add Description as a custom attribute. 在此发现方法运行后,这一属性显示在 Configuration Manager 控制台的设备“属性”选项卡上。After this discovery method runs, this attribute shows on the device Properties tab in the Configuration Manager console.

  4. 在“选项”选项卡上,可以配置这些设置,以从发现中筛选出或排除过期的计算机记录。On the Options tab, configure settings to filter out or exclude stale computer records from discovery.

  5. 选择“确定”保存配置。Select OK to save the configuration.

配置 Active Directory 用户发现Configure Active Directory User Discovery

  1. 在“Active Directory 用户发现属性”窗口的“常规”选项卡中,选择“新建”图标新建图标以指定新的 Active Directory 容器。On the General tab of the Active Directory User Discovery Properties window, select the New icon New icon to specify a new Active Directory container. 在“Active Directory 容器”对话框框中,完成以下配置:In the Active Directory Container dialog box, finish the following configurations:

    1. 指定要搜索的一个或多个位置。Specify one or more locations to search.

    2. 对于每个位置,指定更改搜索行为的选项。For each location, specify options that change the search behavior.

    3. 对于每个位置,指定要用作“Active Directory 发现帐户” 的帐户。For each location, specify the account to use as the Active Directory Discovery Account. 有关详细信息,请参阅帐户For more information, see Accounts.

      备注

      对于指定的每个位置,可以配置一组唯一的发现选项和唯一的 Active Directory 发现帐户。For each specified location, you can configure a unique set of discovery options and a unique Active Directory Discovery Account.

    4. 选择“确定”保存 Active Directory 容器配置。Select OK to save the Active Directory container configuration.

  2. 在“轮询计划” 选项卡上,配置完整发现轮询计划和增量发现。On the Polling Schedule tab, configure both the full discovery polling schedule and delta discovery.

  3. 在“Active Directory 属性”选项卡上,为要发现的计算机配置其他 Active Directory 属性。On the Active Directory Attributes tab, configure additional Active Directory attributes for computers that you want to discover. 此选项卡会列出默认对象属性。This tab lists the default object attributes.

  4. 选择“确定”保存配置。Select OK to save the configuration.

Azure AD 用户发现Azure AD User Discovery

Azure AD 用户发现未启用,或与其他发现方法的配置相同。Azure AD User Discovery isn't enabled or configured the same as other discovery methods. 在将 Configuration Manager 站点载入到 Azure AD 时对其进行配置。Configure it when you onboard the Configuration Manager site to Azure AD.

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure AD 用户发现For more information, see Azure AD User Discovery.

必备条件Prerequisites

若要启用和配置此发现方法,请为实现云管理配置 Azure 服务To enable and configure this discovery method, Configure Azure Services for Cloud Management.

如果使用 Configuration Manager 创建 Azure 应用,它将为应用配置必要的权限。If you use Configuration Manager to create the Azure app, it configures the app with the necessary permissions.

如果首先在 Azure 中创建应用,然后将其导入 Configuration Manager 中,需要手动配置应用。If you create the app in Azure first, and then import it into Configuration Manager, you need to manually configure the app. 此配置包括授予服务器应用读取目录数据的权限。This configuration includes granting the server app permission to read directory data.

  1. 以具有全局管理员权限的用户身份打开 Azure 门户Open the Azure portal as a user with Global Admin permissions. 转到“Azure Active Directory”,然后选择“应用注册” 。Go to Azure Active Directory, and select App registrations. 根据需要切换到“所有应用程序”。Switch to All applications if necessary.

  2. 选择目标应用程序。Select the target application.

  3. 在“管理”菜单中,选择“API 权限” 。In the Manage menu, select API permissions.

    1. 在“API 权限”面板中,选择“添加权限” 。On the API permissions panel, select Add a permission.

    2. 在“请求 API 权限”面板中,切换到“我的组织使用的 API” 。In the Request API permissions panel, switch to APIs my organization uses.

    3. 搜索并选择“Microsoft Graph”API。Search for and select the Microsoft Graph API.

      提示

      在版本 1810 及更早版本中,使用“Azure Active Directory Graph”API。In version 1810 and earlier, use the Azure Active Directory Graph API.

    4. 选择“应用程序权限”组。Select the Application permissions group. 展开“目录”,然后选择“Directory.Read.All” 。Expand Directory, and select Directory.Read.All.

    5. 选择“添加权限”。Select Add permissions.

  4. 在“API 权限”面板的“授予许可”部分中,选择“授予管理员许可...” 。选择“是”。On the API permissions panel, in the Grant consent section, select Grant admin consent.... Select Yes.

配置 Azure AD 用户发现Configure Azure AD User Discovery

在配置云管理 Azure 服务时:When configuring the Cloud Management Azure service:

  • 在向导的“发现”页上,选择“启用 Azure Active Directory 用户发现”选项。On the Discovery page of the wizard, select the option to Enable Azure Active Directory User Discovery.
  • 选择“设置”。Select Settings.
  • 在“Azure AD 用户发现设置”对话框中,配置出现发现的时间计划。In the Azure AD User Discovery Settings dialog box, configure a schedule for when discovery occurs. 此外,还可以启用增量发现,仅用于查看 Azure AD 中新增或更改的帐户。You can also enable delta discovery, which only checks for new or changed accounts in Azure AD.

备注

如果用户是联合标识或同步标识,则必须使用 Configuration Manager Active Directory 用户发现和 Azure AD 用户发现。If the user is a federated or synchronized identity, you must use Configuration Manager Active Directory user discovery as well as Azure AD user discovery. 若要详细了解混合标识,请参阅定义混合标识采用策略For more information about hybrid identities, see Define a hybrid identity adoption strategy.

Azure AD 用户组发现Azure AD User Group Discovery

提示

此功能在版本 1906 中作为预发行功能首次引入。This feature was first introduced in version 1906 as a pre-release feature. 从版本 2002 开始,此功能不再属于预发行功能。Beginning with version 2002, it's no longer a pre-release feature.

可从 Azure AD 中发现用户组和这些组的成员。You can discover user groups and members of those groups from Azure AD. 当站点在 Azure AD 组中找到之前未发现的用户时,它会将这些用户添加为 Configuration Manager 中的新用户资源。When the site finds users in Azure AD groups that it hasn't previously discovered, it adds them as new user resources in Configuration Manager. 如果用户组是一个安全组,则创建其资源记录。A user group resource record is created when the group is a security group.

必备条件Prerequisites

  • 云管理 Azure 服务Cloud Management Azure service
  • 读取和搜索 Azure AD 组的权限Permission to read and search Azure AD groups

限制Limitations

版本 1906 中已禁用 Azure AD 用户组发现的增量发现。Delta discovery for Azure AD user group discovery is disabled in version 1906. 从 Configuration Manager 版本 1910 开始,可以启用此功能。You can enable it starting in Configuration Manager version 1910.

日志文件Log files

使用 SMS_AZUREAD_DISCOVERY_AGENT.log 排查故障。Use the SMS_AZUREAD_DISCOVERY_AGENT.log for troubleshooting. 此日志还与 Azure AD 用户发现共享。This log is also shared with Azure AD user discovery. 有关详细信息,请参阅日志文件For more information, see Log files.

启用 Azure AD 用户组发现Enable Azure AD user group discovery

在现有云管理 Azure 服务上启用发现的步骤:To enable discovery on an existing Cloud Management Azure service:

  1. 转到“管理”工作区,展开“云服务”,然后选择“Azure 服务”节点 。Go to the Administration workspace, expand Cloud Services, then select the Azure Services node.
  2. 选择其中一个 Azure 服务,然后选择功能区中的“属性”。Select one of your Azure services, then select Properties in the ribbon.
  3. 在“发现”选项卡上,选中“启用 Azure Active Directory 组发现”的复选框,然后选择“设置” 。In the Discovery tab, check the box to Enable Azure Active Directory Group Discovery, then select Settings.
  4. 在“发现作用域”选项卡下选择“添加” 。Select Add under the Discovery Scopes tab.
    • 你可以在其他选项卡中修改“轮询计划”。You can modify the Polling Schedule in the other tab.
  5. 选择一个或多个用户组。Select one or more user groups. 可以按名称搜索,并选择是否仅查看安全组 。You can Search by name and choose if you want to see Security groups only.
    • 首次选择“搜索”时,系统会提示你登录到 Azure。You'll be prompted to sign in to Azure when you select Search the first time.
  6. 选择完组后,选择“确定”。Select OK when you finish selecting groups.
  7. 发现完成运行后,可以在“用户”节点中浏览你的 Azure AD 用户组。Once discovery finishes running, you can browse your Azure AD user groups in the Users node.

在配置新的云管理 Azure 服务时启用发现的步骤:To enable discovery when configuring a new Cloud Management Azure service:

  • 在向导的“发现”页上,选择“启用 Azure Active Directory 组发现”选项。On the Discovery page of the wizard, select the option to Enable Azure Active Directory Group Discovery.
  • 选择“设置”。Select Settings.
  • 在“Azure AD 组发现设置”对话框中,配置出现发现的发现作用域和时间计划。In the Azure AD Group Discovery Settings dialog box, configure your discovery scope and a schedule for when discovery occurs.

检测信号发现Heartbeat Discovery

安装主站点时,Configuration Manager 会启用检测信号发现方法。Configuration Manager enables the Heartbeat Discovery method when you install a primary site. 如果想要使用每隔七天的默认计划,则没有其他要配置的内容。If you want to use the default schedule of every seven days, there's nothing else to configure. 否则,你只需要配置有关客户端将检测信号发现数据记录发送到管理点的频率的计划。Otherwise, you only have to configure the schedule for how often clients send the Heartbeat Discovery data record to a management point.

备注

如果在同一站点上同时启用了“清除安装标志”客户端请求安装和站点维护任务,请将检测信号发现的计划设置为小于“清除安装标志”站点维护任务的“客户端重新发现期间”。If you enable both client push installation and the site maintenance task for Clear Install Flag at the same site, set the schedule of Heartbeat Discovery to be less than the Client Rediscovery period of the Clear Install Flag site maintenance task. 有关站点维护任务的详细信息,请参阅维护任务For more information about site maintenance tasks, see Maintenance tasks.

配置检测信号发现计划Configure the Heartbeat Discovery schedule

  1. 在 Configuration Manager 控制台中的“管理”工作区中,展开“层次结构配置”,然后选择“发现方法”节点。In the Configuration Manager console, go to the Administration workspace, expand Hierarchy Configuration, and select the Discovery Methods node.

  2. 为要在其中配置检测信号发现的站点选择“检测信号发现”方法。Select the Heartbeat Discovery method for the site where you want to configure Heartbeat Discovery.

  3. 在功能区的“主页”选项卡上,选择“属性” 。On the Home tab of the ribbon, select Properties.

  4. 配置客户端提交检测信号发现数据记录的频率。Configure the frequency with which clients submit a Heartbeat discovery data record. 然后选择“确定”保存配置。Then select OK to save the configuration.

网络发现Network Discovery

在配置网络发现之前,先了解下列主题:Before you configure Network Discovery, understand the following topics:

  • 网络发现的可用级别Available levels of Network Discovery

  • 可用的网络发现选项Available Network Discovery options

  • 在网络上限制网络发现Limiting Network Discovery on the network

有关详细信息,请参阅关于网络发现For more information, see About Network Discovery.

下列部分提供有关网络发现的常见配置的信息。The following sections provide information about common configurations for Network Discovery. 你可以配置其中一个或多个配置以在同一发现轮次中使用。You can configure one or more of these configurations for use during the same discovery run. 如果使用多个配置,则规划可能影响发现结果的交互。If you use multiple configurations, plan for the interactions that can affect the discovery results.

例如,你会发现使用特定 SNMP 共同体名称的所有简单网络管理协议 (SNMP) 设备。For example, you discover all Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) devices that use a specific SNMP community name. 对于同一发现轮次,可以禁用针对特定子网的发现。For the same discovery run, you disable discovery on a specific subnet. 当发现运行时,网络发现不会发现已禁用的子网上具有指定共同体名称的 SNMP 设备。When discovery runs, Network Discovery doesn't discover the SNMP devices with the specified community name on the subnet that you've disabled.

确定网络拓扑Determine your network topology

你可以使用仅拓扑发现来映射你的网络。You can use a topology-only discovery to map your network. 这种类型的发现不会发现潜在客户端。This kind of discovery doesn't discover potential clients. 仅拓扑网络发现依赖于 SNMP。The topology-only Network Discovery relies on SNMP.

映射网络拓扑时,在“网络发现属性”对话框中的“SNMP”选项卡上配置“最大跃点数”。When you're mapping your network topology, configure the Maximum hops on the SNMP tab in the Network Discovery Properties dialog box. 只需几个跃点,便可以帮助控制运行发现时使用的网络带宽。Just a few hops can help control the network bandwidth that's used when discovery runs. 在发现网络的更多内容时,增加跃点数可更好地了解网络拓扑。As you discover more of your network, increase the number of hops to gain a better understanding of your network topology.

了解网络拓扑后,配置网络发现的其他属性。After you understand your network topology, configure additional properties for Network Discovery. 这些属性有助于发现潜在客户端及其操作系统。These properties help to discover potential clients and their operating systems. 此外,配置网络发现以限制它可以搜索的网段。Also configure Network Discovery to limit the network segments that it can search.

有关详细信息,请参阅如何确定网络拓扑For more information, see How to determine your network topology

网络发现搜索选项Network Discovery search options

Configuration Manager 支持以下搜索网络的方法:Configuration Manager supports the following methods to search the network:

使用子网限制搜索Limit searches by using subnets

可以将网络发现配置为在发现运行期间搜索特定子网。You can configure Network Discovery to search specific subnets during a discovery run. 默认情况下,网络发现会搜索运行发现的服务器的子网。By default, Network Discovery searches the subnet of the server that runs discovery. 配置和启用的任何其他子网仅适用于 SNMP 和 DHCP 搜索选项。Any additional subnets that you configure and enable apply only to SNMP and DHCP search options. 当网络发现搜索域时,子网配置未对其进行限制。When Network Discovery searches domains, it isn't limited by configurations for subnets.

如果你在“网络发现属性”对话框中的“子网”选项卡上指定一个或多个子网,则仅搜索标记为“已启用”的子网。If you specify one or more subnets on the Subnets tab in the Network Discovery Properties dialog box, it only searches the subnets that you mark as Enabled.

禁用子网后,站点会从发现中排除此子网,并适用下列条件:When you disable a subnet, the site excludes it from discovery, and the following conditions apply:

  • 不在子网上运行基于 SNMP 的查询。SNMP-based queries don't run on the subnet.

  • DHCP 服务器不回复位于子网上的资源列表。DHCP servers don't reply with a list of resources located on the subnet.

  • 基于域的查询可以发现位于子网上的资源。Domain-based queries can discover resources that are located on the subnet.

搜索特定域Search a specific domain

可以将网络发现配置为在发现运行期间搜索特定域或一组域。You can configure Network Discovery to search a specific domain or set of domains during a discovery run. 默认情况下,网络发现会搜索运行发现的服务器的本地域。By default, Network Discovery searches the local domain of the server that runs discovery.

如果你在“网络发现属性”对话框中的“域”选项卡上指定一个或多个域,则仅搜索标记为“已启用”的域。If you specify one or more domains on the Domains tab in the Network Discovery Properties dialog box, it only searches the domains that you mark as Enabled.

禁用域后,站点会从发现中排除此域,并适用下列条件:When you disable a domain, the site excludes it from discovery, and the following conditions apply:

  • 网络发现不查询该域中的域控制器。Network Discovery doesn't query domain controllers in that domain.

  • 基于 SNMP 的查询仍然可以在域中的子网上运行。SNMP-based queries can still run on subnets in the domain.

  • DHCP 服务器仍然能够以位于域中的资源的列表形式予以回复。DHCP servers can still reply with a list of resources located in the domain.

使用 SNMP 共同体名称限制搜索Limit searches by using SNMP community names

可以将网络发现配置为在发现运行期间搜索特定 SNMP 共同体或一组共同体。You configure Network Discovery to search a specific SNMP community or set of communities during a discovery run. 默认情况下,该方法将配置公共共同体名称。By default, the method configures the public community name.

网络发现使用共同体名称来获得对路由器(SNMP 设备)的访问权。Network Discovery uses community names to gain access to routers that are SNMP devices. 路由器可以向网络发现提供有关链接到第一个路由器的其他路由器和子网的信息。A router can supply Network Discovery with information about other routers and subnets that are linked to the first router.

备注

SNMP 共同体名称类似于密码。SNMP community names resemble passwords. 网络发现只能从已指定共同体名称的 SNMP 设备中获得信息。Network Discovery can get information only from an SNMP device for which you've specified a community name. 每个 SNMP 设备均可以拥有自己的共同体名称,但是同一个共同体名称通常会由几个设备共享。Each SNMP device can have its own community name, but often the same community name is shared among several devices. 此外,大多数 SNMP 设备都有默认的“公共” 共同体名称。Additionally, most SNMP devices have a default community name of public. 但某些组织会删除其设备的“公共”共同体名称以作为安全措施。But some organizations delete the public community name from their devices as a security precaution.

如果“网络发现属性”对话框中的“SNMP”选项卡上包含多个 SNMP 共同体,则会按照共同体的显示顺序搜索共同体。If you include more than one SNMP community on the SNMP tab in the Network Discovery Properties dialog box, it searches them in the order in which they're shown. 请确保使用频率最高的名称位于列表顶部。Make sure that the most frequently used names are at the top of the list. 此配置有助于最小化站点在尝试使用不同名称联系设备时产生的网络流量。This configuration helps to minimize network traffic that the site generates when it tries to contact a device by using different names.

备注

除了使用 SNMP 共同体名称之外,还可以指定特定 SNMP 设备的 IP 地址或可解析名称。Along with using the SNMP community name, you can specify the IP address or resolvable name of a specific SNMP device. 可使用“网络发现属性”对话框的“SNMP 设备”选项卡来执行此操作。You do this action on the SNMP Devices tab in the Network Discovery Properties dialog box.

搜索特定的 DHCP 服务器Search a specific DHCP server

可以将网络发现配置为使用特定 DHCP 服务器或多个服务器在发现运行期间发现 DHCP 客户端。You can configure Network Discovery to use a specific DHCP server or multiple servers to discover DHCP clients during a discovery run.

网络发现搜索你在“网络发现属性” 对话框中的“DHCP” 选项卡上指定的每个 DHCP 服务器。Network Discovery searches each DHCP server that you specify on the DHCP tab in the Network Discovery Properties dialog box. 如果正在运行发现的服务器从 DHCP 服务器租赁其 IP 地址,可以配置发现来搜索该 DHCP 服务器。If the server that's running discovery leases its IP address from a DHCP server, you can configure discovery to search that DHCP server. 使用选项“包括配置站点服务器使用的 DHCP 服务器”来启用此行为。Enable this behavior with the option to Include the DHCP server that the site server is configured to use.

备注

为了在网络发现中成功配置 DHCP 服务器,你的环境必须支持 IPv4。To successfully configure a DHCP server in Network Discovery, your environment must support IPv4. 你无法将网络发现配置为使用本机 IPv6 环境中的 DHCP 服务器。You can't configure Network Discovery to use a DHCP server in a native IPv6 environment.

如何配置网络发现How to configure Network Discovery

使用以下过程首先仅发现网络拓扑,然后使用一个或多个可用的网络发现选项将网络发现配置为发现潜在客户端。Use the following procedures to first discover only your network topology, and then to configure Network Discovery to discover potential clients by using one or more of the available Network Discovery options.

如何确定网络拓扑How to determine your network topology

  1. 在 Configuration Manager 控制台中的“管理”工作区中,展开“层次结构配置”,然后选择“发现方法”节点。In the Configuration Manager console, go to the Administration workspace, expand Hierarchy Configuration, and select the Discovery Methods node.

  2. 为要在其中发现网络资源的站点选择“网络发现”方法。Select the Network Discovery method for the site where you want to discover network resources.

  3. 在功能区的“主页”选项卡上,选择“属性” 。On the Home tab of the ribbon, select Properties.

    • 在“常规”选项卡上,选择“启用网络发现”选项。On the General tab, select the option to Enable network discovery. 然后从“发现类型”选项中选择“拓扑”。Then select Topology from the Type of discovery options.

    • 在“子网”选项卡上,选择“搜索本地子网”选项。On the Subnets tab, select the Search local subnets option.

      提示

      如果你知道构成网络的特定子网,请取消选中“搜索本地子网”复选框。If you know the specific subnets that constitute your network, deselect the Search local subnets checkbox. 然后选择“新建”图标新建图标,并添加想要搜索的特定子网。Then select the New icon New icon, and add the specific subnets that you want to search. 对于大型网络,一次仅搜索一两个子网,从而最大程度地降低网络带宽使用量。For large networks, search only one or two subnets at a time to minimize the use of network bandwidth.

    • 在“域”选项卡上,选择“搜索本地域”选项。On the Domains tab, select the option to Search local domain.

    • 在“SNMP”选项卡上,从“最大跃点数”下拉列表选择一个选项。On the SNMP tab, select an option from the Maximum hops drop-down list. 此选项指定在映射拓扑时可以使用的网络发现路由器跃点数。This option specifies how many router hops Network Discovery can take in mapping your topology.

      提示

      首次映射网络拓扑时,请仅配置少量路由器跃点以最大程度降低网络带宽使用量。When you first map your network topology, configure just a few router hops to minimize the use of network bandwidth.

  4. 在“计划”选项卡上,选择“新建”图标新建图标,并设置用于运行发现的计划。On the Schedule tab, select the New icon New icon, and set a schedule for running discovery.

    备注

    你无法将不同的发现配置分配给单独的网络发现计划。You can't assign a different discovery configuration to separate Network Discovery schedules. 每次运行网络发现时,它都使用当前发现配置。Each time Network Discovery runs, it uses the current discovery configuration.

  5. 选择“确定”以接受配置。Select OK to accept the configurations. 网络发现将按计划的时间运行。Network Discovery runs at the scheduled time.

如何配置网络发现How to configure Network Discovery

  1. 在 Configuration Manager 控制台中的“管理”工作区中,展开“层次结构配置”,然后选择“发现方法”节点。In the Configuration Manager console, go to the Administration workspace, expand Hierarchy Configuration, and select the Discovery Methods node.

  2. 为要在其中发现网络资源的站点选择“网络发现”方法。Select the Network Discovery method for the site where you want to discover network resources.

  3. 在功能区的“主页”选项卡上,选择“属性” 。On the Home tab of the ribbon, select Properties.

  4. 在“常规”选项卡上,选择“启用网络发现”选项。On the General tab, select the option to Enable network discovery.

    • 从“发现类型”选项选择要运行的发现类型。Select from the Type of discovery options the type of discovery that you want to run.

    • 启用 Configuration Manager 的“慢速网络”选项,对低带宽网络进行自动调整。Enable the Slow network option for Configuration Manager to make automatic adjustments for low-bandwidth networks.

  5. 若要配置发现以搜索子网,切换到“子网”选项卡。然后配置下列一个或多个选项:To configure discovery to search subnets, switch to the Subnets tab. Then configure one or more of the following options:

    • 若要在运行发现的计算机的本地子网上运行发现,请启用“搜索本地子网”选项。To run discovery on subnets that are local to the computer that runs discovery, enable the option to Search local subnets.

    • 若要搜索特定子网,请确保该子网在“要搜索的子网”中列出,并且其“搜索”值必须为“已启用”:To search a specific subnet, make sure that the subnet is listed in Subnets to search and has a Search value of Enabled:

      1. 如果未列出子网,请选择“新建”图标新建图标If the subnet isn't listed, select the New icon New icon. 在“新建子网分配”对话框中,输入“子网”和“掩码”信息,然后选择“确定”。In the New Subnet Assignment dialog box, enter the Subnet and Mask information, and then select OK. 默认情况下,为搜索启用了新子网。By default, a new subnet is enabled for search.

      2. 若要更改所列子网的搜索值,请在列表中选择它。To change the Search value for a listed subnet, select it in the list. 然后选择“切换”图标,在“禁用”和“启用”之间切换值。Then select the Toggle icon to switch the value between Disabled and Enabled.

  6. 若要配置发现以搜索域,切换到“域”选项卡。然后配置下列一个或多个选项:To configure discovery to search domains, switch to the Domains tab. Then configure one or more of the following options:

    • 若要在运行发现的计算机的域上运行发现,请启用“搜索本地域”选项。To run discovery on the domain of the computer that runs discovery, enable the option to Search local domain.

    • 若要搜索特定域,请确保该域在“域”中列出,并且其“搜索”值必须为“已启用”:To search a specific domain, make sure that the domain is listed in Domains and has a Search value of Enabled:

      1. 如果未列出域,请选择“新建”图标新建图标If the domain isn't listed, select the New icon New icon. 在“域属性”对话框中,输入域信息,然后选择“确定”。In the Domain Properties dialog box, enter the Domain information, and then select OK. 默认情况下,为搜索启用了新域。By default, a new domain is enabled for search.

      2. 若要更改所列域的搜索值,请在列表中选择它。To change the Search value for a listed domain, select it in the list. 然后选择“切换”图标,在“禁用”和“启用”之间切换值。Then select the Toggle icon to switch the value between Disabled and Enabled.

  7. 若要将发现配置为搜索 SNMP 设备的特定 SNMP 共同体名称,切换到“SNMP”选项卡。然后配置下列一个或多个选项:To configure discovery to search specific SNMP community names for SNMP devices, switch to the SNMP tab. Then configure one or more of the following options:

    • 要将 SNMP 共同体名称添加到“SNMP 共同体名称”列表中,选择“新建”图标新建图标To add an SNMP community name to the list of SNMP Community names, select the New icon New icon. 在“新建 SNMP 共同体名称”对话框中,指定 SNMP 共同体的 名称,然后选择“确定”。In the New SNMP Community Name dialog box, specify the Name of the SNMP community, and then select OK.

    • 若要删除 SNMP 共同体名称,请选择共同体名称,然后选择“删除”图标删除图标To remove an SNMP community name, select the community name, and then select the Delete icon Delete icon.

    • 若要调整 SNMP 共同体名称的搜索顺序,请从列表中选择共同体名称。To adjust the search order of SNMP community names, select a community name from the list. 然后选择“向上移动项目”图标上移图标向下移动项目 图标下移图标Then select the Move Item Up icon Move UP Icon or the Move Item Down icon Move Down Icon. 当运行发现时,会按照从上向下的顺序搜索共同体名称。When discovery runs, community names are searched in a top-to-bottom order.

    • 若要配置供 SNMP 搜索使用的最大路由器跃点数,从“最大跃点数”下拉列表中选择跃点数。To configure the maximum number of router hops for use by SNMP searches, select the number of hops from the Maximum hops drop-down list.

  8. 若要配置 SNMP 设备,切换到“SNMP 设备”选项卡。如果未列出设备,请选择“新建”图标新建图标To configure an SNMP device, switch to the SNMP Devices tab. If the device isn't listed, select the New icon New icon. 在“新建 SNMP 设备”对话框中,指定 SNMP 设备的 IP 地址或设备名称,然后选择“确定”。In the New SNMP Device dialog box, specify the IP address or device name of the SNMP device, and then select OK.

    备注

    如果指定设备名称,则 Configuration Manager 必须能够将 NetBIOS 名称解析为 IP 地址。If you specify a device name, Configuration Manager must be able to resolve the NetBIOS name to an IP address.

  9. 若要配置发现以查询特定 DHCP 服务器,切换到“DHCP”选项卡。然后配置下列一个或多个选项:To configure discovery to query specific DHCP servers, switch to the DHCP tab. Then configure one or more of the following options:

    • 若要在运行发现的计算机上查询 DHCP 服务器,请启用“始终使用站点服务器的 DHCP 服务器”选项。To query the DHCP server on the computer that is running discovery, enable the option to Always use the site server's DHCP server.

      备注

      为了使用此选项,服务器必须从 DHCP 服务器租用其 IP 地址,并且不能使用静态 IP 地址。To use this option, the server must lease its IP address from a DHCP server and can't use a static IP address.

    • 要查询特定的 DHCP 服务器,选择“新建”图标新建图标To query a specific DHCP server, select the New icon New icon. 在“新建 DHCP 服务器”对话框中指定 DHCP 服务器的 IP 地址或服务器名称,然后选择“确定”。In the New DHCP Server dialog box, specify the IP address or server name of the DHCP server, and then select OK.

      备注

      如果指定服务器名称,则 Configuration Manager 必须能够将 NetBIOS 名称解析为 IP 地址。If you specify a server name, Configuration Manager must be able to resolve the NetBIOS name to an IP address.

  10. 若要在发现运行时进行配置,切换到“计划”选项卡。然后选择“新建”图标新建图标以设置用于运行网络发现的计划。To configure when discovery runs, switch to the Schedule tab. Then select the New icon New icon to set a schedule for running Network Discovery. 可以配置多个重复计划以及多个无重复计划。You can configure multiple recurring schedules, and multiple schedules that have no recurrence.

    备注

    如果“计划”选项卡同时显示多个计划,则所有计划均会根据在配置时该计划中指示的时间运行网络发现。If the Schedule tab shows more than one schedule at the same time, Network Discovery runs for all schedules as it's configured at the time indicated in the schedule. 定期计划的行为也是如此。This behavior is also true for recurring schedules.

  11. 选择“确定”保存配置。Select OK to save your configurations.

如何验证网络发现是否已完成How to verify that Network Discovery has finished

完成网络发现所需的时间可能因下列一个或多个因素而异:The time that Network Discovery requires to finish can vary depending on one or more of the following factors:

  • 你的网络规模The size of your network

  • 你的网络拓扑The topology of your network

  • 为在网络中查找路由器而配置的最大跃点数The maximum number of hops that are configured to find routers in the network

  • 正在运行的发现的类型The type of discovery that is being run

网络发现不会创建消息在完成时通知你。Network Discovery doesn't create messages to alert you when it's finished. 使用以下过程验证发现何时完成:Use the following procedure to verify when discovery has finished:

  1. 在 Configuration Manager 控制台中,转到“监视”工作区。In the Configuration Manager console, go to the Monitoring workspace. 展开“系统状态”,然后选择“状态消息查询”节点。Expand System Status, and then select the Status Message Queries node.

  2. 选择“所有状态消息”查询。Select the All Status Messages query.

  3. 在功能区“主页”选项卡上的“状态消息查询”组中,选择“显示消息”。On the Home tab of the ribbon, in the Status Message Queries group, select Show Messages.

  4. 在“所有状态消息”窗口中,从“选择日期和时间”下拉列表选择一个值,说明多久之前启动发现。In the All Status Messages window, select a value from the Select date and time drop-down list that includes how long ago the discovery started. 然后选择“确定”以打开“Configuration Manager 状态消息查看器”。Then select OK to open the Configuration Manager Status Message Viewer.

    提示

    你也可以使用“指定日期和时间” 选项选择运行发现的指定日期和时间。You can also use the Specify date and time option to select a given date and time that you ran discovery. 当你在指定日期运行网络发现并且想要仅检索该日期中的消息时,此选项很有用。This option is useful when you ran Network Discovery on a given date and want to retrieve messages from only that date.

  5. 要验证网络发现是否已经完成,请搜索具有以下详细信息的状态消息:To validate that Network Discovery has finished, search for a status message that has the following details:

    • 消息 ID:502Message ID: 502

    • 组件:SMS_NETWORK_DISCOVERYComponent: SMS_NETWORK_DISCOVERY

    • 描述:此组件已停止Description: This component stopped

    如果不存在此状态消息,则网络发现尚未完成。If this status message isn't present, Network Discovery hasn't finished.

  6. 要验证网络发现的启动时间,请搜索具有以下详细信息的状态消息:To validate when Network Discovery started, search for a status message that has the following details:

    • 消息 ID:500Message ID: 500

    • 组件:SMS_NETWORK_DISCOVERYComponent: SMS_NETWORK_DISCOVERY

    • 描述:此组件已启动Description: This component started

    此信息验证是否已启动网络发现。This information verifies that Network Discovery started. 如果没有此信息,请重新计划网络发现。If this information isn't present, reschedule Network Discovery.