使用 Configuration Manager 自定义操作系统映像Customize operating system images with Configuration Manager

适用范围: Configuration Manager (Current Branch)Applies to: Configuration Manager (current branch)

Configuration Manager 中的操作系统映像是 WIM 文件,并且表示在计算机上成功安装和配置操作系统所需的参考文件和文件夹的压缩集合。Operating system images in Configuration Manager are WIM files and represent a compressed collection of reference files and folders that are required to successfully install and configure an operating system on a computer. 自定义操作系统映像是通过一台引用计算机构建和捕获的。在该计算机上,你配置了所有必需的操作系统文件、支持文件、软件更新、工具和其他软件应用。A custom operating system image is built and captured from a reference computer that you configure with all the required operating system files, support files, software updates, tools, and other software apps. 由你决定将引用计算机手动配置到何种程度。The extent to which you manually configure the reference computer is up to you. 你可以通过使用构建和捕获任务序列完全自动完成配置引用计算机的过程,可以手动配置引用计算机的某些方面然后使用任务序列自动完成其余配置,或者可以在不使用任务序列的情况下手动配置引用计算机。You can completely automate the configuration of the reference computer by using a build and capture task sequence, you can manually configure certain aspects of the reference computer and then automate the rest by using task sequences, or you can manually configure the reference computer without using task sequences. 使用以下部分自定义操作系统。Use the following sections to customize an operating system.

准备引用计算机Prepare for the reference computer

在你使用从引用计算机捕获操作系统映像之前,有一些事项需要注意。There are several things to think about before you use capture an operating system image from a reference computer.

在自动或手动配置之间作出决定Decide between an automated or manual configuration

下面概述了引用计算机的自动和手动配置的优点和缺点。The following outlines advantages and disadvantage for an automated and manual configuration of the reference computer.

自动配置Automated configuration

优点Advantages

  • 配置可完全无人参与,因而不需要管理员或用户存在。The configuration can be completely unattended, which eliminates the requirement for an administrator or user to be present.

  • 你可以重用任务序列来信心十足地重复配置其他引用计算机。You can reuse the task sequence to repeat the configuration of additional reference computers with a high level of confidence.

  • 你可以修改任务序列来适用引用计算机中的差异,而不必重新创建整个任务序列。You can modify the task sequence to accommodate differences in reference computers without having to recreate the entire task sequence.

    缺点Disadvantages

  • 创建任务序列的初始操作可能要花费很长时间来创建和测试。The initial action to build a task sequence can take a long time to create and test.

  • 如果引用计算机要求发生很大变化,则可能要花费很长时间来重建和重新测试任务序列。If the reference computer requirements change significantly, it can take a long time to rebuild and retest the task sequence.

手动配置Manual configuration

优点Advantages

  • 你不必创建任务序列或花时间来对任务序列进行测试和故障诊断。You do not have to create a task sequence or take the time to test and troubleshoot the task sequence.

  • 你可以直接从 CD 中安装,而不必将所有软件包(包括 Windows 本身)放在 Configuration Manager 包中。You can install directly from CDs without putting all the software packages (including Windows itself) into a Configuration Manager package.

    缺点Disadvantages

  • 引用计算机配置的准确性取决于配置计算机的管理员或用户。The accuracy of the reference computer configuration depends on the administrator or user who configures the computer.

  • 你仍然必须验证和测试已正确配置的引用计算机。You must still verify and test that the reference computer is configured correctly.

  • 你无法重用配置方法。You cannot reuse the configuration method.

  • 需要有人员主动参与整个过程。Requires a person to be actively involved throughout the process.

引用计算机的注意事项Considerations for the reference computer

下面列出了在配置引用计算机时要考虑的基本项目。The following lists the basic items to consider when you configure a reference computer.

  • 要部署的操作系统Operating system to deploy

    必须使用你打算部署到目标计算机的操作系统安装引用计算机。The reference computer must be installed with the operating system that you intend to deploy to your destination computers. 有关可以部署的操作系统的详细信息,请参阅操作系统部署的基础结构要求For more information about the operating systems that you can deploy, see Infrastructure requirements for operating system deployment.

  • 适当的 Service PackAppropriate service pack

    必须使用你打算部署到目标计算机的操作系统安装引用计算机。The reference computer must be installed with the operating system that you intend to deploy to your destination computers.

  • 适当的软件更新Appropriate software updates

    安装要包括在从引用计算机中捕获的操作系统映像中的所有软件应用程序。Install all software applications that you want included in the operating system image that you capture from the reference computer. 你也可以在将捕获的操作系统映像部署到目标计算机时安装软件应用程序。You can also install software applications when you deploy the captured operating system image to your destination computers.

  • 工作组成员身份Workgroup membership

    必须将引用计算机配置为工作组的成员。The reference computer must be configured as a member of a workgroup.

  • SysprepSysprep

    系统准备 (Sysprep) 工具是你可随其他部署工具一起使用以将 Windows 操作系统安装到新硬件上的一种技术。The System Preparation (Sysprep) tool is a technology that you can use with other deployment tools to install Windows operating systems onto new hardware. Sysprep 通过将计算机配置为在计算机重启时创建新的计算机安全标识符 (SID) 来准备计算机以进行磁盘映像或交付给客户。Sysprep prepares a computer for disk imaging or delivery to a customer by configuring the computer to create a new computer security identifier (SID) when the computer is restarted. 此外,Sysprep 还会清理不得复制到目标计算机的特定于用户和计算机的设置及数据。In addition, Sysprep cleans up user and computer-specific settings and data that must not be copied to a destination computer.

    你可以通过运行下列命令来对引用计算机手动执行 Sysprep 操作:You can manually Sysprep the reference computer by running the following command:

    Sysprep /quiet /generalize /reboot

    /generalize 选项指示 Sysprep 从 Windows 安装中删除特定于系统的数据。The /generalize option instructs Sysprep to remove system-specific data from the Windows installation. 特定于系统的信息包括事件日志、唯一安全 ID (SID) 和其他唯一性信息。System-specific information includes event logs, unique security IDs (SIDs), and other unique information. 删除唯一系统信息后,计算机将重启。After the unique system information is removed, the computer restarts.

    你可以使用“准备 Windows 以便捕获” Prepare Windows for Capture 任务序列步骤或捕获媒体来自动完成 Sysprep。You can automate Sysprep by using the Prepare Windows for Capture task sequence step or capture media.

    重要

    “准备 Windows 以便捕获” Prepare Windows for Capture 任务序列步骤会在 Sysprep 运行之前尝试将引用计算机上的本地管理员密码重置为空白值。The Prepare Windows for Capture task sequence step attempts to reset the local administrator password on the reference computer to a blank value before Sysprep runs. 如果启用了本地安全策略“密码必须满足复杂性要求” ,则此任务序列步骤将无法重置管理员密码。If the Local Security policy Password must meet complexity requirements is enabled, this task sequence step fails to reset the administrator password. 在这种情况下,请在运行任务序列之前禁用此策略。In this scenario, disable this policy before you run the task sequence.

    有关 Sysprep 的详细信息,请参阅 Sysprep(系统准备)概述For more information about Sysprep, see Sysprep (System Preparation) overview.

  • 迁移安装方案所需的适当工具和脚本Appropriate tools and scripts required to mitigate installation scenarios

    迁移安装方案所需的适当工具和脚本Appropriate tools and scripts required to mitigate installation scenarios

  • 适当桌面自定义,如墙纸、品牌和默认用户配置文件Appropriate desktop customization, such as wall paper, branding, and default user profile

    你可以使用要在从引用计算机中捕获操作系统映像时包括的桌面自定义属性来配置引用计算机。You can configure the reference computer with the desktop customization properties that you want to include when you capture the operating system image from the reference computer. 桌面属性包括墙纸、组织外观方案和标准默认用户配置文件。Desktop properties include wallpaper, organizational branding, and a standard default user profile.

手动构建引用计算机Manually build a reference computer

使用以下过程来手动构建引用计算机。Use the following procedure to manually build a reference computer.

备注

当手动构建引用计算机时,你可以通过使用捕获媒体来捕获操作系统映像。When you manually build the reference computer, you can capture the operating system image by using capture media. 有关详细信息,请参阅创建捕获媒体For more information, see Create capture media.

若要手动构建引用计算机To manually build the reference computer

  1. 确定要用作引用计算机的计算机。Identify the computer to use as the reference computer.

  2. 配置具有适当操作系统以及创建要部署的操作系统映像所需的任何其他软件的引用计算机。Configure the reference computer with the appropriate operating system and any other software that is required to create the operating system image that you want to deploy.

    警告

    至少要安装适当的操作系统和服务包、支持驱动程序、以及必需的软件更新。At a minimum, install the appropriate operating system and service pack, support drivers, and required software updates.

  3. 将引用计算机配置为工作组的成员。Configure the reference computer to be a member of a workgroup.

  4. 重置引用计算机上的本地管理员密码以使密码值为空白。Reset the local Administrator password on the reference computer so that the password value is blank.

  5. 通过使用以下命令来运行 Sysprep: sysprep /quiet /generalize /rebootRun Sysprep by using the command: sysprep /quiet /generalize /reboot. /generalize 选项指示 Sysprep 从 Windows 安装中删除特定于系统的数据。The /generalize option instructs Sysprep to remove system-specific data from the Windows installation. 特定于系统的信息包括事件日志、唯一安全 ID (SID) 和其他唯一性信息。System-specific information includes event logs, unique security IDs (SIDs), and other unique information. 删除唯一系统信息后,计算机将重启。After the unique system information is removed, the computer restarts.

    引用计算机准备就绪之后,使用任务序列从引用计算机捕获操作系统映像。After the reference computer is ready, use a task sequence to capture the operating system image from the reference computer. 有关详细步骤,请参阅 从现有引用计算机中捕获操作系统映像For detailed steps, see Capture an operating system image from an existing reference computer.

使用任务序列构建引用计算机Use a task sequence to build a reference computer

你可以通过使用任务序列自动执行创建引用计算机的过程以部署操作系统、驱动程序、应用程序等。You can automate the process to create a reference computer by using a task sequence to deploy the operating system, drivers, applications, and so on. 使用以下步骤构建引用计算机,然后从引用计算机捕获操作系统映像。Use the following steps to build the reference computer and then to capture the operating system image from the reference computer.