定义项目范围Define your project scope

升级旅行图,突出显示项目定义阶段Upgrade journey diagram, highlighting the Project Definition stage

本文是你的升级过程的项目定义阶段的一部分,在你确定的利益干系人中创建赞助联盟和项目团队后,你完成的活动是项目成功的关键。This article is part of the Project Definition stage of your upgrade journey, an activity you complete after you create a sponsorship coalition and project team from the stakeholders you've identified are key to your project's success. 继续之前,请确认你已完成以下活动:Before proceeding, confirm that you've completed the following activities:

花一些时间来定义你的项目远景、范围、目标和管辖将有助于确保所有项目利益干系人的对齐和工作达到相同的最终结果。Taking time to define your project vision, scope, goals, and governance will help ensure all project stakeholders are aligned and working toward the same end results. 这一点尤其重要,因为技术准备团队和用户准备团队将单独工作,以便将各自的部分一起拉出。This is especially critical given that the technical readiness team and user readiness team will be working independently to pull their respective pieces together. 完成本部分后,请在整个项目中引用它,以确保您的进度达到所需的结束状态。After you complete this section, refer to it throughout your project to ensure you're on track to achieve the end state you wanted. 使用以下你确定的目标来衡量你的结果,并根据需要进行缓解。Use the goals that you identify below to measure against your outcomes, and mitigate as needed.

决策点Decision points
  • 您想要如何处理此项目(换句话说,为什么要这样做)?What do you want to accomplish with this project (in other words, why are you doing it)?
  • 成功看起来怎样?What does success look like?
  • 有哪些风险,你的计划可减轻这些风险?What are the risks, and what's your plan to mitigate those risks?
后续步骤Next steps
  • 与你的项目团队和主办方讨论以下部分。Discuss the following sections with your project team and sponsors.
  • 为此项目记录你的愿景、范围、目标和风险。Document your vision, scope, goals, and risks for this project.
  • 重新访问你的项目团队以验证你是否已参与正确的团队。Revisit your project team to validate that you've engaged the right team.

项目远景Project vision

您的愿景是 "大图片" 或最终状态,回答问题,"为什么要执行此项目?"Your vision is the "big picture" or eventual end-state that answers the question, "Why are we doing this project?" 理想的愿景是解决组织的业务驱动因素和用户值添加角度的情况,如以下示例所示:An ideal vision addresses your organization's business drivers and user value-add perspectives, as shown in the following examples:

  • 组织业务驱动程序: Microsoft 团队标准化与我们的数字工作区转换一致,让我们能够提高运营效率、消除冗余解决方案,节省 USD5 万美元。Organization business driver: Standardizing on Microsoft Teams aligns with our digital workplace transformation and enables us to drive operational efficiencies, eliminate redundant solutions, and save USD5 million.
  • 用户值-添加: Microsoft 团队(1)通过为项目笔记、Office 文档、团队成员、对话和会议提供单个位置来节省时间;(2)通过使用集中式联系人列表和持久聊天跟踪快速访问您的对话来简化通信,(3)通过在一个位置存储和访问文件,缓解尝试查找丢失的电子邮件附件的烦恼。User value-add: Microsoft Teams (1) saves time by providing a single location for project notes, Office docs, team members, conversations, and meetings; (2) simplifies communication by using a centralized contact list and persistent chat tracking for quick access to your conversations, and (3) alleviates the frustration of trying to find that lost email attachment by storing and accessing files in one place.

请考虑以下讨论点,帮助优化您的愿景:Consider the following discussion points to help refine your vision:

  • 当前业务流程的描述Description of the current business process

  • 现有业务流程面临的挑战Challenges with the existing business process

  • 技术如何帮助克服这些挑战How technology can help overcome these challenges

  • 克服了这些挑战的情况下预期的可衡量业务成果The expected and measurable business outcomes if these challenges are overcome


确定使用案例和角色,进一步优化项目远景。Identify use cases and personas to further refine your project vision.

项目范围Project scope

你的远景可能仅在一段时间内通过各种阶段实现。Your vision might only be realized over time, through various phases. 项目范围_此时_定义项目的焦点,让你的项目团队重点关注其当前任务,使你能够实现长期愿景。The project scope defines the focus of your project at this time and serves to keep your project team focused on their current tasks, enabling you to realize your long-term vision. 例如,你的范围可能会要求你运行试验、部署特定工作负载(如语音或会议),或者在你为升级计划时为 Skype for business 启用团队。For example, your scope might call for you to run a pilot, deploy a specific workload such as voice or meetings, or enable Teams alongside Skype for Business as you plan for your upgrade over time. 作为项目范围的一部分,您应评估:As part of the project scope, you should assess:

  • 各种共存模式,这对你的组织而言是最佳的。The various coexistence modes, and which would be optimal for your organization.
  • 在迁移到团队之前,Skype for business 和团队的协作的最佳方式。The best way for Skype for Business and Teams to coexist before you move to Teams.
  • 是否应执行试验以验证组织中的技术和用户准备情况。Whether you should conduct a pilot to validate technical and user readiness in your organization.

项目目标Project goals

您的目标定义所需的结果,使您能够衡量项目的成功。Your goals define the outcome you want and enable you to measure the success of the project. 目标可以定义为_目标和关键结果_(OKRs),并且项目成功的度量值可以定义为_关键成功指示器_(KSIs)。Goals can be defined as objectives and key results (OKRs), and the measures of project success can be defined as key success indicators (KSIs). 在定义 OKRs 和 KSIs 时,您必须完全参与项目利益干系人的参与,以帮助确保他们感觉拥有所有权,并将成功的这些措施与已定义的项目任务进行协调。It's essential that you get full participation from project stakeholders in defining OKRs and KSIs, to help ensure they feel a sense of ownership and align these measures of success to defined project tasks. 目标应包括对技术和用户重点的成功的混合。Goals should include a mix of technical and user-focused success.

  • OKRs包含你在项目开始时设置的目标,以及你根据定义的节奏(如每月或每季度)测量的键结果。OKRs contain the objectives you set at the beginning of the project and the key results you measure on a defined cadence (for example, monthly or quarterly). 通过查看你的关键结果,你可以确保你的项目可交付结果按计划进行,或者识别和缓解问题以使你的项目恢复到正轨。OKRs 通常归类为 "已达到" 或 "未实现"。By reviewing your key results, you can ensure your project deliverables are on schedule, or identify and mitigate issues to get your project back on track. OKRs are typically categorized as "achieved" or "not achieved."
  • KSIs衡量高质量和关键结果的成功,并通过详细说明好的和/或错误的结果来补充 OKRs 的二进制性质。KSIs measure quality and success of the key results and complement the binary nature of OKRs by detailing good and/or bad results. 定义 KSIs 时,建议使用 "特定的、可测量的、可分配的、逼真的" (智能)条件:When defining KSIs, we recommend that you use "specific, measurable, assignable, realistic, time-related" (SMART) criteria:
    • 特定:面向特定区域进行改进Specific: target a specific area for improvement
    • 可测量:量化或至少建议的一项指标,进度Measurable: quantify, or at least suggest an indicator of, progress
    • 可分配:指定将执行的操作Assignable: specify who will do it
    • 实际:指出可以实际实现的结果,以及给定可用资源的结果Realistic: state what results can realistically be achieved, given available resources
    • 与时间相关的:指定何时可以实现结果Time-related: specify when the results can be achieved

下表显示了 OKRs 和 KSIs 的示例,以了解 Skype for Business 到团队升级项目的初始阶段。The following table shows examples of OKRs and KSIs for the initial phases of a Skype for Business to Teams upgrade project.

Objective 键结果Key result 待办事项To do
仅协作模式下,在 Skype for Business 与 Skype for business 一起的试点团队Pilot Teams alongside Skype for Business, in collaboration-only mode FY19Q2: 500-已执行和完成用户试点FY19Q2: 500-user pilot conducted and completed
  • 确定试点用户Identify pilot users
  • 创建试点测试计划Create a pilot test plan
  • 在团队中启用试验用户Enable pilot users on Teams
  • 实施试验Implement the pilot
  • 执行试点反馈调查Execute a pilot feedback survey
  • 衡量试点成功Measure pilot success
为组织中的所有用户和 Skype for Business 成功运行协作模式Successfully run collaboration-only mode for all users in the organization alongside Skype for Business
  • 60% 的 Skype for business 用户在推出30天内使用团队60% of Skype for Business users are using Teams within 30 days of rollout
  • 团队的用户满意度 ≥80%User satisfaction with Teams is ≥80%
  • 设计和执行广泛的通信和培训计划Design and execute a broad communications and training plan
  • 为仅协作模式的团队启用所有用户Enable all users for Teams in collaboration-only mode
  • 每月跟踪使用情况Track usage monthly
  • 收集用户反馈Gather user feedback
  • 监视网络运行状况/质量Monitor network health/quality
  • 根据需要减少Mitigate as needed
类型Type 关键成功指示器Key success indicator 衡量方式How measured 成功标准Success criteria 衡量时间Measured
网络和质量Network and quality 较差音频通话百分比应很少Percentage of poor audio calls should be minimal 通话质量仪表板(CQD)Call Quality Dashboard (CQD) <与团队通话不佳的3%<3% of poor calls with Teams 每周,然后按月Weekly, then monthly
使用和知晓Usage and awareness 聊天、会议和通话体验等于或优于 Skype for BusinessThe chat, meetings, and calling experience is equal to or better than Skype for Business 调查Survey 80% 同意或强烈同意80% agree or strongly agree 每周完成试验,后期部署Weekly through pilot, post-rollout
使用和采纳Usage and adoption 用户主动使用解决方案Users actively use the solution Microsoft 365 报表或 CQDMicrosoft 365 reports or CQD 从试验用户处参与的90%,比当前解决方案更好90% participation from pilot users, better than the current solution 每周,然后按月Weekly, then monthly
使用和培训Usage and training 我有足够的培训/帮助资源来成功使用团队I had adequate training/help resources to successfully use Teams 试生产后调查Post-pilot survey 80% 同意或强烈同意80% agree or strongly agree 试生产后,后期部署Post-pilot, post-rollout
用户满意度User satisfaction 我将向其他人推荐团队I would recommend Teams to others 通过后期测试Promoter 的网络分数(NPS)调查Net Promoter Score (NPS) via post-pilot survey NPS > 0NPS > 0 试生产后,后期部署Post-pilot, post-rollout
商业版驱动程序Business driver 成本节约Cost savings 应付账款Accounts Payable $第三方解决方案中的成本支出为 X 百万$X million cost expenditure in third-party solutions 六个月,然后一年,后五年后推出Six months, then one year, then five years post-rollout


为了帮助确保你的项目保持跟踪,请考虑除了更大的长期目标之外,还可以定义较小的短期里程碑。To help ensure your project stays on track, consider defining smaller, short-term milestones in addition to bigger, long-term goals. 这可能包括你将作为你的用户试点的一部分捕获的指标。This can include metrics that you'll capture as part of your user pilot. 考虑日程表时,如果你正在等待团队中尚未提供的功能,请使用Microsoft 365 路线图When considering your timeline, use the Microsoft 365 Roadmap if you're waiting for features that aren't yet available in Teams.

风险和缓解Risks and mitigation

对于任何项目,可能出现意外事件或其他因素,并引发项目停止跟踪。主动评估潜在风险和定义缓解计划以解决可能出现的问题非常重要,因此你的项目可以继续向你的目标。With any project, unforeseen events or other factors can arise and throw your project off track. It's important to proactively assess potential risks and define a mitigation plan for overcoming the issues that might arise, so your project can continue toward your goals. _风险注册_是一个很好的工具,可用于跟踪项目风险及其潜在影响的可能性,并可捕获缓解计划。A risk register is an excellent tool for tracking project risks—along with how likely they are and their potential impact—and capturing your mitigation plan. 下表显示了一个示例风险寄存器。The following table shows a sample risk register.

威胁Risk 可能性Likelihood 击打Impact 整体Overall 缓解计划Mitigation plan
网络质量Network quality Medium High High 执行网络规划练习。Execute a network planning exercise.
低用户采纳Low user adoption High High High 在试验和部署阶段与用户主动协作;实施有针对性的知晓和培训活动来创造需求。Proactively work with users during the pilot and deployment phases; implement a targeted awareness and training campaign to create desire.


当您确定升级范围时,请务必为关键里程碑设置时间线(例如,为所有用户启用除 Skype for Business 之外的团队),以及完成日期。As you scope your upgrade journey, be sure to set a timeline for key milestones (for example, enabling Teams alongside Skype for Business for all users) in addition to the completion date. 定义的时间线可帮助你的项目团队驱动器达到一致的结束状态,并通知正确的工作计划,从而帮助确保你的项目保持正轨。考虑不太快的时间线(任务可能被忽略)或太远(可能会丢失动量)。A defined timeline helps your project team drive toward a consistent end state and informs the right work-back schedule, helping to ensure that your project stays on track. Consider a timeline that's not too accelerated (where tasks might be overlooked) or too distant (where momentum might be lost). 适用于以下内容的理想日程表帐户:The ideal timeline accounts for:

  • 适用于合规性和用户方案要求的产品准备情况:请参阅产品路线图以估量团队是否可为你的组织做好准备。Product readiness for compliance and user scenario requirements: Refer to the product roadmap to gauge when Teams will be ready for your organization.
  • 升级组:确定是启用团队还是通过升级组升级用户,这可能会影响整个升级旅行的时间线。Upgrade groups: Determine whether you'll be enabling Teams or upgrading users by upgrade groups, which could affect the timeline of your overall upgrade journey.
  • 组织因素,例如更改冻结、会计年度结束、部署生命周期:讨论并考虑可能影响升级日程表的任何内部流程。Organizational factors such as change freeze, fiscal year end, deployment lifecycles: Discuss and account for any internal processes that might influence your upgrade timeline.
  • 在同一时间或周围发生的其他更改:考虑捆绑更改或将其调整为更好的位置,以方便用户体验并最大程度地减少对工作效率的影响。Other changes that are occurring at or around the same time: Consider bundling changes or spacing them out to facilitate a positive user experience and minimize any impact on productivity.
  • 资源 :与你的项目利益干系人确认资源分配,以确保你已加入的项目团队有足够的带宽来完成所有必要的任务。Resourcing: Confirm resource allocation with your project stakeholders to ensure that the project team you've brought together has enough bandwidth to complete all necessary tasks.

作为参考点,为升级 Pro 旅程的升级前、升级和升级后阶段提供了一个示例时间线,我们鼓励你根据需要进行调整,以便与你的组织的特定需求保持一致。As a reference point, a sample timeline is provided for the pre-upgrade, upgrade, and post-upgrade phases of the Upgrade Pro journey, which we encourage you to adjust as needed to align with the specific needs of your organization.

完成上述活动后,你的项目应具有坚实的基础。After you've completed the activities described above, you should have a solid foundation for your project. 继续执行技术准备工作和组织准备工作计划活动。Continue with your technical readiness and organizational readiness planning activities.

请记住: Skype for Business Online 将于2021年7月31日停用。Remember: Skype for Business Online will be retired on July 31, 2021. 此后,Skype for Business Online 服务将无法再访问或支持。After that time, the Skype for Business Online service will no longer be accessible or supported. 为了最大程度地实现收益并确保你的组织有适当的时间来完成升级,我们鼓励你立即开始迁移到 Microsoft 团队。To maximize benefit realization and ensure your organization has proper time to complete your upgrade, we encourage you to begin your journey to Microsoft Teams today.