什么是 Power BI Premium?What is Power BI Premium?

你可以使用 Power BI Premium 为组织获得增强的专用资源,这样组织中的用户就能使用性能更高且响应速度更快的 Power BI 服务。You can use Power BI Premium to get dedicated and enhanced resources for your organization, so users in your organization can use the Power BI service with better performance and responsiveness. 例如,借助 Power BI Premium 订阅,你和组织用户可以:For example, with a Power BI Premium subscription, you and your organization's users get access to:

  • 规模更大,性能更强Greater scale and performance
  • 灵活地按容量许可Flexibility to license by capacity
  • 统一自助服务和企业 BIUnify self-service and enterprise BI
  • 使用 Power BI 报表服务器扩展本地 BIExtend on-premises BI with Power BI Report Server
  • 支持按区域数据驻留(多地理位置)Support for data residency by region (Multi-Geo)
  • 与任何人共享数据而无需购买每用户许可证Share data with anyone without purchasing a per-user license

屏幕截图显示 Power BI 管理门户。

本文介绍了 Power BI Premium 中的主要功能。This article introduces key features in Power BI Premium. 必要时,提供包含更多详细信息的其他文章的链接。Where necessary, links to additional articles with more detailed information are provided. 有关 Power BI Pro 和 Power BI Premium 的详细信息,请参阅 Power BI 定价的“Power BI 功能比较”部分。For more information about Power BI Pro and Power BI Premium, see the Power BI features comparison section of Power BI pricing.

订阅和许可Subscriptions and licensing

Power BI Premium 是租户级别的 Microsoft 365 订阅,可在两个 SKU(库存单位)系列中使用:Power BI Premium is a tenant-level Microsoft 365 subscription available in two SKU (Stock-Keeping Unit) families:

  • P SKU (P1-P5):用于嵌入和企业功能,需要包月或包年承诺,并按月计费,包含用于在本地安装 Power BI 报表服务器的许可证。P SKUs (P1-P5) for embedding and enterprise features, requiring a monthly or yearly commitment, billed monthly, and includes a license to install Power BI Report Server on-premises.

  • 用于组织嵌入的 EM SKU (EM1-EM3),要求按年承诺并按月计费。EM SKUs (EM1-EM3) for organizational embedding, requiring a yearly commitment, billed monthly. EM1 和 EM2 SKU 仅通过批量许可计划提供,EM1 and EM2 SKUs are available only through volume licensing plans. 无法直接购买。You can't purchase them directly.

另一种方法是在 Azure 中购买 Power BI Embedded 订阅。An alternative approach is to purchase a Power BI Embedded subscription in Azure. 有一个 A (A1-A6) SKU 系列,它不需要承诺并按小时计费,以在应用程序、门户和网站中使用带有白色标记的 Power BI,或者作为测试 P 或 EM 容量的一种方法。There is a single A (A1-A6) SKU family that requires no commitment and is billed hourly for use white labeling Power BI in applications, portals, and websites or as a way to test P or EM capacities. 所有 SKU 都提供 V 核心用于创建容量,但 EM SKU 仅限于较小规模的嵌入。All SKUs deliver v-cores to create capacities, but the EM SKUs are restricted for smaller scale embedding. V 核心少于四个的 EM1、EM2、A1 和 A2 SKU 不在专用基础设施上运行。EM1, EM2, A1, and A2 SKUs with less than four v-cores do not run on dedicated infrastructure.

虽然本文的重点是 P SKU,但其中大部分内容也与 A SKU 相关。While the focus of this article is on the P SKUs, much of what is described is also relevant to the A SKUs. 与 Premium 订阅 SKU 相反,Azure SKU 不需要时间承诺,并按小时计费。In contrast to the Premium subscription SKUs, Azure SKUs require no time commitment and are billed hourly. 它们提供全方位的灵活性,可实现纵向扩展、横向扩展、暂停、恢复和删除。They deliver full elasticity enabling scale up, scale down, pause, resume, and delete.

Azure Power BI Embedded 在很大程度上超出了本文的范围,但在“优化 Premium 容量”一文的测试方法部分将其作为测试和测量工作负载的实用且经济的选项进行了介绍。Azure Power BI Embedded is largely out of scope for this article, but it is described in the Testing Approaches section of the Optimizing Premium capacities article as a practical and economic option to test and measure workloads. 若要了解有关 Azure SKU 的详细信息,请参阅 Azure Power BI Embedded 文档To learn more about Azure SKUs, see Azure Power BI Embedded Documentation.


Power BI Premium 订阅由 Microsoft 365 管理中心的管理员购买。Power BI Premium subscriptions are purchased by administrators in the Microsoft 365 admin center. 具体而言,仅全局管理员或计费管理员才能购买 SKU。Specifically, only Global administrators or Billing Administrators can purchase SKUs. 购买时,租户会收到相应数量的 V 核心用于分配给容量,这称为 V 核心池When purchased, the tenant receives a corresponding number of v-cores to assign to capacities, known as v-core pooling . 例如,购买 P3 SKU 会为租户提供 32 个 V 核心。For example, purchasing a P3 SKU provides the tenant with 32 v-cores. 若要了解详细信息,请参阅如何购买 Power BI PremiumTo learn more, see How to purchase Power BI Premium.

专用容量Dedicated capacities

借助 Power BI Premium,可获得 专用容量With Power BI Premium, you get dedicated capacities . 共享容量的工作负载在与其他客户共享的计算资源上运行,与之相反,专用容量仅供组织使用。In contrast to a shared capacity where workloads run on computational resources shared with other customers, a dedicated capacity is for exclusive use by an organization. 它与专用计算资源分离,专用计算资源为托管内容提供可靠且一致的性能。It's isolated with dedicated computational resources, which provide dependable and consistent performance for hosted content. 请注意,以下资源存储在共享容量而非专用容量中:Note that the following resources are stored in shared capacity rather than your dedicated capacity:

工作区驻留在容量范围内。Workspaces reside within capacities. 每个 Power BI 用户都有一个称为“我的工作区”的个人工作区。Each Power BI user has a personal workspace known as My Workspace . 可创建其他工作区来启用协作,这些工作区称为“工作区”。Additional workspaces known as workspaces can be created to enable collaboration. 默认情况下,工作区(包括个人工作区)在共享容量中创建。By default workspaces, including personal workspaces, are created in the shared capacity. 如果拥有高级容量,可将“我的工作区”和“工作区”都分配给高级容量。When you have Premium capacities, both My Workspaces and workspaces can be assigned to Premium capacities.

容量节点Capacity nodes

订阅和许可部分所述,有两个 Power BI Premium SKU 系列: EMP 。所有 Power BI Premium SKU 均可作为容量 节点 提供,每个节点代表由处理器、内存和存储组成的一定数量的资源。As described in the Subscriptions and Licensing section, there are two Power BI Premium SKU families: EM and P . All Power BI Premium SKUs are available as capacity nodes , each representing a set amount of resources consisting of processor, memory, and storage. 除资源外,每个 SKU 还对每秒处理的 DirectQuery 和 Live Connection 连接的数量,以及并行模型刷新次数进行了操作限制。In addition to resources, each SKU has operational limits on the number of DirectQuery and Live Connection connections per second, and the number of parallel model refreshes.

处理由一定数量的 V 核心实现,并在后端和前端之间平均分配。Processing is achieved by a set number of v-cores, divided equally between backend and frontend.

后端 V 核心 负责核心 Power BI 功能,包括查询处理、缓存管理、运行 R 服务、模型刷新以及在服务器端呈现报表和图像。Backend v-cores are responsible for core Power BI functionality, including query processing, cache management, running R services, model refresh, and server-side rendering of reports and images. 后端 V 核心分配到固定数量的内存,这些内存主要用于托管模型,也称为“活动数据集”。Backend v-cores are assigned a fixed amount of memory that is primarily used to host models, also known as active datasets.

前端 V 核心 负责 Web 服务、仪表板和报表文档管理、访问权限管理、时间安排、API、上传和下载,以及通常与用户体验相关的所有内容。Frontend v-cores are responsible for the web service, dashboard and report document management, access rights management, scheduling, APIs, uploads and downloads, and generally for everything related to the user experiences.

存储设置为 每个容量节点 100 TBStorage is set to 100 TB per capacity node .

每个 Premium SKU(和等效大小的 A SKU)的资源和限制如下表所述:The resources and limits of each Premium SKU (and equivalently sized A SKU) are described in the following table:

容量节点Capacity Nodes 总虚拟核心Total v-cores 后端 V 核心Backend v-cores RAM (GB)RAM (GB) 前端 V 核心Frontend v-cores DirectQuery/Live Connection(每秒)DirectQuery/Live Connection (per sec) 模型刷新并行度Model Refresh Parallelism
EM1/A1EM1/A1 11 0.50.5 33 0.50.5 3.753.75 11
EM2/A2EM2/A2 22 11 55 11 7.57.5 22
EM3/A3EM3/A3 44 22 1010 22 1515 33
P1/A4P1/A4 88 44 2525 44 3030 66
P2/A5P2/A5 1616 88 5050 88 6060 1212
P3/A6P3/A6 3232 1616 100100 1616 120120 2424
P4/A7 1P4/A7 1 6464 3232 200200 3232 240240 4848
P5/A8 1P5/A8 1 128128 6464 400400 6464 480480 9696

1 - 仅限特殊请求。1 - By special request only. 适用于大于 100 GB 的超大模型。For very large models greater than 100 GB.


使用单个较大的 SKU(例如一个 P2 SKU)可能比组合较小的 SKU(例如两个 P1 SKU)更可取。Using a single larger SKU (e.g. one P2 SKU) can be preferable to combining smaller SKUs (e.g. two P1 SKUs). 例如,你可以使用更大的模型,还可以实现与 P2 的更好的并行。For example, you can use larger models and achieve better parallelism with the P2.

容量工作负载Capacity workloads

容量工作负载是为用户提供的服务。Capacity workloads are services made available to users. 默认情况下,Premium 和 Azure 容量仅支持与运行 Power BI 查询关联的数据集工作负载。By default, Premium and Azure capacities support only a dataset workload associated with running Power BI queries. 无法禁用数据集工作负载。The dataset workload cannot be disabled. 可以为 AI(认知服务)数据流分页报表启用其他工作负载。Additional workloads can be enabled for AI (Cognitive Services), Dataflows, and Paginated reports. 这些工作负载仅在 Premium 订阅中受到支持。These workloads are supported in Premium subscriptions only.

每个额外的工作负载都允许配置工作负载可使用的最大内存(以占可用内存总量的百分比的形式)。Each additional workload allows configuring the maximum memory (as a percentage of total available memory) that can be used by the workload. 最大内存的默认值由 SKU 确定。Default values for maximum memory are determined by SKU. 通过在使用这些额外工作负载时仅启用这些额外工作负载,可以最大化容量的可用资源。You can maximize your capacity's available resources by enabling only those additional workloads when they're used. 仅在已确定默认设置不满足容量资源要求时,才能更改内存设置。And you can change memory settings only when you have determined default settings are not meeting your capacity resource requirements. 通过使用管理门户中的“容量设置”,或通过使用容量 REST API,容量管理员可以为容量启用和配置工作负载。Workloads can be enabled and configured for a capacity by capacity admins by using Capacity settings in the Admin portal or by using the Capacities REST APIs.


若要了解详细信息,请参阅配置 Premium 容量中的工作负载To learn more, see Configure workloads in a Premium capacity.

容量工作原理How capacities function

Power BI 服务始终充分利用容量资源,同时不超过对容量施加的限制。At all times, the Power BI service makes the best use of capacity resources while not exceeding limits imposed on the capacity.

容量操作分类为 交互式操作后台操作Capacity operations are classified as either interactive or background . 交互式操作包括呈现请求和响应用户交互(筛选、问答查询等)。Interactive operations include rendering requests and responding to user interactions (filtering, Q&A querying, etc.). 通常情况下,导入模型查询为内存资源密集型,而查询 DirectQuery 和 Live Connection 模型则为 CPU 密集型。Generally, import model querying is memory resource-intensive, while querying DirectQuery and Live Connection models is CPU-intensive. 后台操作包括数据流和导入模型刷新,以及仪表板查询缓存。Background operations include dataflow and import model refreshes, and dashboard query caching.

重点是了解交互式操作应始终优先于后台操作,以确保可能的最佳用户体验。It's important to understand that interactive operations are always prioritized over background operations to ensure the best possible user experience. 如果资源不足,则会在释放资源时将后台操作添加到队列中进行处理。If there are insufficient resources, background operations are added to a queue for processing when resources free up. 后台操作(如数据集刷新)可以由 Power BI 服务在进程中停止并添加到队列中。Background operations, like dataset refreshes, can be stopped mid-process by the Power BI service and added to a queue.

导入模型必须完全加载到内存中,以便可以查询或刷新它们。Import models must be fully loaded into memory so they can be queried or refreshed. Power BI 服务通过使用复杂的算法来管理内存使用情况,从而确保最大限度地利用可用内存,这可能导致过度使用容量:虽然容量可以存储许多导入模型(每个 Premium 容量最多 100 TB),但当它们的组合磁盘存储超过支持的内存(并且查询和刷新需要额外的内存)时,它们不能同时全部加载到内存中。The Power BI service manages memory usage by using sophisticated algorithms to ensure maximum use of available memory, and can cause over-committing the capacity: While it's possible for a capacity to store many import models (up to 100 TB per Premium capacity), when their combined disk storage exceeds the supported memory (and additional memory is required for querying and refresh), then they cannot all be loaded into memory at the same time.

因此,导入模型会根据用途加载到内存中或从内存中移除。Import models are therefore loaded into and removed from memory according to usage. 在导入模型被查询(交互式操作)但尚未位于内存中时,或当要刷新导入模型(后台操作)时,系统会加载导入模型。An import model is loaded when it is queried (interactive operation) and not yet in memory, or when it's to be refreshed (background operation).

从内存中移除模型称为 逐出The removal of a model from memory is known as eviction . 这是 Power BI 可以根据模型的大小快速执行的操作。It's an operation Power BI can perform quickly depending on the size of the models. 如果容量没有遇到任何内存压力,则模型只需加载到内存中并保持原位。If the capacity is not experiencing any memory pressure, models are simply loaded into memory and remain there. 但是,当可用的内存不足以加载模型时,Power BI 服务首先需要释放内存。However, when insufficient memory is available to load a model, the Power BI service will first need to free-up memory. 它通过寻找在过去三分钟 [1] 未使用过的模型来检测已变为非活动状态的模型,然后逐出它们,从而释放内存。It frees memory by detecting models that have become inactive by seeking models that have not been used in the last three minutes [1], and then evicting them. 如果没有要逐出的非活动模型,则 Power BI 服务会尝试逐出为后台操作加载的模型。If there are no inactive models to evict, the Power BI service seeks to evict models loaded for background operations. 在尝试失败 30 秒后[1],最终可尝试使交互操作失败。A last resort, after 30 seconds of failed attempts [1], is to fail the interactive operation. 在这种情况下,报表用户会收到失败通知以及尽快重试的建议。In this case, the report user is notified of failure with a suggestion to try again shortly. 在某些情况下,由于服务操作,模型可能会从内存中卸载。In some cases, models may be unloaded from memory due to service operations.

需要强调的是,数据集逐出是正常行为和预期行为。It's important to stress that dataset eviction is a normal and expected behavior. 它致力于通过加载和卸载组合大小可能超过可用内存的模型来最大化内存使用率。It strives to maximize memory usage by loading and unloading models whose combined sizes can exceed available memory. 这是设计使然,并且对报表用户透明。This is by design, and transparent to report users. 高逐出率并不一定意味着容量分配到的资源不足。High eviction rates do not necessarily mean the capacity is insufficiently resourced. 然而,如果因高逐出率而导致查询或刷新响应性受到影响,则它们可能会成为问题。They can, however, become a concern if query or refresh responsiveness is suffering because of high eviction rates.

因为必须将模型加载到内存中,所以导入模型的刷新始终为内存密集型。Refreshes of import models are always memory intensive as models must be loaded into memory. 处理时需要额外的内存。Additional memory is required for processing. 完全刷新可能会使用大约两倍的模型所需内存量。A full refresh can use approximately double the amount of memory required by the model. 这确保了即使在处理模型时也可以查询模型,因为查询被发送到现有模型,直到刷新完成且新模型数据可用。This ensures the model can be queried even when being processed, because queries are sent to the existing model, until the refresh has completed and the new model data is available. 增量刷新将需要更少的内存并且可以更快地完成,因此可以显著减少容量资源的压力。Incremental refresh will require less memory and could complete faster, and so can substantially reduce pressure on capacity resources. 对于模型,刷新也可能为 CPU 密集型,特别是那些具有复杂 Power Query 转换的模型,或者复杂或基于大型表的计算表/列。Refreshes can also be CPU-intensive for models, especially those with complex Power Query transformations, or calculated tables/columns that are complex or are based on large tables.

和查询一样,刷新需要将模型加载到内存中。Refreshes, like queries, require the model be loaded into memory. 如果内存不足,Power BI 服务将尝试逐出非活动模型;如果无法这样做(因为所有模型都处于活动状态),刷新作业将排队。If there is insufficient memory, the Power BI service will attempt to evict inactive models, and if this is not possible (as all models are active), the refresh job is queued. 刷新通常为 CPU 密集型,其出现这种情况的概率甚至比查询出现这种情况的概率更大。Refreshes are typically CPU-intensive, even more so than queries. 因此,并发刷新数量存在容量限制,其向上舍入设置为后端 V 核心数量的 1.5 倍。For this reason, there are capacity limits on the number of concurrent refreshes, set to 1.5 x the number of backend v-cores, rounded up. 如果并发刷新过多,则计划的刷新将排队。If there are too many concurrent refreshes, a scheduled refresh will be queued. 发生这些情况时,刷新需要更长的时间才能完成。When these situations occur, it takes longer for the refresh to complete. 按需刷新(例如由用户请求或 API 调用触发的刷新)将重试三次[1]。On-demand refreshes such as those triggered by a user request or an API call will retry three times [1]. 如果仍然没有足够的资源,则刷新将失败。If there still aren't enough resources, the refresh will then fail.

部分注释:Section notes:
[1]可能会有所变化。[1] Subject to change.

区域支持Regional support

创建新容量时,全局管理员和 Power BI 服务管理员可以指定一个区域供分配给容量的工作区驻留。When creating a new capacity, Global administrators and Power BI service administrators can specify a region where workspaces assigned to the capacity will reside. 这称为 多地理位置This is known as Multi-Geo . 借助多地理位置,组织可以通过将内容部署到特定区域中的数据中心来满足数据驻留要求,即使它与 Microsoft 365 订阅所在的区域不同。With Multi-Geo, organizations can meet data residency requirements by deploying content to datacenters in a specific region, even if it's different than the region in which the Microsoft 365 Subscription resides. 若要了解详细信息,请参阅 Power BI Premium 的多地理位置支持To learn more, see Multi-Geo support for Power BI Premium.

容量管理Capacity management

管理 Premium 容量涉及创建或删除容量、分配管理员、分配工作区、配置工作负载、监视,以及进行调整来优化容量性能。Managing Premium capacities involves creating or deleting capacities, assigning admins, assigning workspaces, configuring workloads, monitoring, and making adjustments to optimize capacity performance.

全局管理员和 Power BI 服务管理员可以从可用的 V 核心创建 Premium 容量,或修改现有的 Premium 容量。Global administrators and Power BI service administrators can create Premium capacities from available v-cores, or modify existing Premium capacities. 创建容量时会指定容量大小和地理区域,并分配至少一个容量管理员。When a capacity is created, capacity size and geographic region are specified, and at least one capacity admin is assigned.

创建容量后,大多数管理任务都在管理门户中完成。When capacities are created, most administrative tasks are completed in the Admin portal.

屏幕截图显示选中了“我的工作区”的 Power BI 管理门户。

容量管理员可以将工作区分配给容量、管理用户权限以及分配其他管理员。Capacity admins can assign workspaces to the capacity, manage user permissions, and assign other admins. 容量管理员还可以配置工作负载、调整内存分配,并在必要时重启容量,以及在容量过载的情况下重置操作。Capacity admins can also configure workloads, adjusting memory allocations, and if necessary, restart a capacity, resetting operations in a capacity becomes overloaded.

屏幕截图显示 Power BI 管理门户中的容量管理。

容量管理员还可以确保容量平稳运行。Capacity admins can also make sure a capacity is running smoothly. 他们可直接在管理门户中或通过使用 Premium 容量指标应用监视容量运行状况。They can monitor capacity health right in the Admin portal or by using the Premium capacity metrics app.

若要了解有关创建容量、分配管理员和分配工作区的详细信息,请参阅管理 Premium 容量To learn more about creating capacities, assigning admins, and assigning workspaces, see Managing Premium capacities. 若要了解有关角色的详细信息,请参阅与 Power BI 相关的管理员角色To learn more about roles, see Administrator roles related to Power BI.


监视 Premium 容量可使管理员了解容量的表现。Monitoring Premium capacities provides administrators with an understanding of how capacities are performing. 可使用管理门户和 Power BI Premium 容量指标应用来监视容量。Capacities can be monitored by using the Admin portal and the Power BI Premium Capacity Metrics app.

门户中的监视功能提供快速视图,其中包含指示已放置的负载以及过去七天内容量平均使用的资源量的高级指标。Monitoring in the portal provides a quick view with high-level metrics indicating loads placed and the resources utilized by your capacity, averaged, over the past seven days.

屏幕截图显示 Power BI 管理门户中的容量运行状况。

Power BI Premium 容量指标 应用提供有关容量表现的深度信息。The Power BI Premium Capacity Metrics app provides the most in-depth information into how your capacities are performing. 该应用提供高级仪表板和更加详细的报表。The app provides a high-level dashboard and more detailed reports.


在应用的仪表板中,可单击指标单元格来打开深度报表。From the app's dashboard, you can click a metric cell to open an in-depth report. 报表提供深度指标和筛选功能,可用于深入了解保持容量平稳运行所需的最重要信息。Reports provide in-depth metrics and filtering capability to drill-down on the most important information you need to keep your capacities running smoothly.

查询等待时间计数的周期性峰值指示潜在的 CPU 饱和度问题

若要了解有关监视容量的详细信息,请参阅 Power BI 管理门户中的监视使用 Power BI Premium 容量指标应用进行监视To learn more about monitoring capacities, see Monitoring in the Power BI Admin portal and Monitoring with the Power BI Premium Capacity Metrics app.

优化容量Optimizing capacities

充分利用你的容量对于确保用户获得良好性能以及让你的 Premium 投资实现最大价值而言至关重要。Making the best use of your capacities is critical to assuring users get the performance and you're getting the most value for your Premium investment. 通过监视关键指标,管理员可以确定如何最好地解决瓶颈问题以及采取必要的措施。By monitoring key metrics, administrators can determine how best to troubleshoot bottlenecks and take necessary action. 若要了解详细信息,请参阅优化 Premium 容量Premium 容量方案To learn more, see Optimizing Premium capacities and Premium capacity scenarios.

容量 REST APICapacities REST APIs

Power BI REST API 包含容量 API 的集合。The Power BI REST APIs include a collection of Capacities APIs. 通过这些 API,管理员能够以编程方式管理 Premium 容量的许多方面,包括启用和禁用工作负载、将工作区分配给容量等等。With the APIs, admins can programmatically manage many aspects of your Premium capacities, including enabling and disabling workloads, assigning workspaces to a capacity, and more.

大型数据集Large datasets

Power BI Premium 支持上传 Power BI Desktop (.pbix) 模型文件,最大大小为 10 GB ,具体取决于 SKU。Depending on the SKU, Power BI Premium supports uploading Power BI Desktop (.pbix) model files up to a maximum of 10 GB in size. 加载模型后,可将其发布到分配给 Premium 容量的工作区。When loaded, the model can then be published to a workspace assigned to a Premium capacity. 随后可将数据集刷新至最大 12 GB 的大小。The dataset can then be refreshed to up to 12 GB in size.

大小注意事项Size considerations

大型数据集可能为资源密集型。Large datasets can be resource-intensive. 对于任何大于 1 GB 的数据集,应至少使用 P1 或 A4 SKU。You should have at least a P1 or an A4 SKU for any datasets larger than 1 GB. 虽然将大型数据集发布到 A SKU(最高 A3)支持的工作区可能有用,但刷新它们将不起作用。Although publishing large datasets to workspaces backed by A SKUs up to A3 could work, refreshing them will not.

下表显示了用于将 .pbix 文件上传或发布到 Power BI 服务的建议 SKU:The following table shows the recommended SKUs for .pbix file upload or publish to the Power BI service:

SKUSKU .Pbix 大小Size of .pbix
P1/A4P1/A4 < 3 GB< 3 GB
P2/A5P2/A5 < 6 GB< 6 GB
P3/A6、P4、P5P3/A6, P4, P5 最多 10 GBup to 10 GB

Power BI Embedded A4 SKU 等同于 P1 SKU、A5 = P2 和 A6 = P3。The Power BI Embedded A4 SKU is equal to the P1 SKU, A5 = P2 and A6 = P3.

如果在数据集上启用大型模型,则 .pbix 文件大小限制仍适用于文件上传或发布。If you enable large models on a data set, the .pbix file size limitations still apply to file upload or publish. 但是,在结合了增量刷新和大型模型的情况下,数据集的增长可能会远远超出这些限制。However, with incremental refresh and large models combined, datasets can grow much larger than these limits. 对于大型模型,数据集大小仅受 Power BI Premium 容量大小的限制。With large models, the dataset size is limited only by the Power BI Premium capacity size.

.pbix 文件表示处于 高度压缩状态 的数据。Your .pbix files represent data in a highly compressed state . 数据在加载到内存中时可能会扩展,并且在数据刷新期间可能会在内存中扩展数倍。The data will likely expand when loaded in memory, and from there it may expand several more times during data refresh.

大型数据集的计划刷新可能需要很长时间,并且会占用大量资源。Scheduled refresh of large datasets can take a long time and be resource-intensive. 请务必不要安排太多的重叠刷新。It's important to not schedule too many overlapping refreshes. 建议配置增量刷新,因为它更快速、更可靠且使用的资源更少。It's recommended incremental refresh is configured, because it's faster, more reliable, and consumes fewer resources.

如果自上次使用数据集以来已经过去一段时间,则大型数据集的初始报表加载可能需要很长时间。The initial report load of large datasets can take a long time if it has been a while since the last time the dataset was used. 需要较长时间加载的报表的加载条可显示加载进度。A loading bar for longer-loading reports displays the load progress.

尽管 Premium 容量中的每个查询内存和时间约束要高得多,但建议使用筛选器和切片器来将视觉对象限制为仅显示必要的内容。While the per-query memory and time constraints are much higher in Premium capacity, it's recommended you use filters and slicers to limit visuals to display only what is necessary.

增量刷新Incremental refresh

增量刷新是在 Power BI Premium 和 Power BI Pro 中拥有和维护大型数据集不可或缺的部分。Incremental refresh provides an integral part of having and maintaining large datasets in Power BI Premium and Power BI Pro. 增量刷新拥有许多优势,例如,刷新速度更快,因为只需刷新已更改的数据。Incremental refresh has many benefits, for example, Refreshes are faster because only data that has changed needs to be refreshed. 刷新更可靠,因为不需要维护与不稳定的数据源的长期连接。Refreshes are more reliable because it's unnecessary to maintain long-running connections to volatile data sources. 资源消耗降低,因为要刷新的数据量减少,这降低了内存和其他资源的整体消耗。Resource consumption is reduced because less data to refresh reduces overall consumption of memory and other resources. 增量刷新策略在 Power BI Desktop 中进行定义,并在发布到 Premium 容量中的工作区时应用。Incremental refresh policies are defined in Power BI Desktop , and applied when published to a workspace in a Premium capacity.


若要了解详细信息,请参阅 Power BI Premium 中的增量刷新To learn more, see Incremental refresh in Power BI Premium.

分页报表Paginated reports

P1-P3 和 A4_A6 SKU 支持的分页报表基于 SQL Server Reporting Services 中的报表定义语言 (RDL) 技术。Paginated reports, supported on P1-P3 and A4_A6 SKUs, are based on Report Definition Language (RDL) technology in SQL Server Reporting Services. 虽然基于 RDL 技术,但它与 Power BI 报表服务器不同,后者是可下载的报表平台并可在本地安装,其也包含在 Power BI Premium 中。While based on RDL technology, it's not the same as Power BI Report Server, which is a downloadable reporting platform you can install on-premises, also included with Power BI Premium. 分页报表的格式设置为适应可以打印或共享的页面。Paginated reports are formatted to fit well on a page that can be printed or shared. 即使表格跨多个页,数据也能在表格中显示。Data is displayed in a table, even if the table spans multiple pages. 通过使用免费的 Power BI 报表生成器 Windows 桌面应用程序,用户可以创建分页报表并将其发布到服务中。By using the free Power BI Report Builder Windows Desktop application, users author paginated reports and publish them to the service.

在 Power BI Premium 中,分页报表是必须使用管理门户为容量启用的工作负载。In Power BI Premium, Paginated reports are a workload that must be enabled for a capacity by using the Admin portal. 容量管理员可以启用内存,然后以容量内存资源总量百分比的形式指定内存量。Capacity admins can enable and then specify the amount of memory as a percentage of the capacity's overall memory resources. 与其他类型的工作负载不同,Premium 在容量范所含的空间中运行分页报表。Unlike other types of workloads, Premium runs paginated reports in a contained space within the capacity. 无论工作负载是否处于活动状态,系统都将使用为此空间指定的最大内存。The maximum memory specified for this space is used whether or not the workload is active. 默认值为 20%。The default is 20%.

若要了解详细信息,请参阅 Power BI Premium 中的分页报表To learn more, see Paginated reports in Power BI Premium. 若要了解有关启用分页报表工作负载的详细信息,请参阅配置工作负载To learn more about enabling the Paginated reports workload, see Configure workloads.

Power BI 报表服务器Power BI Report Server

Power BI Premium 随附 Power BI 报表服务器,后者是带有 Web 门户的本地报表服务器。Included with Power BI Premium, Power BI Report Server is an on-premises report server with a web portal. 可以在本地生成 BI 环境,并在组织的防火墙后面分发报表。You can build your BI environment on-premises and distribute reports behind your organization's firewall. 报表服务器使用户可以访问 SQL Server Reporting Services 丰富的交互式功能以及企业报告功能。Report Server gives users access to rich, interactive, and enterprise reporting capabilities of SQL Server Reporting Services. 用户可以浏览可视化数据并快速发现模式,以便更快地作出更好的决策。Users can explore visual data and quickly discover patterns to make better, faster decisions. 报表服务器按照你自己的方式提供治理。Report Server provides governance on your own terms. 如果时机成熟,Power BI 报表服务器会使其能够轻松迁移到云中,此时,组织可以充分利用所有 Power BI Premium 功能。If and when the time comes, Power BI Report Server makes it easy to migrate to the cloud, where your organization can take full advantage of all Power BI Premium functionality.

若要了解详细信息,请参阅 Power BI 报表服务器To learn more, see Power BI Report Server.

无限内容共享Unlimited content sharing

借助 Premium,每个人(无论是在组织内外)都可以查看 Power BI 内容(包括分页和交互式报表),而无需购买单独的许可证。With Premium, anyone, whether they're inside or outside your organization can view your Power BI content including paginated and interactive reports without purchasing individual licenses.


Premium 允许 Pro 用户广泛分发内容,且不要求查看内容的收件人提供 Pro 许可证。Premium enables widespread distribution of content by Pro users without requiring Pro licenses for recipients who view the content. 内容创建者需要提供 Pro 许可证。Pro licenses are required for content creators. 创建者连接到数据源、模型数据,并创建打包为工作区应用的报表和仪表板。Creators connect to data sources, model data, and create reports and dashboards that are packaged as workspace apps. 如果用户拥有“查看者”角色,即使没有 Pro 许可证仍可访问 Power BI Premium 容量的工作区。User without a Pro license can still access a workspace that's in Power BI Premium capacity, as long as they have a Viewer role.

若要了解详细信息,请参阅 Power BI 许可To learn more, see Power BI licensing.

Power BI Premium 中的 Analysis Services(预览)Analysis Services in Power BI Premium (Preview)

在后台,久经企业考验的 Microsoft Analysis Services Vertipaq 引擎为 Power BI Premium 工作区和数据集提供技术支持。Under the hood, the enterprise proven Microsoft Analysis Services Vertipaq engine powers Power BI Premium workspaces and datasets. Analysis Services 通过支持开放标准 XMLA 协议的客户端库和 API 提供可编程性以及客户端应用程序和工具支持。Analysis Services provides programmability and client application and tool support through client libraries and APIs that support the open-standard XMLA protocol. 默认情况下,Power BI Premium 容量数据集工作负荷支持 Microsoft 和第三方客户端应用程序和工具通过 XMLA 终结点执行只读操作。By default, Power BI Premium capacity dataset workloads support read-only operations from Microsoft and third-party client applications and tools through an XMLA endpoint . 容量管理员还可以选择禁用或允许通过终结点执行读/写操作。Capacity admins can also choose to disable or allow read/write operations through the endpoint.

借助只读权限,SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) 和 SQL Server Profiler 等 Microsoft 工具以及 DAX Studio 和数据可视化应用程序等第三方应用程序可以使用 XMLA、DAX、MDX、DMV 和跟踪事件连接到并查询 Premium 数据集。With read-only access, Microsoft tools like SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) and SQL Server Profiler, and third-party apps such as DAX Studio and data visualization applications, can connect to and query Premium datasets by using XMLA, DAX, MDX, DMVs, and Trace events. 借助读/写权限,企业数据建模工具(如包含 Analysis Services 项目扩展的 Visual Studio 或开放源代码表格编辑器)可以将表格模型作为数据集部署到 Premium 工作区。With read/write access, enterprise data modeling tools like Visual Studio with Analysis Services projects extension or the open source Tabular Editor can deploy tabular models as a dataset to a Premium workspace. 借助 SSMS 等工具,管理员可以使用表格模型脚本语言 (TMSL),为元数据更改和高级数据刷新方案编写脚本。And with tools like SSMS, admins can use Tabular Model Scripting Language (TMSL) to script metadata changes and advanced data refresh scenarios.

若要了解详情,请参阅使用 XMLA 终结点的数据集连接To learn more, see Dataset connectivity with the XMLA endpoint.


后续步骤Next steps

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