Power BI 报表服务器中 Power BI 报表计划的刷新Power BI report scheduled refresh in Power BI Report Server

通过对 Power BI 报表设置计划的刷新,可使报表数据保持最新状态。Scheduled refresh for Power BI reports allows the data for a report to stay up to date.

Power BI 报表服务器中的计划的刷新

计划的刷新特定于含嵌入模型的 Power BI 报表。Scheduled refresh is specific to Power BI reports with an embedded model. 这意味着,你会将数据导入报表,而不使用实时连接或 DirectQuery。Meaning you imported data into the report instead of using a live connection or DirectQuery. 在导入你的数据时,它从原始数据源断开连接并且需要更新以使数据保持最新。When importing your data, it is disconnected from the original data source and needs to be updated to keep data fresh. 计划的刷新是让数据保持最新的方法。Scheduled refresh is the way to keep your data up to date.

在报表的管理部分配置计划的刷新。Scheduled refresh is configured within the management section of a report. 有关如何配置计划的刷新的更多信息,请参阅如何配置 Power BI 报表计划的刷新For more information on how to configure scheduled refresh, see How to configure Power BI report scheduled refresh.

工作原理How this works

为 Power BI 报表中使用计划的刷新时涉及多个组件。Several components are involved when using scheduled refresh for your Power BI reports.

  • SQL Server 代理作为计时器用于生成计划的事件。SQL Server Agent as a timer to generate scheduled events.
  • 将计划的作业添加到报表服务器数据库中的事件和通知队列。Scheduled jobs are added to a queue of events and notifications in the report server database. 在横向扩展部署中,队列将跨部署中的所有报表服务器进行共享。In a scale-out deployment, the queue is shared across all of the report servers in the deployment.
  • 由于计划的事件而发生的所有报表处理均以后台进程执行。All report processing that occurs as a result of a schedule event is performed as a background process.
  • 在 Analysis Services 实例中加载数据模型。The data model is loaded within an Analysis Services instance.
  • 对于某些数据源,Power Query 混合引擎用于连接数据源并转换数据。For some data sources, the Power Query mashup engine is used to connect to data sources and transform the data. 可直接从用于托管 Power BI 报表服务器的数据模型的 Analysis Services 服务连接其他数据源。Other data sources may be connected to directly from an Analysis Services service used to host the data models for Power BI Report Server.
  • 新的数据被加载到 Analysis Services 中的数据模型。New data is loaded into the data model within Analysis Services.
  • Analysis Services 处理数据并执行任何所需的计算。Analysis Services processes the data and executes any needed calculations.

Power BI 报表服务器为所有计划的操作维护事件队列。Power BI Report Server maintains an event queue for all scheduled operations. 它会每隔一定时间轮询队列以检查新的事件。It polls the queue at regular intervals to check for new events. 默认情况下,以 10 秒的时间间隔扫描队列。By default, the queue is scanned at 10 second intervals. 你可以通过修改 RSReportServer.config 文件中的“PollingInterval”、“IsNotificationService”和“IsEventService”配置设置来更改时间间隔。You can change the interval by modifying the PollingInterval, IsNotificationService, and IsEventService configuration settings in the RSReportServer.config file. “IsDataModelRefreshService”还可用于设置报表服务器是否处理计划的事件。IsDataModelRefreshService can also be used to set whether a report server process scheduled events.

Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services

呈现 Power BI 报表和执行计划的刷新需要在 Analysis Services 中加载 Power BI 报表的数据模型。Rendering a Power BI report, as well as performing a scheduled refresh, requires loading the Power BI report's data model in Analysis Services. Analysis Services 进程将与 Power BI 报表服务器一起运行。An Analysis Services process will be running with Power BI Report Server.

注意事项和限制Considerations and limitations

无法使用计划的刷新时When scheduled refresh can't be used

并非所有 Power BI 报表都具有在其上创建的计划刷新计划。Not all Power BI Reports can have a scheduled refresh plan created on them. 下面是无法在其上创建计划刷新计划的 Power BI 报表列表。The following is a list of Power BI Reports that you Can't create a scheduled refresh plan.

  • 报表包含一个或多个使用实时连接 Analysis Services 数据源。Your report contains one or more Analysis Services data sources, which use a live connection.
  • 报表包含一个或多个使用 DirectQuery 的数据源。Your report contains one or more data sources, which use DirectQuery.
  • 报表不包含任何数据源。Your report does not contain any data source. 例如,通过“输入数据”手动输入数据,或报表仅包含静态内容,如图像、文本等。For example, data is manually entered via Enter Data or a report contains only static content like images, text, etc.

除了上述列表,在“导入”模式下,还有一些含数据源的特定场景,你不能为其创建刷新计划。In addition to the above list, there are specific scenarios with data sources in import mode, for which you cannot created refresh plans.

  • 如果使用的是“文件”或“文件夹”数据源且文件路径是本地路径(例如 C:\Users\user\Documents),则无法创建刷新计划。If a File or Folder data source is used and the file path is a local path (e.g. C:\Users\user\Documents), then a refresh plan cannot be created. 路径必须是报表服务器可以连接到网络共享之类的路径。The path must be a path the report server can connect to like a network share. 例如“\myshare\Documents”。For example, \myshare\Documents.
  • 如果只能使用 OAuth(例如 Facebook、Google Analytics、Salesforce 等)连接数据源,则无法创建缓存刷新计划。If data source can be connected using only OAuth (e.g. Facebook, Google Analytics, Salesforce, etc.), then cache refresh plan cannot be created. 目前,RS 针对任何数据源均不支持 OAuth 身份验证,无论是针对分页报表、移动报表,还是 Power BI 报表。At the moment, RS does not support OAuth authentication for any data source whether it is for paginated, mobile or Power BI reports.

内存限制Memory limits

报表服务器的传统工作负荷已类似于 Web 应用程序。Traditional workload for a report server has been similar to a web application. 能够加载具有导入数据或 DirectQuery,能够执行计划的刷新,这两种能力都依赖于与报表服务器一起托管的 Analysis Services 实例。The ability to load reports with imported data or DirectQuery, and the ability to perform scheduled refresh, rely on an Analysis Services instance being hosted alongside of the report server. 因此,这可能会导致服务器上意外的内存压力。As a result, this could result is unexpected memory pressure on the server. 在知道 Analysis Services 和报表服务器可能会占用内存的情况下,相应地规划服务器部署。Plan your server deployment accordingly knowning that Analysis Services may be consuming memory alongside the report server.

有关如何监视 Analysis Services 实例的信息,请参阅监视 Analysis Services 实例For information on how to monitor an Analysis Services instance, see Monitor an Analysis Services Instance.

有关 Analysis Services 中内存设置的信息,请参阅内存属性For information about memory settings within Analysis Services, see Memory Properties.

身份验证和 KerberosAuthentication and Kerberos

如果你的数据源被设置为使用 Windows 凭据,则可能需要配置 Kerberos 约束委派以正常工作。If your data source is set to use Windows credentials, Kerberos constrained delegation may need to be configured in order to work. 有关详细信息,请参阅在报表服务器上配置 Windows 身份验证For more information, see Configure Windows authentication on the report server.

后续步骤Next steps

在 Power BI 报表上配置计划的刷新Configure scheduled refresh on a Power BI report.

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