Power BI - Power BI 服务的基本概念Power BI - basic concepts for Power BI service

本文假设你已注册 Power BI 服务,且已添加了一些数据This article assumes that you've already signed up for Power BI service and added some data.

打开 Power BI 服务后,将看到显示一个仪表板When you open the Power BI service, you'll see a dashboard displayed. 仪表板可以区分 Power BI 服务和 Power BI Desktop。Dashboards are something that differentiates Power BI service from Power BI Desktop.

Power BI 服务 UI 的主要功能如下:The main features of your Power BI service UI are the following:

  1. 左侧导航窗格navigation pane (left nav)
  2. 画布(在本例中为包含磁贴的仪表板)canvas (in this case, dashboard with tiles)
  3. 问题解答问题框Q&A question box
  4. 图标按钮(包括帮助和反馈)icon buttons, including help and feedback
  5. 仪表板标题(导航路径,也称为痕迹导航)dashboard title (navigation path, aka breadcrumbs)
  6. Office 365 应用程序启动程序Office 365 app launcher
  7. Power BI 主页按钮Power BI home button
  8. 带标签的图标按钮Labeled icon buttons

我们稍后将深入了解这些操作,不过首先让我们了解一些 Power BI 概念。We'll dig into these later, but first let's review some Power BI concepts.

或者,你可能想要在阅读本文的剩余部分前先观看该视频。Or, you might want to watch this video first before reading the rest of this article. 在视频中,Will 回顾基本概念并提供 Power BI 服务的教程。In the video, Will reviews the basic concepts and gives a tour of Power BI service.

Power BI 概念Power BI concepts

Power BI 的 4 个主要构建基块包括:仪表板、报表和工作簿和数据集。The 4 major building blocks of Power BI are: dashboards, reports, workbooks, and datasets. 这些基块一起组织成工作区。And they're all organized into workspaces. 在深入了解 4 个构建基块之前,我们必须先了解工作区。It's important to understand workspaces before we dig into the 4 building blocks, so let's start there.

工作区Workspaces

工作区是 Power BI 中仪表板、报表、工作簿和数据集的容器。Workspaces are containers for dashboards, reports, workbooks, and datasets in Power BI. 有两种类型的工作区:*“我的工作区”和应用工作区。There are two types of workspaces: *My workspace and app workspaces. 什么是应用?So what is an app? Power BI 应用是仪表板和报表的集合,生成应用的目的是为组织提供关键指标。A Power BI app is a collection of dashboards and reports built to deliver key metrics for your organization. 应用是交互性的,但不可编辑Apps are interactive but can't be edited

  • “我的工作区”是个人工作区,任何 Power BI 客户在其中处理其内容。My workspace is the personal workspace for any Power BI customer to work with their content. 只有你自己才有权访问你的工作区。Only you have access to your My workspace. 如果你想要共享任何内容,可以采用多种做法:创建一个应用工作区并在其中将内容捆绑到某个应用,然后向组织中的其他人提供此内容;或者创建一个应用工作区,并向同事授予对该工作区的访问权限,以便你们可以共享内容和展开协作。If you want to share any of your content, you have several choices: create an app workspace where you bundle content into an app and make it available to others in your organization, or create an app workspace and give colleagues access to that workspace so you can share and collaborate.
  • 应用工作区用于与同事展开协作和共享内容。App workspaces are used to collaborate and share content with colleagues. 也可以在其中为组织创建、发布和管理应用。They are also the places where you create, publish, and manage apps for your organization. 可将应用工作区视为构成 Power BI 应用的内容的暂存区域和容器。Think of them as staging areas and containers for the content that will make up a Power BI app. 可将同事添加到应用工作区,然后在仪表板、报表、工作簿和数据集方面进行协作。You can add colleagues to your app workspaces and collaborate on dashboards, reports, workbooks, and datasets. 所有应用工作区成员需要 Power BI Pro 许可证,但应用使用者(有权访问应用的同事)不一定需要 Pro 许可证。All app workspace members need Power BI Pro licenses, but app consumers (the colleagues who have access to the apps) don't necessarily need Pro licenses.

若要了解详细信息,请参阅“目录”中的共享工作部分,并从如何展开协作和共享仪表板与报表开始To learn more, see the Share your work section of the Table of contents, starting with How should I collaborate and share dashboards and reports

现在,让我们继续了解 Power BI 构建基块。Now on to the Power BI building blocks. 仪表板或报表不能没有数据(嗯,你可以有空仪表板和空报表,但是必须具有数据,它们才会有用),因此,让我们先来了解一下数据集吧。You can't have dashboards or reports without data (well, you can have empty dashboards and empty reports, but they're not very useful until they have data), so let's start with datasets.

数据集Datasets

数据集是导入或连接到的数据集合。A dataset is a collection of data that you import or connect to. 通过 Power BI,你可以连接到并导入各种类型的数据集并将它们组合在一起。Power BI lets you connect to and import all sorts of datasets and bring all of it together in one place.

数据集与工作区相关联,单个数据集可以包含在多个工作区中。Datasets are associated with workspaces and a single dataset can be part of many workspaces. 打开某个工作区时,关联的数据集会列在“数据集”选项卡下面。每个列出的数据集表示一个数据源,例如,OneDrive 上的 Excel 工作簿,或本地 SSAS 表格数据集或 Salesforce 数据集。When you open a workspace, the associated datasets are listed under the Datasets tab. Each listed dataset represents a single source of data, for example, an Excel workbook on OneDrive, or an on-premises SSAS tabular dataset, or a Salesforce dataset. 支持许多不同的数据源,并且我们一直在添加新的数据源。There are many different data sources supported, and we’re adding new ones all the time. 请参阅可与 Power BI 一起使用的数据集类型列表See the list of dataset types that can be used with Power BI.

在下面的示例中,我已选择“销售和市场营销”应用工作区,并单击了“数据集”选项卡。In the example below, I've selected the "Sales and marketing" app workspace and clicked the tab for Datasets.

一个数据集...ONE dataset...

  • 可在一个或多个工作区中反复使用。can be used over and over in one or in many workspaces.
  • 可以用于许多不同的报表。can be used in many different reports.
  • 可以在许多不同的仪表板上显示该数据集的可视化对象。Visualizations from that one dataset can display on many different dashboards.

若要连接或导入数据集,请选择“获取数据”(左侧导航栏底部),或者选择“+ 创建”>“数据集”(右上角)。To connect to or import a dataset, select Get Data (at the bottom of the left navigation) or select + Create > Dataset (in the upper right corner). 按照说明连接到或导入特定的源,并将该数据集添加到活动的工作区。Follow the instructions to connect to or import the specific source and add the dataset to the active workspace. 新的数据集项目带有黄色星号标记。New datasets are marked with a yellow asterisk. 你在 Power BI 中所做的工作不会更改基础数据集。The work you do in Power BI does not change the underlying dataset.

如果你是应用工作区的一部分,一个工作区成员添加的数据集也可供其他工作区成员使用。If you're part of an app workspace, datasets added by one workspace member are available to the other workspace members.

可以刷新、重命名、浏览和删除数据集。Datasets can be refreshed, renamed, explored, and removed. 使用数据集从头开始创建报表,或运行快速见解创建报表。Use a dataset to create a report from scratch or by running quick insights. 若要查看哪些报表和仪表板已使用数据集,请选择“查看相关项”。To see which reports and dashboards are already using a dataset, select View related. 若要浏览数据集,请选择数据集。To explore a dataset, select it. 你实际执行的操作是在报表编辑器中打开数据集,在报表编辑器中,你可以真正开始深入了解数据并创建可视化对象。What you're actually doing is opening the dataset in the report editor where you can really start digging into the data and creating visualizations. 那么,我们进入下一个主题 -- 报表。So, let's move on to the next topic -- reports.

深入了解Dig deeper

报表Reports

Power BI 报表是一页或多页可视化效果(折线图、饼图、树状图等图表和图形)。A Power BI report is one or more pages of visualizations (charts and graphs like line charts, pie charts, treemaps, and many many more). 可视化效果也称为视觉对象。Visualizations are also called visuals. 报表中所有可视化对象来自单个数据集。All of the visualizations in a report come from a single dataset. 可以在 Power BI 中从头开始创建报表,可以使用同事与你共享的仪表板导入报表,也可以在从 Excel、Power BI Desktop、数据库、SaaS 应用程序和应用连接到数据集时创建报表。Reports can be created from scratch within Power BI, can be imported with dashboards that colleagues share with you, or can be created when you connect to datasets from Excel, Power BI Desktop, databases, SaaS applications and apps. 例如,当你连接到包含 Power View 表的 Excel 工作簿时,Power BI 将基于这些表创建报表。For example, when you connect to an Excel workbook that contains Power View sheets, Power BI creates a report based on those sheets. 当连接到 SaaS 应用程序时,Power BI 将导入预先构建的报表。And when you connect to an SaaS application, Power BI imports a pre-built report.

有两种模式可用来查看报表并与之交互:阅读视图和编辑视图There are 2 modes to view and interact with reports: Reading view and Editing view. 只有创建报表的人员、共同所有者以及被授权的那些人员有权访问该报表编辑视图的所有浏览、设计、构建和共享功能。Only the person who created the report, co-owners, and those granted permission, have access to all of the exploring, designing, building, and sharing capabilities of Editing View for that report. 他们共享报表的对象可以使用阅读视图了解报表并与之进行交互。And the people they share the report with can explore and interact with the report using Reading View.

打开某个工作区时,关联的报表会列在“报表”选项卡下面。每个列出的报表代表只基于其中一个基础数据集的一页或多页可视化对象。When you open a workspace, the associated reports are listed under the Reports tab. Each listed report represents one or more pages of visualizations based on only one of the underlying datasets. 若要打开报表,只需选择报表即可。To open a report, simply select it.

打开某个应用时,会同时显示一个仪表板。When you open an app, you'll be presented with a dashboard. 若要访问基础报表,请选择从报表固定的仪表板磁贴(稍后将详细介绍)。To access an underlying report, select a dashboard tile (more on these later) that was pinned from a report. 请记住,并非所有磁贴都是从报表固定的,因此,可能需要单击几个磁贴才能找到所需的报表。Keep in mind that not all tiles are pinned from reports, so you may have to click a few tiles to find a report.

默认情况下,报表将在“阅读”视图中打开。By default, the report opens in Reading view. 只需选择“编辑报表”即可将其在编辑视图下打开(如果有所需的权限)。Just select Edit report to open it in Editing view (if you have the necessary permissions).

在下面的示例中,我已选择“销售和市场营销”应用工作区,并单击了“报表”选项卡。In the example below, I've selected the "Sales and marketing" app workspace and clicked the tab for Reports.

一个报表...ONE report...

  • 包含在单个工作区中is contained in a single workspace
  • 可与该工作区中的多个仪表板关联(从该报表固定的磁贴可以显示在多个仪表板上)。can be associated with multiple dashboards within that workspace (tiles pinned from that one report can appear on multiple dashboards).
  • 可以使用来自一个数据集的数据进行创建。can be created using data from one dataset. (一个小例外是 Power BI Desktop 可以将多个数据集组合到一个报表中,该报表可以导入到 Power BI)(the slight exception to this is that Power BI Desktop can combine more than 1 dataset into a single report and that report can be imported into Power BI)

深入了解Dig deeper

仪表板Dashboards

可以在 Power BI 服务中创建仪表板,或者由同事在 Power BI 服务中创建仪表板并与你共享。A dashboard is something you create in Power BI service or something a colleague creates in Power BI service and shares with you. 它是一个画布,其中包含零个或多个磁贴和小组件。It is a single canvas that contains zero or more tiles and widgets. 从报表或问答固定的每个磁贴显示通过数据集创建并固定到仪表板的单个可视化对象Each tile pinned from a report or from Q&A displays a single visualization that was created from a dataset and pinned to the dashboard. 可将整个报表页作为单个磁贴固定到仪表板。Entire report pages can also be pinned to a dashboard as a single tile. 有多种方法可将磁贴添加到仪表板中,本概述主题中将会介绍很多。There are many ways to add tiles to your dashboard; too many to be covered in this overview topic. 若要了解详细信息,请参阅 Power BI 中的仪表板磁贴To learn more, see Dashboard tiles in Power BI.

人们为什么创建仪表板?Why do people create dashboards? 下面只是其中一些原因:Here are just some of the reasons:

  • 为了快速查看做出决策所需的所有信息to see, in one glance, all the information needed to make decisions
  • 为了监视有关业务的最重要信息to monitor the most-important information about your business
  • 为了确保同一页面上的所有同事均查看和使用相同的信息to ensure all colleagues are on the same page, viewing and using the same information
  • 为了监视业务、产品、业务部门或市场营销活动的运行状况。to monitor the health of a business or product or business unit or marketing campaign, etc.
  • 为了创建更大仪表板的个性化视图(所有指标都很重要)to create a personalized view of a larger dashboard -- all the metrics that matter to you

打开某个工作区时,关联的仪表板会列在“仪表板”选项卡下面。选择某个仪表板即可将它打开。When you open a workspace, the associated dashboards are listed under the Dashboards tab. To open a dashboard, simply select it. 打开某个应用时,会同时显示一个仪表板。When you open an app, you'll be presented with a dashboard. 每个仪表板代表一个自定义视图,其中包含基础数据集的某个子集。Each dashboard represents a customized view of some subset of the underlying dataset(s). 如果你拥有该仪表板,则还对基础数据集和报表拥有编辑访问权限。If you own the dashboard, you'll also have edit access to the underlying dataset(s) and reports. 如果仪表板是共享的,则可与仪表板和任何基础报表交互,但无法保存任何更改。If the dashboard was shared with you, you'll be able to interact with the dashboard and any underlying reports, but will not be able to save any changes.

你或者同事可以通过多种不同的方式共享仪表板There are many different ways that you, or a colleague, can share a dashboar. 共享仪表板时需要 Power BI Pro,查看共享的仪表板时可能也需要它。Power BI Pro is required for sharing a dashboard and may be required for viewing a shared dashboard.

备注

“包含磁贴的仪表板”标题下更详细地介绍了固定和磁贴。Pinning and tiles are covered in more detail below under the heading "Dashboard with tiles."

一个仪表板...ONE dashboard...

  • 与单个工作区相关联is associated with a single workspace
  • 可以显示来自许多不同数据集的可视化对象can display visualizations from many different datasets
  • 可以显示来自许多不同报表的可视化对象can display visualizations from many different reports
  • 可以显示在其他工具(例如 Excel)中固定的可视化对象can display visualizations pinned from other tools (e.g., Excel)

深入了解Dig deeper

工作簿Workbooks

工作簿是特殊类型的数据集。Workbooks are a special type of dataset. 如果你已阅读前面的数据集部分,则大致已了解有关工作簿的所有信息。If you've read the Datasets section above, you know almost all you need to know about workbooks. 但你可能想要知道,为何 Power BI 有时将 Excel 工作簿分类为数据集,而有时又将它分类为工作簿But you may be wondering why sometimes Power BI classifies an Excel workbook as a Dataset and other times as a Workbook.

对 Excel 文件使用“获取数据”时,可以选择“导入”或“连接”文件。When you use Get data with Excel files, you have the option to Import or Connect to the file. 选择“连接”时,工作簿会显示在 Power BI 中,就像在 Excel Online 中那样。When you choose Connect, your workbook will appear in Power BI just like it would in Excel Online. 但与 Excel Online 不同,你会有一些出色的功能,可帮助你将各元素从你的工作表固定仪表板中。But, unlike Excel Online, you’ll have some great features to help you pin elements from your worksheets right to your dashboards.

不能在 Power BI 中编辑你的工作簿。You can’t edit your workbook in Power BI. 但是,如果你需要进行一些更改,你可以单击“编辑”,然后选择在 Excel Online 中编辑你的工作簿或在计算机上的 Excel 中打开工作簿。But if you need to make some changes, you can click Edit, and then choose to edit your workbook in Excel Online or open it in Excel on your computer. 你所作的任何更改都会保存到 OneDrive 上的工作簿中。Any changes you make are saved to the workbook on OneDrive.

深入了解Dig deeper

我的工作区My Workspace

前面已介绍工作区和构建基块。We've covered workspaces and building blocks. 接下来,让我们再看看 Power BI 的界面,并了解构成 Power BI 服务登陆页面的各个部分。Let's take another look at the Power BI interface and review the pieces that make up the landing page for Power BI service.

1.导航窗格(左侧)1. Navigation pane (left nav)

使用导航窗格可在工作区与 Power BI 构建基块(仪表板、报表、工作簿和数据集)之间定位和切换。Use the navigation pane to locate and move between your workspaces and the Power BI building blocks: dashboards, reports, workbooks, and datasets.

  • 选择“获取数据”,以将数据集、报表和仪表板添加到 Power BISelect Get Data to add datasets, reports, and dashboards to Power BI.
  • 使用此图标 展开和折叠导航栏。Expand and collapse the navbar with this icon .
  • 选择“收藏夹”可以打开或管理收藏的内容。Open or manage your favorite content by selecting Favorites.
  • 选择“最近”可以查看和打开最近访问的内容。View and open your most-recently visited content by selecting Recent
  • 选择“应用”可以查看、打开或删除某个应用。View, open, or delete an app by selecting Apps.
  • 同事是否与你共享了内容?Did a colleague share content with you? 选择“与我共享”可以搜索和排序内容,以找到所需的内容。Select Shared with me to search and sort that content to find what you need.
  • 选择“工作区”可以显示和打开工作区。Display and open your workspaces by selectig Workspaces.

单击Single-click

  • 某个图标或标题可在内容视图中打开内容an icon or heading to open in content view
  • 向右箭头 (>) 可以打开“收藏夹”、“最近”和“工作区”的浮出菜单。an arrowright (>) to open a flyout menu for Favorites, Recent, and Workspaces.
  • V 形图标 () 可以显示包含仪表板、报表、工作簿和数据集的“我的工作区”滚动列表。a chevron icon () to display the My Workspace scrollable list of dashboards, reports, workbooks, and datasets.
  • 数据集可浏览数据集a dataset to explore it

2.画布2. Canvas

由于我们打开了一个仪表板,画布区域中显示了可视化对象磁贴。Because we've opened a dashboard, the canvas area displays visualization tiles. 例如,如果我们已打开报表编辑器,则画布区域会显示报表页。If, for example, we had opened the report editor, the canvas area would display a report page.

仪表板由磁贴组成。Dashboards are composed of tiles. 磁贴在报表编辑视图、问答和其他仪表板中创建,并且可从 Excel、SSRS 等应用中进行固定。Tiles are created in report Editing view, Q&A, other dashboards, and can be pinned from Excel, SSRS, and more. 称为小组件的特殊类型的磁贴将直接添加到仪表板中。A special type of tile called a widget is added directly onto the dashboard. 显示在仪表板上的磁贴是由报表创建者/所有者专门放在仪表板上的。The tiles that appear on a dashboard were specifically put there by a report creator/owner. 向仪表板添加磁贴的操作称为固定。The act of adding a tile to a dashboard is called pinning.

Power BI 仪表板画布

有关详细信息,请参阅仪表板(上述)。For more information, see Dashboards (above).

3.问题解答问题框3. Q&A question box

浏览你数据的一种方法是提出问题并让 Power BI 问题与解答为你提供答案(采用可视化对象的形式)One way to explore your data is to ask a question and let Power BI Q&A give you an answer, in the form of a visualization. 可以使用问答将内容添加到仪表板或报表。Q&A can be used to add content to a dashboard or report.

问题与解答会在连接到仪表板的数据集中查找答案。Q&A looks for an answer in the dataset(s) connected to the dashboard. 已连接的数据集是至少有一个磁贴固定到仪表板的数据集。A connected dataset is one that has at least one tile pinned to that dashboard.

问题解答问题框

开始键入问题后,问题与解答将带你进入问题与解答页面。As soon as you start to type your question, Q&A takes you to the Q&A page. 键入时,问题与解答将帮助你询问相应的问题并通过改换、自动填充、建议以及更多功能来查找最佳答案。As you type, Q&A helps you ask the right question and find the best answer with rephrasings, autofill, suggestions, and more. 当你拥有想要的可视化对象(答案)时,将其固定到仪表板中。When you have a visualization (answer) you like, pin it to your dashboard. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Power BI 中的问题与解答For more information, see Q&A in Power BI.

4.图标按钮4. Icon buttons

右上角的图标是用于指定设置、获取通知、下载内容、帮助以及向 Power BI 团队提供反馈的资源。The icons in the upper right corner are your resource for settings, notifications, downloads, getting help, and providing feedback to the Power BI team. 选择双箭头以全屏 模式打开仪表板。Select the double arrow to open the dashboard in Full screen mode.

图标按钮

5.仪表板标题(导航路径,也称为痕迹导航)5. Dashboard title (navigation path aka breadcrumbs)

有时,我们难以判断哪个工作区和仪表板处于活动状态,为此,Power BI 将会创建导航路径。It's not always easy to figure out which workspace and dashboard are active, so Power BI creates a navigation path for you. 在本示例中,可以看到工作区(“我的工作区”)和仪表板标题(“零售分析示例”)。In this example we see the workspace (My workspace) and the dashboard title (Retail Analysis Sample). 如果我们打开了某个报表,该报表的名称将追加到导航路径的末尾。If we opened a report, the name of the report would be appended to the end of the navigation path. 路径的每个部分是活动的超链接。Each section of the path is an active hyperlink.

请注意仪表板标题后面的“C”图标。Notice the "C" icon after the dashboard title. 此仪表板包含“机密”类型的数据分类标记This dashboard has a data classification tag of "confidential." 标记确定数据的敏感度和安全级别。The tag identifies the sensitivity and security level of the data. 如果管理员已启用数据分类,则每个仪表板中都会设置一个默认标记。If your Admin has turned on data classifcation, every dashboard will have a default tag set. 仪表板所有者应根据其仪表板的适当安全性级别更改该标记。Dashboard owners should change the tag to match their dashboard's proper security level.

6.Office 365 应用启动程序6. Office 365 app launcher

使用应用启动程序,只需单击一下鼠标,就能轻松访问所有 Office 365 应用。With the app launcher, all your Office 365 apps are easily available with one click. 在应用启动程序中,可以快速启动电子邮件、文档、日历和其他应用。From here you can quickly launch your email, documents, calendar, and more.

Office 应用启动程序

7.Power BI 主页7. Power BI home

选择此项会打开特色仪表板(如果已设置),否则会打开上次查看过的仪表板。Selecting this opens your featured dashboard (if you've set one), otherwise it opens the last dashboard you viewed.

8.带标签的图标按钮8. Labeled icon buttons

此屏幕区域包含用来与内容(在本例中为仪表板)交互的其他选项。This area of the screen contains additional options for interacting with the content (in this case, with the dashboard). 除了显示的带标签图标以外,还可以选择省略号来显示用于复制、打印和刷新仪表板和其他内容的选项。Besides the labeled icons you can see, selecting the ellipses reveals options for duplicating, printing, refreshing the dashboard and more.

后续步骤Next steps

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