使用 Mover 的管理迁移指南Managed migration guide using Mover

本指南的创建旨在共享使用 Mover 迁移迁移工具来管理云到云迁移项目的流程和最佳做法。This guide was created to share the process and best practices of managing a cloud to cloud migration project using the Mover migration tool.

大多数迁移归为增量阶段。Most migrations fall into incremental phases. 经证明的迁移成功因素包括以下阶段:Proven success factors for migration include the following stages:

  • 评估和计划Assessment & Planning
  • 修正Remediating
  • 准备目标环境Preparing your destination environment
  • 迁移和Migrating, and
  • 培训你的用户Onboarding your users

备注

Mover 迁移工具是 Microsoft 拥有的迁移工具,对 Microsoft 365 订阅者完全免费。The Mover Migration tool is a Microsoft owned migration tool available at no cost to subscribers of Microsoft 365.

提示

强烈建议阅读和查看当前 Mover 文档。We highly recommend reading and reviewing the current Mover documentation. 此内容提供宝贵的知识,助你了解如何从各种云存储平台运行迁移的 Mover 工具。This content provides valuable knowledge on how to understand the Mover tool for running migrations from various cloud storage platforms. 请参阅 Mover 迁移内容See Mover migration content

评估和规划Assess & Plan

在开始迁移之前,有必要通过评估当前源环境来规划结果。Before beginning your migration, it's important you plan your outcome by doing an assessment of your current source environment. 你所了解的信息将影响你的整体策略和时间安排,包括:What you discover will influence your overall strategy and timing, including:

  • 目标环境的设计以及源系统和目标之间的映射。The design of the target environment and the mapping between source and destination.

  • 确保已预配所有 OneDrive 用户和 SharePoint 网站。Ensuring that all OneDrive users and SharePoint sites are provisioned.

  • 确定谁获取什么数据 - “大型共享数据”应转到 SharePoint Online,而用户拥有的数据大多应转到 OneDrive。Determine who gets what data – Large Shared data should go to SharePoint Online, while mostly user owned data should go to OneDrive.

  • 找到大型数据所有者的情况并做出明智的决策,以便拆分这些数据并迁移到 SharePoint 网站。Address large data owners and make informed decisions to split up this data and migrate into SharePoint sites.

  • 如果要迁移大型数据量,请确保在迁移之前已在目标中预配了足够的存储空间。If large data amounts are being migrated, make sure that you have provisioned adequate storage in the destination before migrating.

  • 迁移的内容量。The amount of content you migrate. 确定内容是否冗余、失效还是仍然相关。Determine if content is redundant, out of date, or still relevant.

  • 了解你的项目范围、近期任何限制或截止时间Understand the scope of your project, anytime restrictions, or deadlines

  • 将用户载入纳入前期规划。就迁移与造成的影响事宜尽早且经常与用户进行沟通。不要等到最后才开始为改变做准备。Build your user onboarding into your upfront planning. Communicate early and often with your users about the migration and how it will impact them. Don't wait until the very end to start preparing them for the change.

开始迁移之前,必须对当前环境进行分析。Before beginning your migration, it is important that you perform an analysis of your current environment. 只有你了解你的数据及其使用方式和对象。Only you know your data and how and who uses it.

库存扫描Inventory scan

你或你的客户可能对其源域中有多少名用户,以及他们想要迁移多少人有相对的概念。You or your customer might have a relative idea of how many users are in their source domain and how many they might want to migrate. 无论如何,请务必通过运行“库存扫描 来获取准确的用户基准计数。However, it is important to get an accurate count of the user base by running an Inventory Scan. 此扫描将告诉你域中有多少个用户,并帮助你确定谁拥有数据。This scan will let you know how many users are in the domain and help determine who owns the data. 若要了解详细信息,请参阅“通过 Mover 运行迁移库存扫描”。To learn more, see Running a migration inventory scan with Mover.

使用来自库存扫描的结果,在以下方面进行评估和修正:Using the results from your inventory scan, assess and remediate in the following areas:

扫描结果区域Scan result area 评估Assess 修正Remediate
数据所有权Data ownership 域中有多少位用户,并且谁拥有数据How many users are in the domain and who owns the data 大多数数据都会是共享数据。Most data will be shared data. 仅复制每个用户的所拥有文件夹和根文件。Only owned folders and the root files for each user is copied. 如果用户不拥有任何数据,请考虑从迁移中排除他们。If a user does not own any data, then consider excluding them from the migration. 已与其共享的内容将由数据所有者迁移,然后在迁移过程中与这些用户在“目标“中重新共享。Content that was shared with them will be migrated by the data owner then reshared to those users in the Destination during the migration process. 在迁移后,可自动重新共享内容,以便每个用户能够完全按照以前的方式访问其内容。Content can be automatically reshared after it is migrated so that each user has access to their content exactly as before.
数据分布Data distribution 查找所有超过 5 TB 或 400,000 个文件或项目的帐户。Find all accounts that exceed 5 TB or 400,000 files or items. 将这些帐户拆分为更小的服务帐户。Split these accounts into smaller service accounts. 强烈建议拥有超大型数据集的用户将数据分到更小的帐户,以便加快转移速度。We highly recommend that users with very large data sets be broken into smaller accounts to facilitate faster transfers.
文件和文件夹路径长度File and folder path length 查找所有路径超过此处所述的文件路径长度的项目:SharePoint 限制Find all items whose path exceeds the file path length described here: SharePoint limits 与你的客户合作,重新组织文件和文件夹结构,以便其不超过此限制。Work with your customer to reorganize the file and folder structure such that it does not exceed this limit. 将处理几个方案的大型驱动器拆分为多个更小且更专注的驱动器可能会在这种情况下有所帮助。Splitting large drives that serve several scenarios into multiple smaller, more focused drives may help here.
文件/数据的大小和数量Size and number of files/data 获取准确的文件和数据大小的技术。Get an accurate count of the number of files and data size. 此数字最为准确,因为它不会包含回收站中的项目或外部共享的数据。This number will be the most accurate, as it will not include items in the trash, or externally shared data. 不要依赖云提供商的报告来想象准确的数量。Do not rely on your cloud provider's reporting to give you an accurate picture. 使用此信息可更清晰地定义迁移时间线和迁移所需的时间长度。Use this information to more clearly define migration timeline and length of time required for the migration.

重要

Mover 工具仅复制源租户内用户所拥有的文件/文件夹/数据。The Mover tool only copies files/folders/data owned by users within the source tenant. 该工具不会迁移外部共享数据、电子邮件或保留在回收站中的项目。The tool does NOT migrate external shared data, email or items residing in the trash.

外部共享的数据 - 该数据的外部所有者将需要重新共享该数据。External Shared data - The external owner of that data will need to re-share that data.
电子邮件 - Mover 工具不会迁移电子邮件。Email - The Mover tool does not migrate email. 有关查找迁移电子邮件的服务的帮助,请参阅 FastTrack 迁移For help finding a service that migrates email, see FastTrack migrations
回收站 - 客户应当与其用户群沟通,告知他们无法移动回收站中的项目,并确保他们检查回收站中的项目,以及是否需要从回收站回收项目以便进行迁移。Trash - Customer should communicate to their user base that items in the trash can not be moved and to ensure they check items in trash and if needed reclaim from trash for migration.

范围和时间线Scope and timeline

客户最常发问的问题是:“迁移需要多久时间?”。The most common question from customers is “How long will the migration take?”. 虽然 Mover 工具是迁移数据最快的一种方法,但迁移速度可能受到多种因素影响,包括:While the Mover tool is one of the fastest ways to migrate data, the migration speed can be impacted by many factors, including:

  • 要迁移的文件和文件夹的数量Number of files and folders being moved
  • 文件大小File size
  • 要迁移的数据总量Total amount of data being moved
  • 与源或目标的服务器连接。Server connections with the source or destination
  • 源和目标连接器均有速度限制。Both source and destination connectors have rate limits. 我们受制于这两者之间所允许我们下载、上传和处理数据的速度。We are constrained to how fast they allow us to download, upload and process data between the two.
  • 权限或数据共享的复杂性:在迁移过程中应用权限是可能影响速度的另一个因素。Complexity of permissions or sharing of data: Applying permissions as part of the migration is another factor that can influence speed. 应用权限后,我们将再次进行大量的 API 调用,这将增加迁移数据所需的时间。When permissions are applied, we are again making numerous API calls that will increase the time it takes to migrate the data.

映射时间线和使用那些时间线来设置预期可达到的效果对管理成功的迁移项目来说是至关重要的。Mapping out timelines and setting expectations of what can be achieved with those timelines is essential to managing a successful migration project.

对规划和评估拨出充足的时间将确保迁移进行得更顺利。Budgeting for ample time for planning and assessing will ensure a smoother migration. 通过 Mover 工具进行迁移的一个好处是,我们仅复制源数据并将其上传到“目标”。One of the benefits of migrating via the Mover tool is that we only take a copy of the source data and upload that to the Destination. 这允许用户继续在源文件中工作(而我们为他们同时复制数据),这允许迁移同步运行并以最低限度的分布分配客户的日常活动。This allows the users to continue to work in their source files while we copy their data for them, allowing the migration to run in parallel with minimal distribution of the customers' daily activities.

用户仅需在最后一个增量内避免创建新内容。The only time users need to refrain from creating new content is during the final delta.

通信Communication

对于任何客户而言,迁移都是一项重要工作。A migration is a significant undertaking for any customer. 试图掌握整个数据范围并与组织内的用户进行沟通是非常复杂的。Trying to grasp the entire extent of all data and communicating with the users within the organization is complicated.

在迁移之前、迁移期间和迁移之后,与用户群进行清晰有效的沟通至关重要。Before, during, and after a migration, it is critical to communicate clearly and effectively with your user base.

管理层Management. 管理层需要掌握有关迁移方式和原因的简洁信息,例如优势和期望。Management needs succinct information about the how’s and why’s of the migration, including the benefits, and expectations. 清晰地传达成功的迁移所带来的愿景Clearly communicate what a successful migration looks like

用户Users. 他们需要知道发生更改的时间以及遇到疑问或问题时要向谁请教,以及反之,谁会为该客户提供答案,我们要在问题发生时提供答案。They need to know when changes are taking place and who to go to with questions or issues, and in turn whoever we are working with for that customer we will be available to provide answers to those questions when they occur.

IT 客户服务/支持人员IT Helpdesk/Support staff. 如果你的组织规模足够大,需要为其他员工提供特定支持人员,他们必须了解迁移的每个步骤,以及如何帮助解决可能发生的许多问题。If your organization is large enough to have specific support staff for other employees, they must understand each step of the migration and how to help troubleshoot many of the questions that might arise.

准备环境Prepare your environment

建议在准备环境时遵循以下最佳做法。We recommend the following best practices as you prepare your environment.

什么What 操作说明Action notes
源连接器Source connectors 在创创作和创建连接器时,每个源都有一个特定的过程和需要注意的警告。Each source has a specific process and caveats to be aware of when authoring and creating your connector. 在此处了解有关源连接器的详细信息:设置源Learn more about your source connector here: Setup your source
帐户设置Account setup 作为项目的经理,请保留迁移帐户的所有权。As manager of the project, retain ownership of the migration account. 这可确保只有运行迁移的人员才能控制迁移,包括运行、监视和维护迁移。This ensures that only those running the migration have control of the migration, including running, monitoring, and maintaining the migration.
禁用电子邮件通知Disable mail notifications 禁用所有迁移通知电子邮件,避免收到垃圾邮件。Disable all migration notification emails to avoid getting spammed. 否则,你和你的客户将收到有关传输、失败、进度等的测试电子邮件。了解详细信息:禁用电子邮件通知Otherwise, you and your customers will receive test emails regarding transfers, failures, progress, etc. Learn more: Disable email notifications
目标上传文件夹Destination upload folder 映射用于上传已迁移数据的上载/目标文件夹。Map an upload/destination folder for uploading the migrated data.
查看重要的常规注意事项Review important general considerations 请务必在此处查看工具如何处理所转移和同步的项目、权限以及其他最佳做法: Mover 迁移常见问题Make sure to review how the tool handles what gets transfered, synced, permissions, and other best practices here: Mover Migration FAQ

迁移性能优化Migration performance optimizations

许多因素决定了迁移可能花费的时间。Many factors determine how long a migration might take. 这不是什么精确科学,但其中一个经验之谈就是:基本上,它平均每秒移动一个文件。It is not an exact science, but one of the basic rules of thumb is that it moves one file per second on average. 如果客户有一百万个文件,则需要一百万秒的时间进行迁移,这大约相当于12 天。If a customer has 1 million files, it will take 1 million seconds to migrate, which equates to roughly 12 days.

该工具将尽可能地快速迁移,但是还必须考虑以下因素,这可能会影响性能速度:The tool will migrate as fast as possible, but we also must factor in the following, which may affect performance speed:

  • 数据分布 - 如果有多个用户拥有大量文件/数据,则需要更长时间才能完成。The distribution of the data - If you have many users who own a lot of file/data these will take longer to complete.
  • 源服务器和目标服务器的性情(它们可以以多快的速度下载和上载数据)。The temperament of both the source and destination servers (how fast they can download and upload the data).
  • 文件的大小(大文件的迁移速度会比很多小文件快,因为多个小文件需要更多的 API 调用来迁移)。The size of the files (large files will migrate quicker than lots of small files, as it takes more API calls to migrate many small files).
  • 当天的时间。Time of day. 在标准的办公时段外安排迁移,以便更快地迁移更多数据。Schedule migrations outside of standard office hours to allow more data to migrate quicker. “源”和“目标”租户在日常用户使用频率较低时往往更为安静。Source and Destination tenants tend to be quieter when there is less daily user usage.

同时迁移的用户越多,迁移的吞吐量就越高。The more users simultaneously being transferred, the higher our throughput for your migration. 强烈建议拥有超大型数据集的用户将数据分到更小的帐户,以便加快转移速度。We highly recommend that users with very large data sets be broken into smaller accounts to facilitate faster transfers.

为使吞吐量最大化,用户不应拥有超过 5 TB 的数据,或者超过 400,000 个项目。To maximize throughput, users should not own greater than 5 TB of data or have greater than 400,000 items. 如果你拥有的用户越多,并且他们拥有的数据量越少,那么迁移速度就越快。The more users you have, and the smaller the amounts of data they own, the faster your migration proceeds.

示例:Examples:

  • 如果一个用户拥有 10 TB 的数据,我们建议将其分给 10 个用户,以便每个用户拥有 1 TB 的数据。If a user owns 10 TB of data, we recommend dividing that between 10 users so that each user owns 1 TB.

  • 同一原则适用于拥有超过 400,000 个项目的用户。The same principle applies to users owning more than 400,000 items. 它们也应分为更小的服务帐户,以帮助加快完成迁移的速度。These should also be broken into smaller service accounts to aid with the speed of completing a migration.

如果无法分解数据,则不应妨碍其他用户迁移。If data cannot be broken up, this should not hinder other users from migrating. 通常来说,拥有大量数据的用户需要大量时间来迁移。In general, users with a lot of data require a lot of time to migrate.

迁移过程Migration process

以下是遵循 Microsoft 最佳做法指南的典型迁移过程。Below is a typical migration process that follows Microsoft's best practices guidance.

  1. 选择一小组用户进行试点迁移。试点的目标是验证流程(包括性能、用户沟通),以及获取用户反馈的样本。Select a small set of users for a pilot migration. The goal of the pilot is to validate the process, including performance, user communication, and to get a sample of user feedback.
    试点迁移的最佳做法:Best practices for Pilot migrations:
  • 选择小型用户子集(介于 10 - 50)Select a small subset of users (between 10 –50)
  • 所选用户拥有少量的总数据(最大约 2 TB)。Selected users own a small amount of total data (max of about 2 TB). 这可确保“试点迁移”不会花费很长时间才完成。This ensures that the Pilot Migration won't take too long to complete.
  • 请包括同时迁移到 OneDrive 和 SharePoint 中的混合用户,以便展示迁移后数据在两个位置中的显示方式。Include a mix of users migrating into both OneDrive and SharePoint to demonstrate how the data will appear in both locations after migration.
  1. 执行试点迁移。Perform the pilot migration. 这应使用增量迁移方法,使用此方法时,迁移将在后台进行,对用户不会造成影响;然后是直接转换迁移,使用此方法时,网络文件共享和本地文件共享将禁用,并且会被引导至使用 Microsoft 365 环境。This should use an incremental migration method, in which migration happens in the background with no user impact, followed by a cutover event in which network file shares and local file shares are disabled and they are directed to use the Microsoft 365 environment. 这种方法可以降低对用户的影响,因此为首选方法。This method is preferred as it reduces user impact.

  2. 了解来自试点迁移的数据,以确定剩余的迁移计划并进行任何更改。例如,你可能会更新用户通信模板以解决从试用用户收到的问题。Understand the data from the pilot migration to determine the remainder of your migration schedule and make any changes. For example, you may update your user communication template to address a question you received from a pilot user.

  3. 执行剩余部分迁移。Perform the remainder of the migration. 这也应采用增量迁移方法,就像试点迁移一样。This should also follow an incremental migration method, just like the pilot. Microsoft 建议使用单个直接转换迁移,以便所有用户切换为使用其 OneDrive 帐户和 SharePoint 站点。Microsoft recommends a single cutover event for all users to switch to using their OneDrive accounts and SharePoint sites. 这使得用户无需更新多个内容副本。This helps eliminate users from updating duplicate copies of content.

  4. 向关键利益干系人提供定期(每天)的迁移报告(报告应捕获所有转移和当前状态)。Provide regular (daily) reporting to key stakeholders with a migration report that captures all transfers and their current status.

  5. 完成迁移后,准备好一支用于帮助采用和载入用户的团队,以便顺利过渡到 Microsoft 365。Once your migration completes, have a team ready to help with user adoption and onboarding for a smooth transition into Microsoft 365.

用户载入User Onboarding

制定计划,使用户准备好应对即将到来的变化。计划中应包括的注意事项:Develop a plan to prepare your users for the upcoming change. Consideration factors to include in your plan:

  • 为这一举措进行宣传。 强调这一举措的益处、协作功能以及执行这项举措的原因。Evangelize the move. Underscore the benefits, the collaborative capabilities, and the reasons for making the move.
  • 最终用户培训。 为用户提供有关 OneDrive 功能的培训。End user training. Provide training to your users on the features in OneDrive.
  • 培训支持人员。 在直接转换之前,请对支持人员进行关键功能和常见用户问题的培训。Train your helpdesk. Before the cutover, train your helpdesk in key features and common user questions.
  • 为迁移可能导致的 任何可能的故障时间做好准备Prepare for any possible downtime the migration may incur.

制定向用户群发送通信的计划,为个人提供清晰的时间表、预期结果和影响:Develop a plan for sending communications to your user base, providing clear statements of timing, and expectations and impact to the individual, including:

  • 迁移日程表及日程表对他们的影响。The migration timeline and how it will impact them. 请使用用户号召性用语。Include any user calls to action.
  • 确保他们的内容是安全的,并且不会被覆盖。Assure them that their content is safe and won't be overwritten.
  • 让他们知道个人是否可以选择退出迁移过程。Let them know whether individuals can opt out of the migration process.