安装 SQL Server 的硬件和软件要求Hardware and Software Requirements for Installing SQL Server

适用对象:SQL Server(仅限 Windows)否Azure SQL 数据库 否Azure Synapse Analytics (SQL DW) 否并行数据仓库APPLIES TO: yesSQL Server (Windows only) noAzure SQL Database noAzure Synapse Analytics (SQL DW) noParallel Data Warehouse

本文列出了在 Windows 操作系统上安装和运行 SQL ServerSQL Server 至少需要满足的硬件和软件要求。The article lists the minimum hardware and software requirements to install and run SQL ServerSQL Server on the Windows operating system.

SQL Server 2017 (14.x)SQL Server 2017 (14.x) 引入了对于 Linux 版 SQL ServerSQL Server 的支持。introduced support for SQL ServerSQL Server on Linux. 有关信息,请参阅 Linux 上 SQL ServerSQL Server 的硬件和软件要求For information, see Hardware and Software Requirements for SQL ServerSQL Server on Linux.

进行试用:Try it out:

以下注意事项适用于所有版本:The following considerations apply to all editions:

  • 我们建议在使用 NTFS 或 ReFS 文件格式的计算机上运行 SQL ServerSQL ServerWe recommend that you run SQL ServerSQL Server on computers with the NTFS or ReFS file formats. 支持但建议不要在使用 FAT32 文件系统的计算机上安装 SQL ServerSQL Server ,因为它没有 NTFS 或 ReFS 文件系统安全。Installing SQL ServerSQL Server on a computer with FAT32 file system is supported but not recommended as it is less secure than the NTFS or ReFS file systems.

  • SQL ServerSQL Server 安装程序将阻止在只读驱动器、映射的驱动器或压缩驱动器上进行安装。Setup will block installations on read-only, mapped, or compressed drives.

  • 如果通过远程桌面连接 RDC 客户端上本地资源中的介质来启动安装程序,安装将会失败。Installation fails if you launch setup through Remote Desktop Connection with the media on a local resource in the RDC client. 若要执行远程安装,介质必须处于网络共享状态,或是物理计算机或虚拟机的本地介质。To install remotely the media must be on a network share or local to the physical or virtual machine. SQL ServerSQL Server 安装介质要么处于网络共享状态,要么是映射的驱动器、本地驱动器,或者是虚拟机的 ISO。installation media may be either on a network share, a mapped drive, a local drive, or presented as an ISO to a virtual machine.

  • 安装 SQL Server Management StudioSQL Server Management Studio 时,必须先安装 .NET 4.6.1 必备组件。SQL Server Management StudioSQL Server Management Studio installation requires installing .NET 4.6.1 as a prerequisite. SQL Server Management StudioSQL Server Management Studio 处于选中状态时,安装程序将自动安装 .NET 4.6.1。.NET 4.6.1 will be automatically installed by setup when SQL Server Management StudioSQL Server Management Studio is selected.

  • SQL ServerSQL Server 安装程序安装该产品所需的以下软件组件:Setup installs the following software components required by the product:

    • SQL ServerSQL Server Native ClientNative Client

    • SQL ServerSQL Server 安装程序支持文件Setup support files

  • 有关在 Windows Server 2012Windows Server 2012Windows 8Windows 8 上安装 SQL ServerSQL Server 的最低版本要求,请参阅在 Windows Server 2012 或 Windows 8 上安装 SQL ServerFor minimum version requirements to install SQL ServerSQL Server on Windows Server 2012Windows Server 2012 or Windows 8Windows 8, see Installing SQL Server on Windows Server 2012 or Windows 8.

硬件和软件要求Hardware and Software Requirements

以下要求适用于所有安装:The following requirements apply to all installations:

组件Component 要求Requirement
.NET Framework.NET Framework SQL Server 2016 (13.x)SQL Server 2016 (13.x) RC1 和更高版本需要 .NET Framework.NET Framework 4.6 才能运行数据库引擎、Master Data Services 或复制。RC1 and later require .NET Framework.NET Framework 4.6 for the Database Engine, Master Data Services, or Replication. SQL Server 安装程序自动安装 .NET Framework.NET FrameworkSQL Server setup automatically installs .NET Framework.NET Framework. 还可以从适用于 Windows 的 Microsoft .NET Framework 4.6(Web 安装程序)手动安装 .NET Framework.NET FrameworkYou can also manually install .NET Framework.NET Framework from Microsoft .NET Framework 4.6 (Web Installer) for Windows.

有关 .NET Framework.NET Framework 4.6 的详细信息、建议和指南,请参阅 面向开发人员的 .NET Framework 部署指南For more information, recommendations, and guidance about .NET Framework.NET Framework 4.6 see .NET Framework Deployment Guide for Developers.

在安装 .NET Framework.NET Framework 4.6 之前,Windows 8.1Windows 8.1Windows Server 2012 R2Windows Server 2012 R2 需要 KB2919355Windows 8.1Windows 8.1, and Windows Server 2012 R2Windows Server 2012 R2 require KB2919355 before installing .NET Framework.NET Framework 4.6.
网络软件Network Software SQL ServerSQL Server 支持的操作系统具有内置网络软件。Supported operating systems for SQL ServerSQL Server have built-in network software. 独立安装项的命名实例和默认实例支持以下网络协议:共享内存、命名管道、TCP/IP 和 VIA。Named and default instances of a stand-alone installation support the following network protocols: Shared memory, Named Pipes, TCP/IP, and VIA.

注意: 故障转移群集不支持 VIA 协议。Note: VIA protocol is not supported on failover clusters. 与 SQL Server 实例在同一故障转移群集节点上运行的客户端或应用程序可以使用 Shared Memory 协议,通过其本地管道地址连接到 SQL Server。Clients or applications running on the same node of the failover cluster as the SQL Server instance, can use Shared Memory protocol to connect to SQL Server using its local pipe address. 不过,这种连接无法感知群集,因此会在实例故障转移后无法连接。However this type of connection is not cluster-aware and will fail after an instance failover. 因此,不建议使用这种连接,只能用于极个别的方案。It is therefore not recommended and should only be used in very specific scenarios.

重要提示: 不推荐使用 VIA 协议。Important: The VIA protocol is deprecated. 此功能处于维护模式并且可能会在 Microsoft SQL Server 将来的版本中被删除。This feature is in maintenance mode and may be removed in a future version of Microsoft SQL Server. 请避免在新的开发工作中使用该功能,并着手修改当前还在使用该功能的应用程序。Avoid using this feature in new development work, and plan to modify applications that currently use this feature.

有关网络协议和网络库的详细信息,请参阅 Network Protocols and Network LibrariesFor more information about Network Protocols and Network Libraries, see Network Protocols and Network Libraries.
硬盘Hard Disk SQL ServerSQL Server 要求最少 6 GB 的可用硬盘空间。requires a minimum of 6 GB of available hard-disk space.

磁盘空间要求将随所安装的 SQL ServerSQL Server 组件不同而发生变化。Disk space requirements will vary with the SQL ServerSQL Server components you install. 有关详细信息,请参阅本文后面部分的硬盘空间要求For more information, see Hard Disk Space Requirements later in this article. 有关支持的数据文件存储类型的信息,请参阅 Storage Types for Data FilesFor information on supported storage types for data files, see Storage Types for Data Files.
驱动器Drive 从磁盘进行安装时需要相应的 DVD 驱动器。A DVD drive, as appropriate, is required for installation from disc.
监视Monitor SQL ServerSQL Server 要求有 Super-VGA (800x600) 或更高分辨率的显示器。requires Super-VGA (800x600) or higher resolution monitor.
InternetInternet 使用 Internet 功能需要连接 Internet(可能需要付费)。Internet functionality requires Internet access (fees may apply).

备注

在虚拟机上运行 SQL ServerSQL Server 的速度要慢于在本机上运行,因为虚拟化有开销。Running SQL ServerSQL Server on a virtual machine will be slower than running natively because of the overhead of virtualization.

重要

对于 PolyBase 功能还有其他硬件和软件要求。There are additional hardware and software requirements for the PolyBase feature. 有关详细信息,请参阅 PolyBase 入门For more information, see Get started with PolyBase.

处理器、内存和操作系统要求Processor, Memory, and Operating System Requirements

以下内存和处理器要求适用于所有版本的 SQL ServerSQL ServerThe following memory and processor requirements apply to all editions of SQL ServerSQL Server:

组件Component 要求Requirement
内存*Memory * 最低要求:Minimum:

Express Edition:512 MBExpress Editions: 512 MB

所有其他版本:1 GBAll other editions: 1 GB

推荐:Recommended:

Express Edition:1 GBExpress Editions: 1 GB

所有其他版本:至少 4 GB,并且应随着数据库大小的增加而增加来确保最佳性能。All other editions: At least 4 GB and should be increased as database size increases to ensure optimal performance.
处理器速度Processor Speed 最低要求:x64 处理器: 1.4 GHzMinimum: x64 Processor: 1.4 GHz

推荐: 2.0 GHz 或更快Recommended: 2.0 GHz or faster
处理器类型Processor Type x64 处理器:AMD Opteron、AMD Athlon 64、支持 Intel EM64T 的 Intel Xeon,以及支持 EM64T 的 Intel Pentium IVx64 Processor: AMD Opteron, AMD Athlon 64, Intel Xeon with Intel EM64T support, Intel Pentium IV with EM64T support

备注

仅 x64 处理器支持 SQL ServerSQL Server 的安装。Installation of SQL ServerSQL Server is supported on x64 processors only. x86 处理器不再支持此安装。It is no longer supported on x86 processors.

*内存至少必须有 2GB RAM,才能在“数据库引擎服务”Data Quality Services (DQS) 中安装数据质量服务器Data Quality Server组件。此要求不同于 SQL ServerSQL Server 的最低内存要求。* The minimum memory required for installing the 数据质量服务器Data Quality Server component in “数据库引擎服务”Data Quality Services (DQS) is 2 GB of RAM, which is different from the SQL ServerSQL Server minimum memory requirement. 有关安装 DQS 的信息,请参阅 Install Data Quality ServicesFor information about installing DQS, see Install Data Quality Services.

WOW64 支持:WOW64 Support:

WOW64(Windows 64 位上的 Windows 32 位)是 Windows 64 位版本中的一项功能,使用该功能可以在 32 位模式下本机运行 32 位应用程序。WOW64 (Windows 32-bit on Windows 64-bit) is a feature of 64-bit editions of Windows that enables 32-bit applications to run natively in 32-bit mode. 尽管基础操作系统是 64 位操作系统,但应用程序以 32 位模式工作。Applications function in 32-bit mode, even though the underlying operating system is a 64-bit operating system. SQL ServerSQL Server 安装不支持 WOW64。WOW64 is not supported for SQL ServerSQL Server installations. 但是,WOW64 支持管理工具。However, Management Tools are supported in WOW64.

Server Core 支持:Server Core Support:

以下 Windows Server 版本支持在 Server Core 模式上安装 SQL Server 2016 和 2017:Installing SQL Server 2016 and 2017 on Server Core mode is supported by the following editions of Windows Server:

Windows Server 2019 StandardWindows Server 2019 Standard Windows Server 2019 DatacenterWindows Server 2019 Datacenter
Windows Server 2016 StandardWindows Server 2016 Standard Windows Server 2016 DatacenterWindows Server 2016 Datacenter
Windows Server 2012 R2 StandardWindows Server 2012 R2 Standard Windows Server 2012 R2 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 R2 Datacenter
Windows Server 2012 StandardWindows Server 2012 Standard Windows Server 2012 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 Datacenter
   

有关如何在 Server Core 上安装 SQL Server 的详细信息,请参阅在 Server Core 上安装 SQL ServerFor more information on installing SQL Server on Server Core, see Install SQL Server on Server Core.

32 位客户端操作系统支持的功能Features Supported on 32-bit Client Operating Systems

Windows 客户端操作系统,例如 Windows 10 和 Windows 8.1 可作为 32 位或 64 位体系结构。Windows client operating systems, for example Windows 10 and Windows 8.1 are available as 32-bit or 64-bit architectures. 64 位客户端操作系统支持所有 SQL Server 功能。All SQL Server features are supported on 64-bit client operating systems. 在支持的 32 位客户端操作系统上,Microsoft 支持以下功能︰On supported 32-bit client operating systems Microsoft supports the following features:

  • 数据质量客户端Data Quality Client
  • 客户端工具连接Client Tools Connectivity
  • Integration ServicesIntegration Services
  • 客户端工具向后兼容性Client Tools Backwards Compatibility
  • 客户端工具 SDKClient Tools SDK
  • 文档组件Documentation Components
  • Distributed Replay 组件Distributed Replay Components
  • Distributed Replay 控制器Distributed Replay Controller
  • Distributed Replay 客户端Distributed Replay Client
  • SQL 客户端连接 SDKSQL Client Connectivity SDK

Windows Server 2008 R2Windows Server 2008 R2 和更高版本的服务器操作系统不可用作 32 位体系结构。and later server operating systems are not available as 32-bit architectures. 所有支持的服务器操作系统只可用作 64 位体系结构。All supported server operating systems are only available as 64-bit. 64 位服务器操作系统支持所有功能。All features are supported on 64-bit server operating systems.

OS 兼容性OS Compatibility

下表显示了与各版本的 Windows 兼容的 SQL Server 2016 和 2017 版本:The following table shows which editions of SQL Server 2016 and 2017 are compatible with which versions of Windows:

SQL Server 版本:SQL Server edition: EnterpriseEnterprise 开发人员Developer StandardStandard WebWeb ExpressExpress
Windows Server 2019 DatacenterWindows Server 2019 Datacenter Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2019 StandardWindows Server 2019 Standard Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2019 EssentialsWindows Server 2019 Essentials Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2016 DatacenterWindows Server 2016 Datacenter Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2016 StandardWindows Server 2016 Standard Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2016 EssentialsWindows Server 2016 Essentials Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2012 R2 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 R2 Datacenter Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2012 R2 StandardWindows Server 2012 R2 Standard Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2012 R2 EssentialsWindows Server 2012 R2 Essentials Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2012 R2 FoundationWindows Server 2012 R2 Foundation Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2012 DatacenterWindows Server 2012 Datacenter Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2012 StandardWindows Server 2012 Standard Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2012 EssentialsWindows Server 2012 Essentials Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows Server 2012 FoundationWindows Server 2012 Foundation Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Windows 10 IoT 企业版Windows 10 IoT Enterprise No Yes Yes No Yes
Windows 10 EnterpriseWindows 10 Enterprise No Yes Yes No Yes
Windows 10 专业版Windows 10 Professional No Yes Yes No Yes
Windows 10 家庭版Windows 10 Home No Yes Yes No Yes
Windows 8.1 EnterpriseWindows 8.1 Enterprise No Yes Yes No Yes
Windows 8.1 ProWindows 8.1 Pro No Yes Yes No Yes
Windows 8.1 EnterpriseWindows 8.1 Enterprise No Yes Yes No Yes
Windows 8 专业版Windows 8 Pro No Yes Yes No Yes
Windows 8Windows 8 No Yes Yes No Yes

备注

此部分中所述操作系统支持的例外情况是,以下适用于 SQL Server 2016 (13.x)SQL Server 2016 (13.x) 及更低版本的商业智能功能,可以在 Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 或更高版本上安装它们:Exceptions to the operating system support noted in this section are the following Business Intelligence features for SQL Server 2016 (13.x)SQL Server 2016 (13.x) and earlier, which can be installed on Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 or later:

  • Reporting ServicesReporting Services - SharePoint- SharePoint
  • 用于 SharePoint 产品的 Reporting ServicesReporting Services 外接程序Reporting ServicesReporting Services Add-in for SharePoint products

跨语言支持Cross-Language Support

有关跨语言支持和以本地化语言安装 SQL ServerSQL Server 的注意事项的详细信息,请参阅 SQL Server 中的本地语言版本For more information about cross-language support and considerations for installing SQL ServerSQL Server in localized languages, see Local Language Versions in SQL Server.

硬盘空间要求Hard Disk Space Requirements

在安装 SQL ServerSQL Server的过程中,Windows Installer 会在系统驱动器中创建临时文件。During installation of SQL ServerSQL Server, Windows Installer creates temporary files on the system drive. 在运行安装程序以安装或升级 SQL ServerSQL Server之前,请检查系统驱动器中是否有至少 6.0 GB 的可用磁盘空间用来存储这些文件。Before you run Setup to install or upgrade SQL ServerSQL Server, verify that you have at least 6.0 GB of available disk space on the system drive for these files. 即使在将 SQL ServerSQL Server 组件安装到非默认驱动器中时,此项要求也适用。This requirement applies even if you install SQL ServerSQL Server components to a non-default drive.

实际硬盘空间需求取决于系统配置和您决定安装的功能。Actual hard disk space requirements depend on your system configuration and the features that you decide to install. 下表提供了 SQL ServerSQL Server 各组件对磁盘空间的要求。The following table provides disk space requirements for SQL ServerSQL Server components.

功能Feature 磁盘空间要求Disk space requirement
数据库引擎Database Engine 和数据文件、复制、全文搜索以及 Data Quality Servicesand data files, Replication, Full-Text Search, and Data Quality Services 1480 MB1480 MB
数据库引擎Database Engine (如上所示)带有 R Services(数据库内)(as above) with R Services (In-Database) 2744 MB2744 MB
数据库引擎Database Engine (如上所示)带有针对外部数据的 PolyBase 查询服务(as above) with PolyBase Query Service for External Data 4194 MB4194 MB
Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 和数据文件and data files 698 MB698 MB
Reporting ServicesReporting Services 967 MB967 MB
Microsoft R ServerMicrosoft R Server (独立)(Standalone) 280 MB280 MB
Reporting ServicesReporting Services - SharePoint- SharePoint 1203 MB1203 MB
用于 SharePoint 产品的 Reporting ServicesReporting Services 外接程序Reporting ServicesReporting Services Add-in for SharePoint Products 325 MB325 MB
数据质量客户端Data Quality Client 121 MB121 MB
客户端工具连接Client Tools Connectivity 328 MB328 MB
Integration ServicesIntegration Services 306 MB306 MB
客户端组件(除 SQL ServerSQL Server 联机丛书组件和 Integration Services 工具之外)Client Components (other than SQL ServerSQL Server Books Online components and Integration Services tools) 445 MB445 MB
Master Data ServicesMaster Data Services 280 MB280 MB
用于查看和管理帮助内容的SQL ServerSQL Server 联机丛书组件*SQL ServerSQL Server Books Online Components to view and manage help content* 27 MB27 MB
所有功能All Features 8030 MB8030 MB

*下载的联机丛书内容需要 200 MB 的磁盘空间。*The disk space requirement for downloaded Books Online content is 200 MB.

数据文件的存储类型Storage Types for Data Files

支持的数据文件存储类型包括:The supported storage types for data files are:

  • 本地磁盘Local Disk
    • SQL ServerSQL Server 目前支持标准本机扇区大小为 512 字节和 4 KB 的磁盘驱动器。currently supports disk drives that have standard native sector sizes of 512 bytes and 4 KB. 扇区大小大于 4 KB 的硬盘在尝试存储 SQL ServerSQL Server 数据文件时可能会导致错误。Hard disks with sector sizes larger than 4 KB may cause errors when attempting to store SQL ServerSQL Server data files on them. 要详细了解 SQL ServerSQL Server 中的硬盘扇区大小支持,请参阅 SQL Server 中的硬盘驱动器扇区大小支持边界See Hard disk drive sector-size support boundaries in SQL Server for more information on hard disk sector-size support in SQL ServerSQL Server
    • SQL ServerSQL Server 故障转移群集安装只支持使用本地磁盘安装 tempdb 文件。failover cluster installation supports Local Disk only for installing the tempdb files. 确保为 tempdb 数据和日志文件指定的路径在所有群集节点上均有效。Ensure that the path specified for the tempdb data and log files is valid on all the cluster nodes. 在故障转移期间,如果 tempdb 目录对故障转移目标节点不可用,则 SQL ServerSQL Server 资源将无法联机。During failover, if the tempdb directories are not available on the failover target node, the SQL ServerSQL Server resource will fail to come online.
  • 共享存储Shared Storage
  • 存储空间直通 (S2D)Storage Spaces Direct (S2D)
  • SMB 文件共享SMB File Share
    • 无论是独立安装还是群集安装, Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 数据文件均不支持 SMB 存储。SMB storage is not supported for Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services data files for either standalone or clustered installations. 请改用直接连接的存储、存储区域网络或 S2D。Use direct attached storage, a storage area network, or S2D instead.
    • SMB 存储可由 Windows 文件服务器或第三方 SMB 存储设备承载。SMB storage can be hosted by a Windows File Server or a third-party SMB storage device. 如果使用 Windows 文件服务器,该 Windows 文件服务器版本应为 2008 或更高。If Windows File Server is used, the Windows File Server version should be 2008 or later. 有关将 SMB 文件共享作为存储选项安装 SQL ServerSQL Server 的详细信息,请参阅 SMB 文件共享用作存储选项时安装 SQL ServerFor more information about installing SQL ServerSQL Server using SMB file share as a storage option, see Install SQL Server with SMB Fileshare as a Storage Option.

在域控制器上安装 SQL ServerSQL ServerInstalling SQL ServerSQL Server on a Domain Controller

出于安全方面的考虑,我们建议您不要将 SQL ServerSQL Server 安装在域控制器上。For security reasons, we recommend that you do not install SQL ServerSQL Server on a domain controller. SQL ServerSQL Server 安装程序不会阻止在作为域控制器的计算机上进行安装,但存在以下限制:Setup will not block installation on a computer that is a domain controller, but the following limitations apply:

  • 在域控制器上,无法在本地服务帐户下运行 SQL ServerSQL Server 服务。You cannot run SQL ServerSQL Server services on a domain controller under a local service account.

  • SQL ServerSQL Server 安装到计算机上之后,无法将此计算机从域成员更改为域控制器。After SQL ServerSQL Server is installed on a computer, you cannot change the computer from a domain member to a domain controller. 必须先卸载 SQL ServerSQL Server ,然后才能将主机计算机更改为域控制器。You must uninstall SQL ServerSQL Server before you change the host computer to a domain controller.

  • SQL ServerSQL Server 安装到计算机上之后,无法将此计算机从域控制器更改为域成员。After SQL ServerSQL Server is installed on a computer, you cannot change the computer from a domain controller to a domain member. 必须先卸载 SQL ServerSQL Server ,然后才能将主机计算机更改为域成员。You must uninstall SQL ServerSQL Server before you change the host computer to a domain member.

  • 在群集节点用作域控制器的情况下,不支持SQL ServerSQL Server 故障转移群集实例。SQL ServerSQL Server failover cluster instances are not supported where cluster nodes are domain controllers.

  • 只读域控制器不支持 SQL ServerSQL ServerSQL ServerSQL Server is not supported on a read-only domain controller. SQL ServerSQL Server 安装程序不能在只读域控制器上创建安全组或设置 SQL ServerSQL Server 服务帐户。Setup cannot create security groups or provision SQL ServerSQL Server service accounts on a read-only domain controller. 在这种情况下,安装将失败。In this scenario, Setup will fail.

    备注

    此限制也适用于域成员节点上的安装。This restriction also applies to installations on domain member nodes.

  • 在仅可以访问只读域控制器的环境中不支持 SQL ServerSQL Server 故障转移群集实例。A SQL ServerSQL Server failover cluster instance is not supported in an environment where only a read-only domain controller is accessible.

    备注

    此限制也适用于域成员节点上的安装。This restriction also applies to installations on domain member nodes.

另请参阅See Also

计划 SQL Server 安装 Planning a SQL Server Installation
安装 SQL Server 的安全注意事项Security Considerations for a SQL Server Installation