安装向导帮助Installation Wizard help

适用于:Applies to: 是SQL ServerSQL Server(所有支持的版本)yesSQL ServerSQL Server (all supported versions) 适用于:Applies to: 是SQL ServerSQL Server(所有支持的版本)yesSQL ServerSQL Server (all supported versions)

本文介绍 SQL ServerSQL Server 安装向导中的一些配置页。This article describes some of the configuration pages in the SQL ServerSQL Server Installation Wizard.

“实例配置”页Instance Configuration page

使用 安装向导的 “实例配置” SQL ServerSQL Server 页面可指定是创建 SQL ServerSQL Server的默认实例还是其命名实例。Use the Instance Configuration page of the SQL ServerSQL Server Installation Wizard to specify whether to create a default instance or a named instance of SQL ServerSQL Server. 如果 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例尚未安装,系统就会创建默认实例,除非你指定命名实例。If an instance of SQL ServerSQL Server isn't already installed, a default instance is created unless you specify a named instance.

每个 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例都由一组具有排列规则及其他选项特定设置的非重复的服务组成。Each instance of SQL ServerSQL Server consists of a distinct set of services that have specific settings for collations and other options. 目录结构、注册表结构和服务名称全都反映在 SQL ServerSQL Server 安装过程中创建的实例名称和具体实例 ID。The directory structure, registry structure, and service names all reflect the instance name and a specific instance ID that were created during SQL ServerSQL Server Setup.

实例是默认实例或命名实例。An instance is either the default instance or a named instance. 默认实例名为 MSSQLSERVER。The default instance name is MSSQLSERVER. 使用默认名称,客户端无需指定实例名称,即可进行连接。The default name doesn't require a client to specify the name of the instance to make a connection. 命名实例在安装过程中由用户决定。A named instance is determined by the user during Setup. 您可以将 SQL ServerSQL Server 作为命名实例安装,无需先安装默认实例。You can install SQL ServerSQL Server as a named instance without installing the default instance first. 一次只能有一个 SQL ServerSQL Server 安装是默认实例,无论版本如何。Only one installation of SQL ServerSQL Server, no matter the version, can be the default instance at one time.

备注

使用 SQL ServerSQL Server SysPrep,您可以在 “实例配置” 页上完成已准备实例时指定实例名称。With SQL ServerSQL Server SysPrep, you can specify the instance name when you complete a prepared instance on the Instance Configuration page. 如果计算机上现无 SQL ServerSQL Server 默认实例,可以将要完成的已准备实例配置为默认实例。You can configure the prepared instance you're completing as a default instance if there is no existing default instance of SQL ServerSQL Server on the machine.

多个实例Multiple instances

SQL ServerSQL Server 支持在单个服务器或处理器上存在多个 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例,但只能有一个实例为默认实例。supports multiple instances of SQL ServerSQL Server on a single server or processor, but only one instance can be the default instance. 所有其他实例必须为命名实例。All others must be named instances. 一台计算机可同时运行多个 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例,每个实例都独立于其他实例运行。A computer can run multiple instances of SQL ServerSQL Server concurrently, and each instance runs independently of the other instances.

有关详细信息,请参阅 SQL Server 最大容量规范For more information, see Maximum capacity specifications for SQL Server.

选项Options

仅故障转移群集实例:指定 SQL ServerSQL Server 故障转移群集网络名称。Failover cluster instances only: Specify the SQL ServerSQL Server failover cluster network name. 此名称可用来在网络上标识故障转移群集实例。This name identifies the failover cluster instance on the network.

决定使用默认实例还是命名实例:决定是安装 SQL ServerSQL Server 默认实例还是命名实例时,请注意以下几点:Decide between a default or a named instance: Consider the following information when you decide whether to install a default or named instance of SQL ServerSQL Server:

  • 如果计划在数据库服务器上安装单个 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例,则该实例应为默认实例。If you plan to install a single instance of SQL ServerSQL Server on a database server, it should be a default instance.

  • 如果您打算在同一台计算机上安装多个实例,请使用命名实例。Use a named instance for situations where you plan to have multiple instances on the same computer. 一台服务器只能承载一个默认实例。A server can host only one default instance.

  • 任何安装 SQL Server ExpressSQL Server Express 的应用程序都应将其作为命名实例安装。Any application that installs SQL Server ExpressSQL Server Express should install it as a named instance. 如果同一台计算机中安装有多个应用程序,这种做法可以最大限度地减少冲突。This practice minimizes conflicts when multiple applications are installed on the same computer.

默认实例:选择该选项可安装 SQL ServerSQL Server 的默认实例。Default instance: Select this option to install a default instance of SQL ServerSQL Server. 一台计算机只能托管一个默认实例;所有其他实例必须是命名实例。A computer can host only one default instance; all other instances must be named. 但是,如果您已经安装了 SQL ServerSQL Server 的默认实例,则可以向同一台计算机添加 Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 的默认实例。However, if you have a default instance of SQL ServerSQL Server installed, you can add a default instance of Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services to the same computer.

命名实例:选择该选项可创建新的命名实例。Named instance: Select this option to create a new named instance. 命名 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例时,请注意以下几点:Be aware of the following information when you name an instance of SQL ServerSQL Server:

  • 实例名称不区分大小写。Instance names aren't case-sensitive.

  • 实例名称不得以下划线 () 开头或结尾。Instance names can't start or end with an underscore ().

  • 实例名称不得包含“Default”一词或其他保留关键字。Instance names can't contain the term "Default" or other reserved keywords. 如果在实例名称中使用了保留关键字,就会看到安装程序错误。If a reserved keyword is used in an instance name, a Setup error occurs. 有关详细信息,请参阅保留关键字 (Transact-SQL)For more information, see Reserved keywords (Transact-SQL).

  • 如果为实例名称指定 MSSQLSERVER,创建的是默认实例。If you specify MSSQLSERVER for the instance name, a default instance is created.

  • Microsoft SQL Server 2016 Power Pivot for SharePointMicrosoft SQL Server 2016 Power Pivot for SharePoint 安装始终安装为“Power PivotPower Pivot”的命名实例。An installation of Microsoft SQL Server 2016 Power Pivot for SharePointMicrosoft SQL Server 2016 Power Pivot for SharePoint is always installed as a named instance of "Power PivotPower Pivot". 不得为此功能角色指定其他实例名称。You can't specify a different instance name for this feature role.

  • 实例名限制为 16 个字符。Instance names are limited to 16 characters.

  • 实例名中的第一个字符必须是字母。The first character in the instance name must be a letter. 可接受的字母由 Unicode 标准 2.0 定义。Acceptable letters are the ones defined by the Unicode Standard 2.0. 这些字母包括拉丁字符 a-z、A-Z 和其他语言中的字母字符。These letters include Latin characters a-z, A-Z, and letter characters from other languages.

  • 后续字符可以是 Unicode 标准 2.0 定义的字母、源于基本拉丁语或其他国家/地区书写符号的十进制数字、美元符号 ($) 或者下划线 ()。Subsequent characters can be letters defined by the Unicode Standard 2.0, decimal numbers from Basic Latin or other national scripts, the dollar sign ($), or an underscore ().

  • 禁止在实例名称中使用嵌入空格或其他特殊字符。Embedded spaces or other special characters aren't allowed in instance names. 也禁止使用反斜杠 (\)、逗号 (,)、冒号 (:)、分号 (;)、单引号 (')、& 号 (&)、连字号 (-) 和 at 符号 (@)。The backslash (\), comma (,), colon (:), semicolon (;), single quotation mark ('), ampersand (&), hyphen (-), and at sign (@) also aren't allowed.

    只有在当前 Windows 代码页中有效的字符才能用在 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例名称中。Only characters that are valid in the current Windows code page can be used in SQL ServerSQL Server instance names. 如果使用不受支持的 Unicode 字符,就会看到安装程序错误。If an unsupported Unicode character is used, a Setup error occurs.

检测到的实例和功能:查看正在运行 SQL ServerSQL Server 安装程序的计算机中安装的 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例和组件的列表。Detected instances and features: View a list of installed SQL ServerSQL Server instances and components on the computer where SQL ServerSQL Server Setup is running.

实例 ID:默认情况下,实例名称用作实例 ID。Instance ID: By default, the instance name is used as the instance ID. 此 ID 用于标识 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例的安装目录和注册表项。This ID is used to identify installation directories and registry keys for your instance of SQL ServerSQL Server. 对于默认实例和命名实例,行为是相同的。The same behavior occurs for default instances and named instances. 对于默认实例,实例名称和实例 ID 为 MSSQLSERVER。For a default instance, the instance name and instance ID are MSSQLSERVER. 若要使用非默认实例 ID,请在“实例 ID”字段中指定它。To use a nondefault instance ID, specify it in the Instance ID field.

重要

如果使用 SQL ServerSQL Server SysPrep,“实例配置”页上显示的实例 ID 是,在 SQL ServerSQL Server SysPrep 过程的准备映像步骤中指定的实例 ID。With SQL ServerSQL Server SysPrep, the instance ID displayed on the Instance Configuration page is the instance ID you specified during the prepare image step of the SQL ServerSQL Server SysPrep process. 无法在完成映像步骤中指定其他实例 ID。You won't be able to specify a different instance ID during the complete image step.

备注

不支持以下划线 () 开头或包含数字符号 (#) 或美元符号 ($) 的实例 ID。Instance IDs that begin with an underscore () or that contain the number sign (#) or the dollar sign ($) aren't supported.

若要详细了解目录、文件位置和实例 ID 命名,请参阅 SQL Server 默认实例和命名实例的文件位置For more information about directories, file locations, and instance ID naming, see File locations for default and named instances of SQL Server.

SQL ServerSQL Server 的给定实例的所有组件作为一个单元进行管理。All components of a given instance of SQL ServerSQL Server are managed as a unit. 所有 SQL ServerSQL Server Service Pack 和升级都适用于 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例的每个组件。All SQL ServerSQL Server service packs and upgrades apply to every component of an instance of SQL ServerSQL Server.

共用同一实例名称的所有 SQL ServerSQL Server 组件都必须满足以下条件:All components of SQL ServerSQL Server that share the same instance name must meet the following criteria:

  • 版本相同Same version
  • 版本类别相同Same edition
  • 语言设置相同Same language settings
  • 聚集状态相同Same clustered state
  • 操作系统相同Same operating system

备注

Reporting ServicesReporting Services 不是群集感知应用程序。isn't cluster-aware.

“Analysis Services 配置 - 帐户预配”页Analysis Services Configuration - Account Provisioning page

此页可用于设置服务器节点,并向需要不受限制地访问 Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 的用户或服务授予管理权限。Use this page to set the server mode and to grant administrative permissions to users or services that require unrestricted access to Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services. 安装程序不会自动将本地 Windows 组 BUILTIN\Administrators 添加到要安装的实例的 Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 服务器管理员角色。Setup doesn't automatically add the local Windows group BUILTIN\Administrators to the Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services server administrator role of the instance you're installing. 如果要将本地管理员组添加到服务器管理员角色,则必须显式指定该组。If you want to add the local Administrators group to the server administrator role, you must explicitly specify that group.

若要安装 Power Pivot for SharePointPower Pivot for SharePoint,请务必向负责在 SharePoint Server 2010SharePoint Server 2010 场中部署 Power PivotPower Pivot 服务器的 SharePoint 场管理员或服务管理员授予管理权限。If you're installing Power Pivot for SharePointPower Pivot for SharePoint, be sure to grant administrative permissions to SharePoint farm administrators or service administrators who are responsible for a Power PivotPower Pivot server deployment in a SharePoint Server 2010SharePoint Server 2010 farm.

选项Options

服务器模式:服务器模式指定可部署到服务器的 Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 数据库的类型。Server Mode: The server mode specifies the type of Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services databases that can be deployed to the server. 服务器模式是在你使用安装程序期间进行确定,之后便无法再修改。Server modes are determined during Setup and can't be modified later. 每种模式都是互斥的;也就是说,需要两个 Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 实例,并为每个实例配置不同的模式,以同时支持典型联机分析处理 (OLAP) 和表格模型解决方案。Each mode is mutually exclusive, which means that you need two instances of Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services, each configured for a different mode, to support both classic online analytical processing (OLAP) and tabular model solutions.

指定管理员:必须为 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例指定至少一个服务器管理员。Specify Administrators: You must specify at least one server administrator for the instance of SQL ServerSQL Server. 你指定的用户或组成为要安装的 Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 实例的服务器管理员角色成员。The users or groups that you specify become members of the server administrator role of the Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services instance you're installing. 此类成员必须拥有 Windows 域用户帐户,这些帐户与要在其上安装软件的计算机处于同一域中。These members must have Windows domain user accounts in the same domain as the computer on which you're installing the software.

备注

用户帐户控制 (UAC) 是一项 Windows 安全功能,它要求管理操作或应用程序必须先获得管理员专门批准,然后才能运行。User Account Control (UAC) is a Windows security feature that requires an administrator to specifically approve administrative actions or applications before they're allowed to run. 由于 UAC 默认处于启用状态,因此系统会提示你允许执行需要提升的权限的特定操作。Because UAC is on by default, you'll be prompted to allow specific operations that require elevated privileges. 可以将 UAC 配置为更改默认行为,也可以为特定程序自定义 UAC。You can configure UAC to change the default behavior or you can customize UAC for specific programs. 若要详细了解 UAC 和 UAC 配置,请参阅用户帐户控制分步指南用户帐户控制 (Wikipedia)For more information about UAC and UAC configuration, see the User Account Control step-by-step guide and User Account Control (Wikipedia).

另请参阅See also

“Analysis Services 配置 - 数据目录”页Analysis Services Configuration - Data Directories page

下表中的默认目录是在 SQL ServerSQL Server 安装过程中可由用户配置的目录。The default directories in the following table are user-configurable during SQL ServerSQL Server Setup. 对这些文件的访问权限授予给本地管理员,以及在使用安装程序期间创建并预配的 SQLServerMSASUser$<instance> 安全组的成员。Permission to access these files is granted to local administrators and to members of the SQLServerMSASUser$<instance> security group that's created and provisioned during Setup.

UI 元素列表UI element list

说明Description 默认目录Default directory 建议Recommendations
数据根目录Data root directory <Drive:>\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSAS nn.<InstanceID>\OLAP\Data<Drive:>\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSAS nn.<InstanceID>\OLAP\Data\ 确保通过限制权限对 \Program files\Microsoft SQL Server\ 文件夹进行保护。Ensure that the \Program files\Microsoft SQL Server\ folder is protected with limited permissions. 在许多配置中,Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 性能取决于数据目录所在的存储区的性能。Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services performance depends, in many configurations, on the performance of the storage on which the data directory is located. 请将此目录置于已附加到系统的性能最高存储中。Place this directory on the highest-performing storage that is attached to the system. 对于故障转移群集安装,应确保数据目录位于共享磁盘上。For failover cluster installations, ensure that data directories are placed on the shared disk.
日志文件目录Log file directory <Drive:>\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSAS nn.<InstanceID>\OLAP\Log<Drive:>\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSAS nn.<InstanceID>\OLAP\Log\ 此目录用于 Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 日志文件,其中包括 FlightRecorder 日志。This directory is for Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services log files, and it includes the FlightRecorder log. 如果要延长网络流量记录器持续时间,请确保该日志目录有足够的空间。If you increase the flight recorder duration, ensure that the log directory has adequate space.
临时目录Temp directory <Drive:>\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSAS nn.<InstanceID>\OLAP\Temp<Drive:>\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSAS nn.<InstanceID>\OLAP\Temp\ 请将临时目录置于高性能存储子系统中。Place the Temp directory on a high-performance storage subsystem.
备份目录Backup directory <Drive:>\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSAS nn.<InstanceID>\OLAP\Backup<Drive:>\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSAS nn.<InstanceID>\OLAP\Backup\ 此目录用于 Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 默认备份文件。This directory is for Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services default backup files. 对于 Power PivotPower Pivot for SharePoint 安装,此目录也是 Power PivotPower Pivot 系统服务缓存 Power PivotPower Pivot 数据文件的位置。For Power PivotPower Pivot for SharePoint installations, this directory is also where the Power PivotPower Pivot System Services caches Power PivotPower Pivot data files.

请确保适当权限已设置以防数据丢失,并确保 Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 的用户组拥有足够的权限,可以对备份目录执行写入操作。Ensure appropriate permissions are set to prevent data loss, and that the user group for Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services has adequate permissions to write to the backup directory. 不支持对备份目录使用映射驱动器。Using a mapped drive for backup directories isn't supported.

注意事项Considerations

  • 在部署到 SharePoint 场后,Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 实例将应用程序文件、数据文件和属性存储在内容数据库和服务应用程序数据库中。When Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services instances are deployed on a SharePoint farm, they store application files, data files, and properties in content databases and service-application databases.

  • 向现有安装添加功能时,既不得更改以前安装的功能的位置,也不得为新功能指定位置。When you add features to an existing installation, you can't change the location of a previously installed feature, nor can you specify the location for a new feature.

  • 可能需要安装扫描软件(如防病毒应用程序和反间谍应用程序)以排除 SQL Server 文件夹和文件类型。You might need to configure scanning software, such as antivirus and antispyware applications, to exclude SQL Server folders and file types. 有关详细信息,请参阅以下支持文章:运行 SQL Server 的计算机上的防病毒软件Review this support article for more information: Antivirus software on computers running SQL Server.

  • 如果指定非默认安装目录,请确保安装文件夹对此 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例是唯一的。If you specify nondefault installation directories, ensure that the installation folders are unique to this instance of SQL ServerSQL Server. 不要将此对话框中的目录分与其他 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例中的目录。Don't share directories in this dialog box with directories from other instances of SQL ServerSQL Server. 还请在 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例中安装 数据库引擎Database EngineAnalysis ServicesAnalysis Services 组件,以分隔目录。Also install the 数据库引擎Database Engine and Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services components within an instance of SQL ServerSQL Server to separate directories.

  • 在下列情况下,无法安装程序文件和数据文件:Program files and data files can't be installed in the following situations:

    • 在可移动磁盘驱动器上On a removable disk drive
    • 在使用压缩的文件系统上On a file system that uses compression
    • 在系统文件所在的目录上To a directory where system files are located

另请参阅See also

若要详细了解目录、文件位置和实例 ID 命名,请参阅 SQL Server 默认实例和命名实例的文件位置For more information about directories, file locations, and instance ID naming, see File locations for default and named instances of SQL Server.

“Analysis Services 配置 - 数据目录”页Analysis Services Configuration - Data Directories page

下表中的默认目录是在 SQL ServerSQL Server 安装过程中可由用户配置的目录。The default directories in the following table are user-configurable during SQL ServerSQL Server Setup. 对这些文件的访问权限授予给本地管理员,以及在使用安装程序期间创建并预配的 SQLServerMSASUser$<instance> 安全组的成员。Permission to access these files is granted to local administrators and to members of the SQLServerMSASUser$<instance> security group that's created and provisioned during Setup.

UI 元素列表UI element list

说明Description 默认目录Default directory 建议Recommendations
数据根目录Data root directory <Drive:>\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSAS nn.<InstanceID>\OLAP\Data<Drive:>\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSAS nn.<InstanceID>\OLAP\Data 确保通过限制权限对 \Program files\Microsoft SQL Server\ 文件夹进行保护。Ensure that the \Program files\Microsoft SQL Server\ folder is protected with limited permissions. 在许多配置中,Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 性能取决于数据目录所在的存储区的性能。Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services performance depends, in many configurations, on the performance of the storage on which the data directory is located. 请将此目录置于已附加到系统的性能最高存储中。Place this directory on the highest-performing storage that's attached to the system. 对于故障转移群集安装,应确保数据目录位于共享磁盘上。For failover cluster installations, ensure that the data directories are placed on the shared disk.
日志文件目录Log file directory <Drive:>\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSAS nn.<InstanceID>\OLAP\Log<Drive:>\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSAS nn.<InstanceID>\OLAP\Log 此目录用于 Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 日志文件,其中包括 FlightRecorder 日志。This directory is for Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services log files, and it includes the FlightRecorder log. 如果延长外部测试版记录器持续时间,请确保日志目录有足够空间。If you increase the flight-recorder duration, ensure that the log directory has adequate space.
临时目录Temp directory <Drive:>\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSAS nn.<InstanceID>\OLAP\Temp<Drive:>\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSAS nn.<InstanceID>\OLAP\Temp 请将临时目录置于高性能存储子系统中。Place the Temp directory on a high-performance storage subsystem.
备份目录Backup directory <Drive:>\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSAS nn.<InstanceID>\OLAP\Backup<Drive:>\Program Files\Microsoft SQL Server\MSAS nn.<InstanceID>\OLAP\Backup 此目录用于 Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 默认备份文件。This directory is for Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services default backup files. 对于 Power PivotPower Pivot for SharePoint 安装,这也是 Power PivotPower Pivot 系统服务缓存 Power PivotPower Pivot 数据文件的位置。For Power PivotPower Pivot for SharePoint installations, it's also where the Power PivotPower Pivot System Services caches Power PivotPower Pivot data files.

确保设置合适的权限以防止数据丢失,并确保 Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 服务的用户组具有写入备份目录的足够权限。Ensure appropriate permissions are set to prevent data loss, and that the user group for the Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services service has adequate permissions to write to the backup directory. 不支持对备份目录使用映射驱动器。Using a mapped drive for backup directories isn't supported.

注意事项Considerations

  • 在部署到 SharePoint 场后,Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services 实例将应用程序文件、数据文件和属性存储在内容数据库和服务应用程序数据库中。When Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services instances are deployed on a SharePoint farm, they store application files, data files, and properties in content databases and service-application databases.

  • 向现有安装添加功能时,既不得更改以前安装的功能的位置,也不得为新功能指定位置。When you add features to an existing installation, you can't change the location of a previously installed feature, nor can you specify the location for a new feature.

  • 可能需要安装扫描软件(如防病毒应用程序和反间谍应用程序)以排除 SQL Server 文件夹和文件类型。You might need to configure scanning software, such as antivirus and antispyware applications, to exclude SQL Server folders and file types. 有关详细信息,请参阅运行 SQL Server 的计算机上的防病毒软件For more information, see Antivirus software on computers running SQL Server.

  • 如果指定非默认安装目录,请确保安装文件夹对此 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例是唯一的。If you specify nondefault installation directories, ensure that the installation folders are unique to this instance of SQL ServerSQL Server. 不要将此对话框中的目录分与其他 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例中的目录。Don't share the directories in this dialog box with directories from other instances of SQL ServerSQL Server. 还请在 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例中安装 数据库引擎Database EngineAnalysis ServicesAnalysis Services 组件,以分隔目录。Also install the 数据库引擎Database Engine and Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services components within an instance of SQL ServerSQL Server to separate directories.

  • 在下列情况下,无法安装程序文件和数据文件:Program files and data files can't be installed in the following situations:

    • 在可移动磁盘驱动器上On a removable disk drive
    • 在使用压缩的文件系统上On a file system that uses compression
    • 在系统文件所在的目录上To a directory where system files are located

另请参阅See also

“数据库引擎配置 - 服务器配置”页Database Engine Configuration - Server Configuration page

此页可用于设置 SQL ServerSQL Server 安全模式,并将 Windows 用户或组添加为 SQL Server 数据库引擎SQL Server Database Engine管理员。Use this page to set the SQL ServerSQL Server security mode and to add Windows users or groups as administrators of the SQL Server 数据库引擎SQL Server Database Engine.

关于运行 SQL Server 2019 (15.x)SQL Server 2019 (15.x) 的注意事项Considerations for running SQL Server 2019 (15.x)SQL Server 2019 (15.x)

在旧版 SQL ServerSQL Server中,BUILTIN\Administrators 组被预配为 数据库引擎Database Engine中的登录名,本地 Administrators 组的成员可以使用自己的管理员凭据登录。In previous versions of SQL ServerSQL Server, the BUILTIN\Administrators group was provisioned as a login in the 数据库引擎Database Engine and members of the local Administrators group could log in by using their Administrator credentials. 不过,使用提升的权限并不是最佳做法。However, using elevated permissions isn't a best practice.

SQL Server 2019 (15.x)SQL Server 2019 (15.x) 中,BUILTIN\Administrators 组未被预配为登录名。In SQL Server 2019 (15.x)SQL Server 2019 (15.x), the BUILTIN\Administrators group isn't provisioned as a login. 请务必为每个管理用户都创建 SQL ServerSQL Server 登录名,并在安装 SQL Server 2019 (15.x)SQL Server 2019 (15.x) 新实例的过程中将相应登录名添加到 sysadmin 固定服务器角色中。Make sure you create a SQL ServerSQL Server login for each administrative user, and add that login to the sysadmin fixed server role during the installation of a new instance of SQL Server 2019 (15.x)SQL Server 2019 (15.x). 对运行 SQL ServerSQL Server 代理作业(包括复制代理作业)的 Windows 帐户执行相同操作。Do the same for Windows accounts that run SQL ServerSQL Server agent jobs, including replication agent jobs.

选项Options

安全模式:为安装选择“Windows 身份验证”或“混合模式身份验证”。Security Mode: Select Windows Authentication or Mixed Mode Authentication for your installation.

Windows 主体预配:在旧版 SQL ServerSQL Server 中,Windows BUILTIN\Administrators 本地组被添加到 SQL ServerSQL Server sysadmin 服务器角色中,有效地向 Windows 管理员授予对 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例的访问权限。Windows Principal Provisioning: In previous versions of SQL ServerSQL Server, the Windows BUILTIN\Administrators local group was placed into the SQL ServerSQL Server sysadmin server role, effectively granting Windows administrators access to the instance of SQL ServerSQL Server. SQL Server 2019 (15.x)SQL Server 2019 (15.x) 中,BUILTIN\Administrators 组未在 sysadmin 服务器角色中进行预配。In SQL Server 2019 (15.x)SQL Server 2019 (15.x), the BUILTIN\Administrators group isn't provisioned in the sysadmin server role. 而是改为由您在安装过程中为新安装显式设置 SQL ServerSQL Server 管理员。Instead, you should explicitly provision SQL ServerSQL Server administrators for new installations during Setup.

重要

您在安装过程中必须为新安装显式设置 SQL ServerSQL Server 管理员。You must explicitly provision SQL ServerSQL Server administrators for new installations during Setup. 除非你完成这一步,否则安装程序不会允许你继续操作。Setup won't allow you to continue until you complete this step.

指定 SQL ServerSQL Server 管理员:必须为 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例指定至少一个 Windows 主体。Specify SQL ServerSQL Server Administrators: You must specify at least one Windows principal for the instance of SQL ServerSQL Server. 若要添加正在运行 SQL ServerSQL Server 安装程序的帐户,请选择“添加当前用户”按钮。To add the account under which SQL ServerSQL Server Setup is running, select the Add Current User button. 若要在系统管理员列表中添加或删除帐户,请先选择“添加”或“删除”,再编辑对 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例拥有管理员权限的用户、组或计算机列表。To add or remove accounts from the list of system administrators, select Add or Remove, and then edit the list of users, groups, or computers that will have administrator privileges for the instance of SQL ServerSQL Server.

编辑完列表后,选择“确定”,然后验证此配置对话框中的管理员列表。When you're finished editing the list, select OK, then verify the list of administrators in the configuration dialog box. 如果列表是完整的,请单击“下一步”。If the list is complete, select Next.

如果选择“混合模式身份验证”,必须为内置 SQL ServerSQL Server 系统管理员 (sa) 帐户提供登录凭据。If you select Mixed Mode Authentication, you must provide login credentials for the built-in SQL ServerSQL Server system administrator (sa) account.

重要

不要使用空密码。Do not use a blank password. 请使用强密码。Use a strong password.

Windows 身份验证模式:当用户通过 Windows 用户帐户连接时,SQL ServerSQL Server 使用操作系统中的 Windows 主体令牌来验证帐户名和密码。Windows Authentication Mode: When a user connects through a Windows user account, SQL ServerSQL Server validates the account name and password by using the Windows principal token in the operating system. Windows 身份验证是默认身份验证模式,比混合模式身份验证安全得多。Windows authentication is the default authentication mode, and it's much more secure than mixed mode authentication. Windows 身份验证使用 Kerberos 安全协议,在验证强密码复杂性方面强制执行密码策略,并支持帐户锁定和密码到期。Windows authentication uses the Kerberos security protocol, provides password-policy enforcement in terms of complexity validation for strong passwords, provides support for account lockout, and supports password expiration.

重要

请尽可能使用 Windows 身份验证。When possible, use Windows authentication.

重要

不要使用空密码。Do not use a blank password. 请使用强密码。Use a strong password. 切勿设置空白或弱 sa 密码。Never set a blank or weak sa password.

混合模式(Windows 身份验证或 SQL ServerSQL Server 身份验证) :允许用户使用 Windows 身份验证或 SQL ServerSQL Server 身份验证进行连接。Mixed Mode (Windows Authentication or SQL ServerSQL Server Authentication): Allows users to connect by using Windows authentication or SQL ServerSQL Server authentication. 通过 Windows 用户帐户进行连接的用户可以使用经过 Windows 验证的信任连接。Users who connect through a Windows user account can use trusted connections that are validated by Windows.

如果必须选择混合模式身份验证,且需要使用 SQL 登录名来适应旧版应用程序,必须为所有 SQL ServerSQL Server 帐户设置强密码。If you must choose mixed mode authentication and you need to use SQL logins to accommodate legacy applications, you must set strong passwords for all SQL ServerSQL Server accounts.

备注

提供 SQL ServerSQL Server 身份验证只是为了实现后向兼容性。SQL ServerSQL Server authentication is provided for backward compatibility only. 请尽可能使用 Windows 身份验证。When possible, use Windows authentication.

输入密码:输入并确认系统管理员 (sa) 登录名。Enter Password: Enter and confirm the system administrator (sa) login. 密码是抵御入侵者的第一道防线,因此设置强密码对于系统安全是绝对必要的。Passwords are the first line of defense against intruders, so setting strong passwords is essential to the security of your system. 切勿设置空白或弱 sa 密码。Never set a blank or weak sa password.

备注

SQL ServerSQL Server 密码可包含 1 到 128 个字符,包括字母、符号和数字的任意组合。passwords can contain from 1 to 128 characters, including any combination of letters, symbols, and numbers. 如果选择混合模式身份验证,必须先输入强 sa 密码,然后才能继续转到安装向导的下一页。If you choose mixed mode authentication, you must enter a strong sa password before you can continue to the next page of the Installation Wizard.

强密码指南Strong password guidelines

强密码不易被人猜出,也不易被计算机程序破解。Strong passwords aren't readily guessed by a person and aren't easily hacked by using a computer program. 强密码不得使用禁止的条件或字词,具体包括:Strong passwords can't use prohibited conditions or terms, including:

  • 空条件或 NULL 条件A blank or NULL condition
  • “Password”"Password"
  • “Admin”"Admin"
  • “Administrator”"Administrator"
  • “sa”"sa"
  • “sysadmin”"sysadmin"

强密码不得是下列与安装计算机相关联的字词:A strong password can't be the following terms associated with the installation computer:

  • 当前登录计算机的用户的用户名The name of the user currently logged into the machine
  • 计算机名称The computer name

强密码的长度必须多于 8 个字符,并且强密码至少要满足下列四个条件中的三个:A strong password must be more than 8 characters in length and satisfy at least three of the following four criteria:

  • 它必须包含大写字母。It must contain uppercase letters.
  • 它必须包含小写字母。It must contain lowercase letters.
  • 必须包含数字。It must contain numbers.
  • 必须包含非字母数字字符;例如 #、% 或 ^。It must contain non-alphanumeric characters; for example, #, %, or ^.

你在此页上输入的密码必须符合强密码策略要求。Passwords entered on this page must meet strong-password-policy requirements. 如果有任何使用 SQL ServerSQL Server 身份验证的自动化过程,请确保密码符合强密码策略要求。If you have any automation that uses SQL ServerSQL Server authentication, ensure that the password meets strong-password-policy requirements.

另请参阅See also

若要详细了解如何选择 Windows 身份验证与 SQL ServerSQL Server 身份验证,请参阅选择身份验证模式For more information about choosing Windows authentication versus SQL ServerSQL Server authentication, see Choose an authentication mode.

若要详细了解如何选择用于运行 SQL Server 数据库引擎SQL Server Database Engine的帐户,请参阅配置 Windows 服务帐户和权限For more information about choosing an account to run the SQL Server 数据库引擎SQL Server Database Engine, see Configure Windows service accounts and permissions.

“数据库引擎配置 - 数据目录”页Database Engine Configuration - Data Directories page

此页面可用于指定 SQL ServerSQL Server 数据库引擎Database Engine 程序和数据文件的安装位置。Use this page to specify the installation location for the SQL ServerSQL Server 数据库引擎Database Engine program and data files. 根据安装类型,支持的存储可能包括本地磁盘、共享存储或 SMB 文件服务器。Based on the type of installation, the supported storage may include local disk, shared storage, or an SMB file server.

若要将 SMB 文件共享指定为目录,您必须手动键入支持的 UNC 路径。To specify an SMB file share as a directory, you must manually type the supported UNC path. 不支持转到 SMB 文件共享。Browsing to an SMB file share isn't supported. 下面的示例展示了受支持的 SMB 文件共享 UNC 路径格式:The following example shows the supported UNC path format of an SMB file share:

\\<ServerName>\<ShareName>\...

SQL ServerSQL Server 独立实例Standalone instance of SQL ServerSQL Server

对于 SQL ServerSQL Server 独立实例,下表列出了受支持的存储类型,以及你可以在 SQL ServerSQL Server 安装过程中配置的默认目录:For a standalone instance of SQL ServerSQL Server, the following table lists the supported storage types and the default directories that you can configure during SQL ServerSQL Server Setup:

UI 元素列表UI element list

说明Description 受支持的存储类型Supported storage types 默认目录Default directory 建议Recommendations
数据根目录Data root directory 本地磁盘、SMB 文件服务器、共享存储*Local disk, SMB file server, shared storage* <Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server<Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\ SQL ServerSQL Server 安装程序为 SQL ServerSQL Server 目录配置访问控制列表 (ACL),并在配置过程中中断继承。Setup configures access control lists (ACLs) for SQL ServerSQL Server directories and breaks inheritance as part of configuration.
用户数据库目录User database directory 本地磁盘、SMB 文件服务器、共享存储*Local disk, SMB file server, shared storage* <Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\MSSQL nn.<InstanceID>\MSSQL\Data<Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\MSSQL nn.<InstanceID>\MSSQL\Data 用户数据目录的最佳实践取决于工作量和性能要求。Best practices for user data directories depend on workload and performance requirements.
用户数据库日志目录User database log directory 本地磁盘、SMB 文件服务器、共享存储*Local disk, SMB file server, shared storage* <Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\MSSQL nn.<InstanceID>\MSSQL\Data<Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\MSSQL nn.<InstanceID>\MSSQL\Data 确保日志目录有足够的空间。Ensure that the log directory has adequate space.
备份目录Backup directory 本地磁盘、SMB 文件服务器、共享存储*Local disk, SMB file server, shared storage* <Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\MSSQL nn.<InstanceID>\MSSQL\Backup<Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\MSSQL nn.<InstanceID>\MSSQL\Backup 设置合适的权限以防止数据丢失,并确保 SQL ServerSQL Server 服务的用户帐户具有写入备份目录的足够权限。Set appropriate permissions to prevent data loss, and ensure that the user account for the SQL ServerSQL Server service has adequate permissions to write to the backup directory. 不支持对备份目录使用映射驱动器。Using a mapped drive for backup directories isn't supported.

*尽管共享磁盘受支持,但不建议将共享磁盘用于 SQL ServerSQL Server 独立实例。* Although shared disks are supported, we don't recommend their use for a standalone instance of SQL ServerSQL Server.

SQL ServerSQL Server 故障转移群集实例Failover cluster instance of SQL ServerSQL Server

对于 SQL ServerSQL Server 故障转移群集实例,下表列出了受支持的存储类型,以及你可以在 SQL ServerSQL Server 安装过程中配置的默认目录。For a failover cluster instance of SQL ServerSQL Server, the following table lists the supported storage types and the default directories that you can configure during SQL ServerSQL Server Setup.

说明Description 受支持的存储类型Supported storage types 默认目录Default directory 建议Recommendations
数据根目录Data root directory 共享存储、SMB 文件服务器Shared storage, SMB file server <Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server<Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\

提示:如果你选择“群集磁盘选择”页上的“共享磁盘”,系统默认选择第一个共享磁盘。Tip: If you select shared disk on the Cluster Disk Selection page, the default is the first shared disk. 如果未在“群集磁盘选择”页上进行任何选择,此字段默认为空白。This field defaults to blank if you don't make a selection on the Cluster Disk Selection page.
SQL ServerSQL Server 安装程序为 SQL ServerSQL Server 目录配置 ACL,并在配置过程中中断继承。Setup configures ACLs for SQL ServerSQL Server directories and breaks inheritance as part of configuration.
用户数据库目录User database directory 共享存储、SMB 文件服务器Shared storage, SMB file server <Drive:>Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\MSSQL nn.<InstanceID>\MSSQL\Data<Drive:>Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\MSSQL nn.<InstanceID>\MSSQL\Data

提示:如果你选择“群集磁盘选择”页上的“共享磁盘”,系统默认选择第一个共享磁盘。Tip: If you select shared disk on the Cluster Disk Selection page, the default is the first shared disk. 如果未在“群集磁盘选择”页上进行任何选择,此字段默认为空白。This field defaults to blank if you don't make a selection on the Cluster Disk Selection page.
用户数据目录的最佳实践取决于工作量和性能要求。Best practices for user data directories depend on workload and performance requirements.
用户数据库日志目录User database log directory 共享存储、SMB 文件服务器Shared storage, SMB file server <Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\MSSQL nn.<InstanceID>\MSSQL\Data<Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\MSSQL nn.<InstanceID>\MSSQL\Data

提示:如果你选择“群集磁盘选择”页上的“共享磁盘”,系统默认选择第一个共享磁盘。Tip: If you select shared disk on the Cluster Disk Selection page, the default is the first shared disk. 如果未在“群集磁盘选择”页上进行任何选择,此字段默认为空白。This field defaults to blank if you don't make a selection on the Cluster Disk Selection page.
确保日志目录有足够的空间。Ensure that the log directory has adequate space.
备份目录Backup directory 本地磁盘、共享存储、SMB 文件服务器Local disk, shared storage, SMB file server <Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\MSSQL nn.<InstanceID>\MSSQL\Backup<Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\MSSQL nn.<InstanceID>\MSSQL\Backup

提示:如果你选择“群集磁盘选择”页上的“共享磁盘”,系统默认选择第一个共享磁盘。Tip: If you select shared disk on the Cluster Disk Selection page, the default is the first shared disk. 如果未在“群集磁盘选择”页上进行任何选择,此字段默认为空白。This field defaults to blank if you don't make a selection on the Cluster Disk Selection page.
设置合适的权限以防止数据丢失,并确保 SQL Server 服务的用户帐户具有写入备份目录的足够权限。Set appropriate permissions to prevent data loss, and ensure that the user account for the SQL Server service has adequate permissions to write to the backup directory. 不支持对备份目录使用映射驱动器。Using a mapped drive for backup directories isn't supported.

安全注意事项Security considerations

安装程序将为 SQL ServerSQL Server 目录配置 ACL 并在配置过程中中断继承。Setup will configure ACLs for SQL ServerSQL Server directories and break inheritance as part of configuration.

以下建议适用于 SMB 文件服务器:The following recommendations apply to SMB file servers:

  • 使用 SMB 文件服务器时, SQL ServerSQL Server 服务帐户必须是域帐户。The SQL ServerSQL Server service account must be a domain account if an SMB file server is used.

  • 用于安装 SQL ServerSQL Server 的帐户应对用作数据目录的 SMB 文件共享文件夹拥有完全控制 NTFS 权限。The account used to install SQL ServerSQL Server should have Full Control NTFS permissions on the SMB file share folder used as the data directory.

  • 用于安装 SQL ServerSQL Server 的帐户应具有对 SMB 文件服务器的 SeSecurityPrivilege 特权。The account used to install SQL ServerSQL Server should be granted SeSecurityPrivilege privileges on the SMB file server. 若要授予此特权,请使用文件服务器上的“本地安全策略”控制台将 SQL ServerSQL Server 安装帐户添加到 “管理审核和安全日志” 策略中。To grant this privilege, use the Local Security Policy console on the file server to add the SQL ServerSQL Server setup account to the Manage auditing and security log policy. 在“本地安全策略”控制台中,可以在“用户权限分配”部分中的“本地策略”下找到此设置。This setting is in the User Rights Assignments section under Local Policies in the Local Security Policy console.

注意事项Considerations

  • 向现有安装添加功能时,既不得更改以前安装的功能的位置,也不得为新功能指定位置。When adding features to an existing installation, you can't change the location of a previously installed feature, nor can you specify the location for a new feature.

  • 如果指定非默认安装目录,请确保安装文件夹对此 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例是唯一的。If you specify nondefault installation directories, ensure that the installation folders are unique to this instance of SQL ServerSQL Server. 不要将此对话框中的目录分与其他 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例中的目录。Don't share the directories in this dialog box with directories from other instances of SQL ServerSQL Server. 还请在 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例中安装 数据库引擎Database EngineAnalysis ServicesAnalysis Services 组件,以分隔目录。Also install the 数据库引擎Database Engine and Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services components within an instance of SQL ServerSQL Server to separate directories.

  • 在下列情况下,无法安装程序文件和数据文件:Program files and data files can't be installed in the following situations:

    • 在可移动磁盘驱动器上On a removable disk drive
    • 在使用压缩的文件系统上On a file system that uses compression
    • 在系统文件所在的目录上To a directory where system files are located
    • 在故障转移群集实例的映射网络驱动器上On a mapped network drive on a failover cluster instance

“数据库引擎配置 - TempDB”页 Database Engine Configuration - TempDB page

此页可用于指定 SQL ServerSQL Server 数据库引擎Database Engine 的 tempdb 数据和日志文件位置、大小、增长设置和文件数量。Use this page to specify the tempdb data and log file location, size, growth settings, and number of files for SQL ServerSQL Server 数据库引擎Database Engine. 根据安装类型,支持的存储可能包括本地磁盘、共享存储或 SMB 文件服务器。Based on the type of installation, the supported storage may include local disk, shared storage, or an SMB file server.

若要将 SMB 文件共享指定为目录,您必须手动键入支持的 UNC 路径。To specify an SMB file share as a directory, you must manually type the supported UNC path. 不支持转到 SMB 文件共享。Browsing to an SMB file share isn't supported. 下面的示例展示了受支持的 SMB 文件共享 UNC 路径格式:The following example shows the supported UNC path format of an SMB file share:

\\<ServerName>\<ShareName>\....

SQL ServerSQL Server 独立实例的数据目录和日志目录Data and log directories for a standalone instance of SQL ServerSQL Server

对于SQL ServerSQL Server 独立实例,下表列出了受支持的存储类型,以及你可以在使用安装程序期间配置的默认目录。For standalone instances of SQL ServerSQL Server, the following table lists the supported storage types and default directories that you can configure during setup.

说明Description 受支持的存储类型Supported storage type 默认目录Default directory 建议Recommendations
数据目录Data directories 本地磁盘、SMB 文件服务器、共享存储*Local disk, SMB file server, shared storage* <Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\MSSQL nn.<InstanceID>\MSSQL\Data<Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\MSSQL nn.<InstanceID>\MSSQL\Data SQL ServerSQL Server 安装程序为 SQL ServerSQL Server 目录配置 ACL,并在配置过程中中断继承。Setup configures ACLs for SQL ServerSQL Server directories and breaks inheritance as part of configuration.

tempdb 目录的最佳做法取决于工作负荷和性能需求。Best practices for the tempdb directories depend on workload and performance requirements. 若要跨多个卷分散数据文件,请指定多个文件夹或驱动器。To spread the data files across several volumes, specify multiple folders or drives.
日志目录Log directory 本地磁盘、SMB 文件服务器、共享存储*Local disk, SMB file server, shared storage* <Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\MSSQL nn.<InstanceID>\MSSQL\Data<Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\MSSQL nn.<InstanceID>\MSSQL\Data 确保日志目录有足够的空间。Ensure that the log directory has adequate space.

*尽管共享磁盘受支持,但不建议将共享磁盘用于 SQL ServerSQL Server 独立实例。* Although shared disks are supported, we don't recommend their use for a standalone instance of SQL ServerSQL Server.

SQL ServerSQL Server 故障转移群集实例的数据和日志目录Data and log directories for a failover cluster instance of SQL ServerSQL Server

对于 SQL ServerSQL Server 故障转移群集实例,下表列出了受支持的存储类型,以及你可以在 SQL ServerSQL Server 安装过程中配置的默认目录。For a failover cluster instance of SQL ServerSQL Server, the following table lists the supported storage types and the default directories that you can configure during SQL ServerSQL Server Setup.

说明Description 受支持的存储类型Supported storage type 默认目录Default directory 建议Recommendations
tempdb 数据目录tempdb data directory 本地磁盘、共享存储、SMB 文件服务器Local disk, shared storage, SMB file server <Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\MSSQL nn.<InstanceID>\Data<Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\MSSQL nn.<InstanceID>\Data

提示:如果你选择“群集磁盘选择”页上的“共享磁盘”,系统默认选择第一个共享磁盘。Tip: If you select shared disk on the Cluster Disk Selection page, the default is the first shared disk. 如果未在“群集磁盘选择”页上进行任何选择,此字段默认为空白。This field defaults to blank if you don't make a selection on the Cluster Disk Selection page.
SQL ServerSQL Server 安装程序为 SQL ServerSQL Server 目录配置 ACL,并在配置过程中中断继承。Setup configures ACLs for SQL ServerSQL Server directories and breaks inheritance as part of configuration.

请确保指定的一个或多个目录(如果指定了多个文件)对所有群集节点都有效。Ensure that the specified directory or directories (if multiple files are specified) are valid for all the cluster nodes. 在故障转移期间,如果 tempdb 目录对故障转移目标节点不可用,SQL Server 资源将无法联机。During failover, if the tempdb directories aren't available on the failover target node, the SQL Server resource fails to come online.
tempdb 日志目录tempdb log directory 本地磁盘、共享存储、SMB 文件服务器Local disk, shared storage, SMB file server <Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\MSSQL nn.<InstanceID>\MSSQL\Data<Drive:>\Program Files\MicrosoftMicrosoft SQL ServerSQL Server\MSSQL nn.<InstanceID>\MSSQL\Data

提示:如果你选择“群集磁盘选择”页上的“共享磁盘”,系统默认选择第一个共享磁盘。Tip: If you select shared disk on the Cluster Disk Selection page, the default is the first shared disk. 如果未在“群集磁盘选择”页上进行任何选择,此字段默认为空白。This field defaults to blank if you don't make a selection on the Cluster Disk Selection page.
用户数据目录的最佳实践取决于工作量和性能要求。Best practices for user data directories depend on workload and performance requirements.

确保指定的目录对所有群集节点都有效。Ensure that the specified directory is valid for all the cluster nodes. 在故障转移期间,如果 tempdb 目录对故障转移目标节点不可用,SQL Server 资源将无法联机。During failover, if the tempdb directories aren't available on the failover target node, the SQL Server resource fails to come online.

确保日志目录有足够的空间。Ensure that the log directory has adequate space.

UI 元素列表UI element list

根据工作负荷和要求配置 tempdb 的设置。Configure the settings for tempdb according to your workload and requirements. 下列设置适用于 tempdb 数据文件:The following settings apply to tempdb data files:

  • “文件数” 是 tempdb 的数据文件总数。Number of files is the total number of data files for tempdb. 默认值是 8 和安装程序检测到的逻辑内核数中的较小值。The default value is the lower of 8 or the number of logical cores detected by Setup. 作为一般准则,如果逻辑处理器数小于或等于 8,则使用与逻辑处理器数相同的数据文件数。As a general rule, if the number of logical processors is less than or equal to 8, use the same number of data files as logical processors. 如果逻辑处理器数大于 8,请指定 8 个数据文件。If the number of logical processors is greater than 8, use 8 data files. 如果存在争用,请以 4(逻辑处理器数上限)为倍数增加数据文件数,直到争用减少到可接受的水平,或请更改工作负荷或代码。If contention occurs, increase the number of data files by multiples of 4 (up to the number of logical processors) until contention falls to acceptable levels, or make changes to the workload or code.

  • 初始大小(MB) :每个 tempdb 数据文件的初始大小(以 MB 为单位)。Initial size (MB) is the initial size in megabytes for each tempdb data file. 默认值为 8 MB(对于 SQL Server ExpressSQL Server Express 为 4 MB)。The default value is 8 MB (or 4 MB for SQL Server ExpressSQL Server Express). SQL Server 2017 (14.x)SQL Server 2017 (14.x) 引入的最大初始文件大小为 262,144 MB (256 GB)。introduces a maximum initial file size of 262,144 MB (256 GB). SQL Server 2016 (13.x)SQL Server 2016 (13.x) 的初始文件大小上限为 1024MB。has a maximum initial file size of 1024 MB. 所有 tempdb 数据文件初始大小相同。All tempdb data files are the same initial size. 由于 tempdb 在 SQL Server 每次启动或进行故障转移时都会重新创建,因此请指定与工作负荷正常运行所需大小接近的大小。Because tempdb is re-created every time SQL Server starts or fails over, specify a size that's close to the size required by your workload for normal operation. 若要在启动过程中进一步优化 tempdb 创建,请启用数据库即时文件初始化To further optimize the creation of tempdb during startup, enable database instant file initialization.

  • 总初始大小(MB) :所有 tempdb 数据文件的累积大小。Total initial size (MB) is the cumulative size of all the tempdb data files.

  • 自动增长(MB) :每个 tempdb 数据文件在空间不足时自动增长的空间量(以 MB 为单位)。Autogrowth (MB) is the amount of space in megabytes that each tempdb data file automatically grows by when it runs out of space. SQL Server 2016 (13.x)SQL Server 2016 (13.x) 及更高版本中,所有数据文件都按此设置中指定的量同时增长。In SQL Server 2016 (13.x)SQL Server 2016 (13.x) and later, all data files grow at the same time by the amount specified in this setting.

  • 总自动增长 (MB) 是每个自动增长事件的累积大小。Total autogrowth (MB) is the cumulative size of each autogrowth event.

  • 数据目录:显示保留 tempdb 数据文件的所有目录。Data directories shows all the directories that hold tempdb data files. 当存在多个目录时,以循环方式将数据文件放置在目录中。When there are multiple directories, data files are placed in directories in a round-robin manner. 例如,如果你创建 3 个目录,并指定 8 个数据文件,那么数据文件 1、4 和 7 在第一个目录中创建。For example, if you create 3 directories and specify 8 data files, data files 1, 4, and 7 are created in the first directory. 数据文件 2、5 和 8 在第二个目录中创建。Data files 2, 5, and 8 are created in the second directory. 数据文件 3 和 6 在第三个目录中创建。Data files 3 and 6 are in the third directory.

  • 若要添加目录,请选择“添加…”。To add directories, select Add....

  • 若要删除目录,请依次选择目录和“删除”。To remove a directory, select the directory, and select Remove.

“tempdb 日志文件”是日志文件名。Tempdb log file is the name of the log file. 此文件是自动创建的。This file is created automatically. 下列设置仅适用于 tempdb 日志文件:The following settings apply only to tempdb log files:

  • 初始大小 (MB)tempdb 日志文件的初始大小。Initial size (MB) is the initial size of the tempdb log file. 默认值为 8 MB(对于 SQL Server ExpressSQL Server Express 为 4 MB)。The default value is 8 MB (or 4 MB for SQL Server ExpressSQL Server Express). SQL Server 2017 (14.x)SQL Server 2017 (14.x) 引入的最大初始文件大小为 262,144 MB (256 GB)。introduces a maximum initial file size of 262,144 MB (256 GB). SQL Server 2016 (13.x)SQL Server 2016 (13.x) 的初始文件大小上限为 1024MB。has a maximum initial file size of 1024 MB. 由于 tempdb 在 SQL Server 每次启动或进行故障转移时都会重新创建,因此请指定与工作负荷正常运行所需大小接近的大小。Because tempdb is re-created every time SQL Server starts or fails over, specify a size that's close to the size required by your workload for normal operation. 若要在启动过程中进一步优化 tempdb 创建,请启用数据库即时文件初始化To further optimize the creation of tempdb during startup, enable database instant file initialization.

    备注

    tempdb 使用最小日志记录。Tempdb uses minimal logging. 无法备份 tempdb 日志文件。The tempdb log file can't be backed up. 它在 SQL Server 每次启动或群集实例进行故障转移时重新创建。It is re-created every time SQL Server starts or when a cluster instance fails over.

  • 自动增长 (MB)tempdb 日志以 MB 为单位的增长量。Autogrowth (MB) is the growth increment of the tempdb log in megabytes. 默认值 64 MB 在初始化期间创建最优数量的虚拟日志文件。The default value of 64 MB creates the optimal number of virtual log files during initialization.

    备注

    tempdb 日志文件不使用数据库即时文件初始化。Tempdb log files don't use database instant file initialization.

  • “日志目录” 是其中创建 tempdb 日志文件的日志目录。Log directory is the directory where tempdb log files are created. 只有一个 tempdb 日志目录。There's only one tempdb log directory.

安全注意事项Security considerations

安装程序为 SQL ServerSQL Server 目录配置 ACL,并在配置过程中中断继承。Setup configures ACLs for SQL ServerSQL Server directories and breaks inheritance as part of configuration.

以下建议适用于 SMB 文件服务器:The following recommendations apply to the SMB file server:

  • 使用 SMB 文件服务器时, SQL ServerSQL Server 服务帐户必须是域帐户。The SQL ServerSQL Server service account must be a domain account if an SMB file server is used.

  • 如果帐户用于安装 SQL ServerSQL Server,应对用作数据目录的 SMB 文件共享文件夹拥有完全控制 NTFS 权限。The account used to install SQL ServerSQL Server should have Full Control NTFS permissions on the SMB file share folder used as the data directory.

  • 用于安装 SQL ServerSQL Server 的帐户应具有对 SMB 文件服务器的 SeSecurityPrivilege 特权。The account used to install SQL ServerSQL Server should be granted SeSecurityPrivilege privileges on the SMB file server. 若要授予此特权,请使用文件服务器上的“本地安全策略”控制台将 SQL ServerSQL Server 安装帐户添加到 “管理审核和安全日志” 策略中。To grant this privilege, use the Local Security Policy console on the file server to add the SQL ServerSQL Server setup account to the Manage auditing and security log policy. 在“本地安全策略”控制台中,可以在“用户权限分配”部分中的“本地策略”下找到此设置。This setting is in the User Rights Assignments section under Local Policies in the Local Security Policy console.

备注

如果指定非默认安装目录,请确保安装文件夹对此 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例是唯一的。If you specify nondefault installation directories, ensure that the installation folders are unique to this instance of SQL ServerSQL Server. 此对话框中的任何目录都不应与其他 SQL ServerSQL Server实例的目录共享。None of the directories in this dialog box should be shared with directories from other instances of SQL ServerSQL Server. 数据库引擎Database Engine 实例中的Analysis ServicesAnalysis ServicesSQL ServerSQL Server 组件也应安装到单独的目录。The 数据库引擎Database Engine and Analysis ServicesAnalysis Services components within an instance of SQL ServerSQL Server should also be installed to separate directories.

另请参阅See also

“数据库引擎配置 - MaxDOP”页 Database Engine Configuration - MaxDOP page

“最大并行度(MaxDOP)”决定了一个语句最多可以使用多少个处理器。Max degree of parallelism (MaxDOP) determines the maximum number of processors that a single statement can use. SQL Server 2019 (15.x)SQL Server 2019 (15.x) 引入了在安装过程中配置此选项的功能。introduces the ability to configure this option during installation. SQL Server 2019 (15.x)SQL Server 2019 (15.x) 还可以根据内核数自动为服务器检测建议的 MaxDOP 设置。also automatically detects the recommended MaxDOP setting for the server based on the number of cores.

如果在安装过程中跳过此页,默认 MaxDOP 值就是此页中显示的建议值,而不是旧版本 (0) 的默认 数据库引擎Database Engine 值。If this page is skipped during setup, the default MaxDOP value is the recommended value displayed in this page instead of the default 数据库引擎Database Engine value for previous versions (0). 你还可以在此页上手动配置这一设置,并在安装后修改这一设置。You can also manually configure this setting on this page, and you can modify this setting after installation.

UI 元素列表UI element list

“数据库引擎配置 - 内存”页 Database Engine Configuration - Memory page

“最小服务器内存”决定了 SQL Server 数据库引擎SQL Server Database Engine 将用于缓冲池和其他缓存的内存下限。min server memory determines the lower memory limit that the SQL Server 数据库引擎SQL Server Database Engine will use for the buffer pool and other caches. 默认值和建议值均为 0。The default value is 0 and the recommended value is also 0. 若要详细了解“最小服务器内存”的影响,请参阅内存管理体系结构指南For more information on the effects of min server memory, see the Memory Management Architecture Guide.

“最大服务器内存”决定了 SQL Server 数据库引擎SQL Server Database Engine 将用于缓冲池和其他缓存的内存上限。max server memory determines the upper memory limit that the SQL Server 数据库引擎SQL Server Database Engine will use for the buffer pool and other caches. 根据现有系统内存,默认值为 2,147,483,647MB,计算出的建议值遵循独立 SQL ServerSQL Server 实例的服务器内存配置选项中的内存配置准则。The default value is 2,147,483,647 megabytes (MB) and the calculated recommended values will align with the memory configuration guidelines in Server Memory Configuration Options for a standalone SQL ServerSQL Server instance, based on the existing system memory. 若要详细了解“最大服务器内存”的影响,请参阅内存管理体系结构指南For more information on the effects of max server memory, see the Memory Management Architecture Guide.

如果在安装过程中跳过此页,使用的“最大服务器内存”默认值为 数据库引擎Database Engine 默认值 (2,147,483,647MB)。If this page is skipped during setup, the default max server memory value used is the 数据库引擎Database Engine default value (2,147,483,647 megabytes). 选中“建议”单选按钮后,即可在此页上手动配置这些设置,并在安装后修改这些设置。You can manually configure these settings on this page once you've chosen the Recommended radio button, and you can modify these setting after installation. 有关详细信息,请参阅 服务器内存配置选项For more information, see Server Memory Configuration Options.

UI 元素列表UI element list

默认:默认情况下,此单选按钮处于选中状态,并将“最小服务器内存”和“最大服务器内存”设置设为 数据库引擎Database Engine 默认值。Default: This radio button is selected by default and sets the min server memory and max server memory settings to the 数据库引擎Database Engine default values.

建议:必须选中此单选按钮,才能接受计算出的建议值,或将计算出的值更改为用户配置的值。Recommended: This radio button must be selected to accept the calculated recommended values or to change the calculated values to user configured values.

最小服务器内存(MB) :若要从计算出的建议值更改为用户配置的值,请输入“最小服务器内存”值。Min Server Memory (MB): If changing from the calculated recommended value to a user configured value, enter the value for min server memory.

最大服务器内存(MB) :若要从计算出的建议值更改为用户配置的值,请输入“最大服务器内存”值。Max Server Memory (MB): If changing from the calculated recommended value to a user configured value, enter the value for max server memory.

单击此处接受用于 SQL Server 数据库引擎的建议内存配置:选中此复选框,可以接受此服务器上计算出的建议内存配置。Click here to accept the recommended memory configurations for the SQL Server Database Engine: Select this check box to accept the calculated recommended memory configurations on this server. 如果“建议”单选按钮处于选中状态,而此复选框处于未选中状态,那么安装程序将无法继续运行。If the Recommended radio button was selected, setup cannot continue without this check box being selected.

“数据库引擎配置 - FILESTREAM”页Database Engine Configuration - FILESTREAM page

使用此页可针对此 SQL Server 2019 (15.x)SQL Server 2019 (15.x)安装启用 FILESTREAM。Use this page to enable FILESTREAM for this installation of SQL Server 2019 (15.x)SQL Server 2019 (15.x). FILESTREAM 通过将 varbinary(max) 二进制大型对象 (BLOB) 数据作为文件存储在 NTFS 文件系统中,将 SQL Server 数据库引擎SQL Server Database Engine与此文件系统集成在一起。FILESTREAM integrates the SQL Server 数据库引擎SQL Server Database Engine with an NTFS file system by storing varbinary(max) binary large object (BLOB) data as files in the file system. Transact-SQLTransact-SQL 语句可插入、更新、查询、搜索和备份 FILESTREAM 数据。statements can insert, update, query, search, and back up FILESTREAM data. Microsoft Win32 文件系统接口提供对数据的流访问权限。Microsoft Win32 file-system interfaces provide streaming access to the data.

UI 元素列表UI element list

为 Transact-SQL 访问启用 FILESTREAM:选中此项可针对 Transact-SQLTransact-SQL 访问启用 FILESTREAM。Enable FILESTREAM for Transact-SQL access: Select to enable FILESTREAM for Transact-SQLTransact-SQL access. 必须先选中此复选框,然后才能配置其他选项。This check box must be selected before the other options will be available.

为文件 I/O 流访问启用 FILESTREAM:选中此项可针对 FILESTREAM 启用 Win32 流访问。Enable FILESTREAM for file I/O streaming access: Select to enable Win32 streaming access for FILESTREAM.

Windows 共享名:输入用来存储 FILESTREAM 数据的 Windows 共享名。Windows share name: Enter the name of the Windows share in which the FILESTREAM data will be stored.

允许远程客户端拥有对 FILESTREAM 数据的流访问权限:选中这个复选框可允许远程客户端访问此服务器上的 FILESTREAM 数据。Allow remote clients to have streaming access to FILESTREAM data: Select this check box to allow remote clients to access the FILESTREAM data on this server.

另请参阅See also

“数据库引擎配置 - 用户实例”页Database Engine Configuration - User Instance page

“用户实例”页可用于:Use the User Instance page to:

  • 为没有管理员权限的用户单独生成数据库引擎Database Engine实例。Generate a separate instance of the 数据库引擎Database Engine for users without administrator permissions.
  • 将用户添加到管理员角色中。Add users to the administrator role.

选项Options

启用用户实例:默认处于启用状态。Enable User Instances: The default is on. 若要禁用“启用用户实例”,请取消选中此复选框。To turn off the ability to enable user instances, clear the check box.

用户实例也称为子实例或客户端实例,是由父实例(作为服务运行的主实例,如 SQL ServerSQL Server )代表用户生成的 SQL Server ExpressSQL Server Express实例。The user instance, also known as a child or client instance, is an instance of SQL ServerSQL Server that is generated by the parent instance (the primary instance that runs as a service, like SQL Server ExpressSQL Server Express) on behalf of a user. 用户实例作为用户进程在该用户的安全上下文下运行。The user instance runs as a user process under the security context of that user. 用户实例与父实例和计算机上运行的其他任何用户实例隔离开来。The user instance is isolated from the parent instance and any other user instances that are running on the computer. 用户实例功能亦称为“以普通用户身份运行 (RANU)”。The user instance feature is also referred to as "run as normal user" (RANU).

备注

在使用安装程序期间预配为 sysadmin 固定服务器角色成员的登录名在模板数据库中预配为管理员。Logins provisioned as members of the sysadmin fixed server role during Setup are provisioned as administrators in the template database. 除非遭删除,否则它们是用户实例的 sysadmin 固定服务器角色成员。They're members of the sysadmin fixed server role on the user instance unless they're removed.

将用户添加到 SQL ServerSQL Server 管理员角色中:默认处于禁用状态。Add user to the SQL ServerSQL Server Administrator role: Default is off. 若要将当前安装程序用户添加到 SQL ServerSQL Server 管理员角色中,请选中此复选框。To add the current Setup user to the SQL ServerSQL Server Administrator role, select the check box.

作为 BUILTIN\Administrators 成员的 Windows VistaWindows Vista 用户在连接到 SQL Server ExpressSQL Server Express 时,不会自动添加到 sysadmin 固定服务器角色中。Windows VistaWindows Vista users that are members of BUILTIN\Administrators aren't automatically added to the sysadmin fixed server role when they connect to SQL Server ExpressSQL Server Express. 只有已显式添加到服务器级别管理员角色中的 Windows VistaWindows Vista 用户才能管理 SQL Server ExpressSQL Server ExpressOnly Windows VistaWindows Vista users who have been explicitly added to a server-level administrator role can administer SQL Server ExpressSQL Server Express. Built-In\Users 组成员可以连接到 SQL Server ExpressSQL Server Express 实例,但他们执行数据库任务的权限有限。Members of the Built-In\Users group can connect to the SQL Server ExpressSQL Server Express instance, but they'll have limited permissions to do database tasks. 因此,对于从旧版 Windows 的 BUILTIN\Administrators 和 Built-In\Users 继承 SQL Server ExpressSQL Server Express 权限的用户,必须在 Windows VistaWindows Vista 上运行的 SQL Server ExpressSQL Server Express 实例中显式获得管理权限。For this reason, users whose SQL Server ExpressSQL Server Express privileges are inherited from BUILTIN\Administrators and Built-In\Users in previous releases of Windows must be explicitly granted administrative privileges in instances of SQL Server ExpressSQL Server Express that are running on Windows VistaWindows Vista.

若要在安装程序结束后更改用户角色,请使用 SQL Server Management StudioTRANSACT-SQLTo make changes to the user roles after the installation program ends, use SQL Server Management Studio or Transact-SQL.