Windows 10 上的 Hyper-V 简介Introduction to Hyper-V on Windows 10

无论你是软件开发人员、IT 专业人员还是技术爱好者,你们中的许多人都需要运行多个操作系统。Whether you are a software developer, an IT professional, or a technology enthusiast, many of you need to run multiple operating systems. Hyper-V 让你可以在 Windows 上以虚拟机形式运行多个操作系统。Hyper-V lets you run multiple operating systems as virtual machines on Windows.

运行 Windows 的虚拟机

具体来说,Hyper-V 提供硬件虚拟化。Hyper-V specifically provides hardware virtualization. 这意味着每个虚拟机都在虚拟硬件上运行。That means each virtual machine runs on virtual hardware. Hyper-V 允许你创建虚拟硬盘驱动器、虚拟交换机以及许多其他虚拟设备,所有这些都可以添加到虚拟机中。Hyper-V lets you create virtual hard drives, virtual switches, and a number of other virtual devices all of which can be added to virtual machines.

使用虚拟化的原因Reasons to use virtualization

虚拟化允许你:Virtualization allows you to:

  • 运行需要早期版本的 Windows 操作系统或非 Windows 操作系统的软件。Run software that requires an older versions of Windows or non-Windows operating systems.

  • 实验其他操作系统。Experiment with other operating systems. 通过 Hyper-V,可轻松创建和删除不同的操作系统。Hyper-V makes it very easy to create and remove different operating systems.

  • 使用多个虚拟机在多个操作系统上测试软件。Test software on multiple operating systems using multiple virtual machines. 通过 Hyper-V,可以在一部台式机或便携式计算机上运行所有内容。With Hyper-V, you can run them all on a single desktop or laptop computer. 可以将这些虚拟机导出并随后导入到任何其他 Hyper-V 系统中,包括 Azure。These virtual machines can be exported and then imported into any other Hyper-V system, including Azure.

系统要求System requirements

Hyper-V 可用于 64 位 Windows 10 专业版、企业版和教育版。Hyper-V is available on 64-bit versions of Windows 10 Pro, Enterprise, and Education. 它无法用于家庭版。It is not available on the Home edition.

打开“设置” > “更新和安全” > “激活”,从 Windows 10 家庭版升级到 Windows 10 专业版。Upgrade from Windows 10 Home edition to Windows 10 Pro by opening Settings > Update and Security > Activation. 可以在此处访问应用商店并购买升级。Here you can visit the store and purchase an upgrade.

大多数计算机运行 Hyper-V,但每个虚拟机运行完全独立的操作系统。Most computers run Hyper-V, however each virtual machine runs a completely separate operating system. 通常,你可以在具有 4GB RAM 的计算机上运行一个或多个虚拟机,但是你需要更多的资源以供其他虚拟机使用,或安装和运行资源密集型软件,如游戏、视频编辑或工程设计软件。You can generally run one or more virtual machines on a computer with 4GB of RAM, though you'll need more resources for additional virtual machines or to install and run resource intense software like games, video editing, or engineering design software.

有关 Hyper-V 的系统要求以及如何验证 Hyper-V 在计算机上运行的详细信息,请参阅 Hyper-V 要求参考For more information about Hyper-V's system requirements and how to verify that Hyper-V runs on your machine, see the Hyper-V Requirements Reference.

可以在虚拟机中运行的操作系统Operating systems you can run in a virtual machine

Windows 上的 Hyper-V 支持虚拟机中的许多不同操作系统,其中包括各种版本的 Linux、FreeBSD 和 Windows。Hyper-V on Windows supports many different operating systems in a virtual machine including various releases of Linux, FreeBSD, and Windows.

提醒一下,对于你在 VM 中使用的任何操作系统,都需要具有有效的许可证。As a reminder, you'll need to have a valid license for any operating systems you use in the VMs.

有关 Windows 上的 Hyper-V 中作为来宾支持的操作系统的信息,请参阅受支持的 Windows 来宾操作系统受支持的 Linux 来宾操作系统For information about which operating systems are supported as guests in Hyper-V on Windows, see Supported Windows Guest Operating Systems and Supported Linux Guest Operating Systems.

Windows 上的 Hyper-V 和 Windows Server 上的 Hyper-V 之间的差异Differences between Hyper-V on Windows and Hyper-V on Windows Server

对于某些功能来说,其工作方式在 Windows 上的 Hyper-V 中和在运行于 Windows Server 上的 Hyper-V 中不同。There are some features that work differently in Hyper-V on Windows than they do in Hyper-V running on Windows Server.

仅在 Windows Server 中可用的 Hyper-V 功能:Hyper-V features only available on Windows Server:

  • 将虚拟机从一台主机实时迁移到另一台主机Live migration of virtual machines from one host to another
  • Hyper-V 副本Hyper-V Replica
  • 虚拟光纤通道Virtual Fiber Channel
  • SR-IOV 网络SR-IOV networking
  • 共享的 .VHDXShared .VHDX

仅在 Windows 10 中可用的 Hyper-V 功能:Hyper-V features only available on Windows 10:

  • 快速创建和 VM 库Quick Create and the VM Gallery
  • 默认网络(NAT 交换机)Default network (NAT switch)

对于 Windows 上的 Hyper-V,内存管理模块不同。The memory management model is different for Hyper-V on Windows. 在服务器上,通过假设只有虚拟机在该服务器上运行来管理 Hyper-V 内存。On a server, Hyper-V memory is managed with the assumption that only the virtual machines are running on the server. 在 Windows 上的 Hyper-V 中,通过大多数客户端计算机都在运行主机上的软件以及运行虚拟机的预期来管理内存。In Hyper-V on Windows, memory is managed with the expectation that most client machines are running software on host in addition to running virtual machines.

限制Limitations

依赖于特定硬件的程序不能在虚拟机中良好运行。Programs that depend on specific hardware will not work well in a virtual machine. 例如,需要使用 GPU 进行处理的游戏或应用程序可能无法良好运行。For example, games or applications that require processing with GPUs might not work well. 依赖于子 10 毫秒计时器的应用程序(如实时音乐混合应用程序或高精度时间)在虚拟机中运行时也可能会出问题。Also, applications relying on sub-10ms timers such as live music mixing applications or high precision times could have issues running in a virtual machine.

此外,如果已启用了 Hyper-V,这些易受延迟影响的高精度应用程序在主机中运行时可能也会出问题。In addition, if you have Hyper-V enabled, those latency-sensitive, high-precision applications may also have issues running in the host. 这是因为在启用了虚拟化后,主机操作系统也会在 Hyper-V 虚拟化层的顶部运行,就如来宾操作系统那样。This is because with virtualization enabled, the host OS also runs on top of the Hyper-V virtualization layer, just as guest operating systems do. 但是,与来宾操作系统不同,主机操作系统在这点上很特殊,它是直接访问所有硬件,这意味着具有特殊硬件要求的应用程序仍然可以在主机操作系统中运行,而不会出问题。However, unlike guests, the host OS is special in that it has direct access to all the hardware, which means that applications with special hardware requirements can still run without issues in the host OS.

下一步Next step

在 Windows 10 上安装 Hyper-VInstall Hyper-V on Windows 10