开始使用 WinDbg (内核模式)Getting Started with WinDbg (Kernel-Mode)

WinDbg 是一个内核模式和用户模式下的调试器所包含的 Windows 调试工具。WinDbg is a kernel-mode and user-mode debugger that is included in Debugging Tools for Windows. 此处我们提供了实际操作相关的练习,将帮助你开始使用 WinDbg 作为内核模式调试程序。Here we provide hands-on exercises that will help you get started using WinDbg as a kernel-mode debugger.

有关如何获取有关 Windows 调试工具的信息,请参阅调试工具的 Windows (WinDbg、 KD、 CDB、 NTSD)For information about how to get Debugging Tools for Windows, see Debugging Tools for Windows (WinDbg, KD, CDB, NTSD). 已安装调试工具后,找到 (x64) 64 位和 32 位 (x86) 版本的工具的安装目录。After you have installed the debugging tools, locate the installation directories for 64-bit (x64) and 32-bit (x86) versions of the tools. 例如:For example:

  • C:\程序文件 (x86)\Windows 工具包\8.1\调试器\x64C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\8.1\Debuggers\x64
  • C:\程序文件 (x86)\Windows 工具包\8.1\调试器\x86C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\8.1\Debuggers\x86

设置内核模式调试Set up a kernel-mode debugging

内核模式调试环境通常具有两台计算机:主机计算机目标计算机A kernel-mode debugging environment typically has two computers: the host computer and the target computer. 在主计算机上运行调试器和正在调试的代码在目标计算机上运行。The debugger runs on the host computer, and the code being debugged runs on the target computer. 主机和目标通过调试电缆进行连接。The host and target are connected by a debug cable.

Windows 调试器支持这些类型的电缆,用于调试的:The Windows debuggers support these types of cables for debugging:

  • EthernetEthernet
  • USB 2.0USB 2.0
  • USB 3.0USB 3.0
  • 13941394
  • 序列 (也称为 null 调制解调器)Serial (also called null modem)

如果目标计算机运行的 Windows 8 或更高版本,可以使用任何类型的调试缆线,包括以太网。If your target computer is running Windows 8 or later, you can use any type of debug cable, including Ethernet. 此图描述了用于调试通过以太网电缆连接的主机和目标计算机。This diagram illustrates a host and target computer connected for debugging over Ethernet cable.

主机和目标使用以太网连接的关系图

如果目标计算机正在运行早于 Window 8 的 Windows 版本,则不能用于调试; 使用以太网必须使用 USB、 1394,或串行。If your target computer is running a version of Windows earlier than Window 8, then you cannot use Ethernet for debugging; you must use USB, 1394, or serial. 此图描述了通过 USB、 1394,或串行调试电缆连接的主机和目标计算机。This diagram illustrates a host and target computer connected by a USB, 1394, or serial debug cable.

主机和目标使用调试电缆的关系图

有关如何设置主机和目标计算机的详细信息,请参阅设置了内核模式调试手动For details about how to set up the host and target computers, see Setting Up Kernel-Mode Debugging Manually.

建立内核模式调试会话Establish a kernel-mode debugging session

你已设置了主机和目标计算机而使用调试电缆连接它们后,可以按照如何设置使用同一主题中的说明建立内核模式调试会话。After you have set up your host and target computer and connected them with a debug cable, you can establish a kernel-mode debugging session by following the instructions in the same topic that you used for getting set up. 例如,如果您决定将主机和目标计算机通过以太网进行调试设置,您可以找到建立内核模式调试会话是本主题说明:For example, if you decided to set up your host and target computers for debugging over Ethernet, you can find instructions for establishing a kernel-mode debugging session is this topic:

开始使用 WinDbgGet started using WinDbg

  1. 主计算机上打开 WinDbg 和建立与目标计算机的内核模式调试会话。On the host computer, open WinDbg and establish a kernel-mode debugging session with the target computer.

  2. 在 WinDbg 中,选择内容帮助菜单。In WinDbg, choose Contents from the Help menu. 这将打开调试器文档 CHM 文件。This opens the debugger documentation CHM file. 调试程序文档,还可以在行此处The debugger documentation is also available on line here.

  3. 建立时内核模式调试会话,WinDbg 可能会中断到目标计算机自动。When you establish a kernel-mode debugging session, WinDbg might break in to the target computer automatically. 如果不已损坏 WinDbg,请选择中断调试菜单。If WinDbg has not already broken in, choose Break from the Debug menu.

  4. 靠近底部 WinDbg 窗口中,在命令行中,输入以下命令:Near the bottom of the WinDbg window, in the command line, enter this command:

    .sympath srv\*.sympath srv\*

    输出结果类似于此:The output is similar to this:

    Symbol search path is: srv*
    Expanded Symbol search path is: cache*;SRV*https://msdl.microsoft.com/download/symbols
    

    符号搜索路径告知 WinDbg 查找符号 (PDB) 文件的位置。The symbol search path tells WinDbg where to look for symbol (PDB) files. 调试器需要符号文件,以了解有关代码模块 (函数名称、 变量名称等) 的信息。The debugger needs symbol files to obtain information about code modules (function names, variable names, and the like).

    请输入以下命令,它会告知 WinDbg,执行其初始查找和加载的符号文件:Enter this command, which tells WinDbg to do its initial finding and loading of symbol files:

    .reload.reload

  5. 若要查看的已加载的模块列表,请输入以下命令:To see a list of loaded modules, enter this command:

    lmlm

    输出结果类似于此:The output is similar to this:

    0:000>3: kd> lm
    start             end                 module name
    fffff800`00000000 fffff800`00088000   CI         (deferred)             
    ...         
    fffff800`01143000 fffff800`01151000   BasicRender   (deferred)             
    fffff800`01151000 fffff800`01163000   BasicDisplay  (deferred)             
    ...      
    fffff800`02a0e000 fffff800`03191000   nt  (pdb symbols) C:\...\ntkrnlmp.pdb
    fffff800`03191000 fffff800`03200000   hal (deferred)             
    ...
    
  6. 若要开始运行的目标计算机,请输入以下命令:To start target computer running, enter this command:

    gg

  7. 若要再次中断,选择中断调试菜单。To break in again, choose Break from the Debug menu.

  8. 输入以下命令来检查_文件_nt 模块中的对象数据类型:Enter this command to examine the _FILE_OBJECT data type in the nt module:

    dt nt !_文件_对象dt nt!_FILE_OBJECT

    输出结果类似于此:The output is similar to this:

    0:000>0: kd> dt nt!_FILE_OBJECT
       +0x000 Type             : Int2B
       +0x002 Size             : Int2B
       +0x008 DeviceObject     : Ptr64 _DEVICE_OBJECT
       +0x010 Vpb              : Ptr64 _VPB
       ...
       +0x0c0 IrpList          : _LIST_ENTRY
       +0x0d0 FileObjectExtension : Ptr64 Void
    
  9. 输入以下命令来检查一些 nt 模块中的符号:Enter this command to examine some of the symbols in the nt module:

    x nt !*CreateProcess\*x nt!*CreateProcess\*

    输出结果类似于此:The output is similar to this:

    0:000>0: kd> x nt!*CreateProcess*
    fffff800`030821cc nt!ViCreateProcessCallbackInternal (<no parameter info>)
    ...
    fffff800`02e03904 nt!MmCreateProcessAddressSpace (<no parameter info>)
    fffff800`02cece00 nt!PspCreateProcessNotifyRoutine = <no type information>
    ...
    
  10. 输入以下命令,将在断点放MmCreateProcessAddressSpace:Enter this command to put a breakpoint at MmCreateProcessAddressSpace:

    bu nt!MmCreateProcessAddressSpacebu nt!MmCreateProcessAddressSpace

    若要验证设置了断点,请输入以下命令:To verify that the breakpoint is set, enter this command:

    blbl

    输出结果类似于此:The output is similar to this:

    0:000>0: kd> bu nt!MmCreateProcessAddressSpace
    0: kd> bl
    0 e fffff800`02e03904     0001 (0001) nt!MmCreateProcessAddressSpace
    

    输入 g 让运行在目标计算机。Enter g to let the target computer run.

  11. 如果目标计算机不会向调试器立即中断,在目标计算机 (例如,打开记事本) 上执行一些操作。If the target computer doesn't break in to the debugger immediately, perform a few actions on the target computer (for example, open Notepad). 目标计算机将中断到调试器时MmCreateProcessAddressSpace调用。The target computer will break in to the debugger when MmCreateProcessAddressSpace is called. 若要查看堆栈跟踪,请输入以下命令:To see the stack trace, enter these commands:

    .reload.reload

    kk

    输出结果类似于此:The output is similar to this:

    0:000>2: kd> k
    Child-SP          RetAddr           Call Site
    ffffd000`224b4c88 fffff800`02d96834 nt!MmCreateProcessAddressSpace
    ffffd000`224b4c90 fffff800`02dfef17 nt!PspAllocateProcess+0x5d4
    ffffd000`224b5060 fffff800`02b698b3 nt!NtCreateUserProcess+0x55b
    ...
    000000d7`4167fbb0 00007ffd`14b064ad KERNEL32!BaseThreadInitThunk+0xd
    000000d7`4167fbe0 00000000`00000000 ntdll!RtlUserThreadStart+0x1d
    
  12. 视图菜单中,选择反汇编On the View menu, choose Disassembly.

    调试菜单中,选择单步跳过(或按F10)。On the Debug menu, choose Step Over (or press F10). 输入单步执行命令几个更多时间在您观看反汇编窗口。Enter step commands a few more times as you watch the Disassembly window.

  13. 通过输入此命令,清除断点:Clear your breakpoint by entering this command:

    bc \*bc \*

    输入 g 让运行在目标计算机。Enter g to let the target computer run. 通过选择再次中断中断调试菜单或按下ctrl + BreakBreak in again by choosing Break from the Debug menu or pressing CTRL-Break.

  14. 若要查看的所有进程的列表,请输入以下命令:To see a list of all processes, enter this command:

    !process 0 0!process 0 0

    输出结果类似于此:The output is similar to this:

    0:000>0: kd> !process 0 0
    **** NT ACTIVE PROCESS DUMP ****
    PROCESS ffffe000002287c0
        SessionId: none  Cid: 0004    Peb: 00000000  ParentCid: 0000
        DirBase: 001aa000  ObjectTable: ffffc00000003000  HandleCount: <Data Not Accessible>
        Image: System
    
    PROCESS ffffe00001e5a900
        SessionId: none  Cid: 0124    Peb: 7ff7809df000  ParentCid: 0004
        DirBase: 100595000  ObjectTable: ffffc000002c5680  HandleCount: <Data Not Accessible>
        Image: smss.exe
    ...
    PROCESS ffffe00000d52900
        SessionId: 1  Cid: 0910    Peb: 7ff669b8e000  ParentCid: 0a98
        DirBase: 3fdba000  ObjectTable: ffffc00007bfd540  HandleCount: <Data Not Accessible>
        Image: explorer.exe
    
  15. 复制一个进程的地址并输入以下命令:Copy the address of one process, and enter this command:

    !process Address 2!process Address 2

    例如: ! 过程 ffffe00000d5290 2For example: !process ffffe00000d5290 2

    该输出显示在过程中的线程。The output shows the threads in the process.

    0:000>0:000>0: kd> !process ffffe00000d52900 2
    PROCESS ffffe00000d52900
        SessionId: 1  Cid: 0910    Peb: 7ff669b8e000  ParentCid: 0a98
        DirBase: 3fdba000  ObjectTable: ffffc00007bfd540  HandleCount:
        Image: explorer.exe
    
            THREAD ffffe00000a0d880  Cid 0910.090c  Teb: 00007ff669b8c000
                ffffe00000d57700  SynchronizationEvent
    
            THREAD ffffe00000e48880  Cid 0910.0ad8  Teb: 00007ff669b8a000
                ffffe00000d8e230  NotificationEvent
                ffffe00000cf6870  Semaphore Limit 0xffff
                ffffe000039c48c0  SynchronizationEvent
            ...
            THREAD ffffe00000e6d080  Cid 0910.0cc0  Teb: 00007ff669a10000
                ffffe0000089a300  QueueObject
    
  16. 复制一个线程的地址并输入以下命令:Copy the address of one thread, and enter this command:

    *! 线程***地址!thread Address

    例如: ! 线程 ffffe00000e6d080For example: !thread ffffe00000e6d080

    该输出显示有关各个线程的信息。The output shows information about the individual thread.

    0: kd> !thread ffffe00000e6d080
    THREAD ffffe00000e6d080  Cid 0910.0cc0  Teb: 00007ff669a10000 Win32Thread: 0000000000000000 WAIT: ...
        ffffe0000089a300  QueueObject
    Not impersonating
    DeviceMap                 ffffc000034e7840
    Owning Process            ffffe00000d52900       Image:         explorer.exe
    Attached Process          N/A            Image:         N/A
    Wait Start TickCount      13777          Ticks: 2 (0:00:00:00.031)
    Context Switch Count      2              IdealProcessor: 1             
    UserTime                  00:00:00.000
    KernelTime                00:00:00.000
    Win32 Start Address ntdll!TppWorkerThread (0x00007ffd14ab2850)
    Stack Init ffffd00021bf1dd0 Current ffffd00021bf1580
    Base ffffd00021bf2000 Limit ffffd00021bec000 Call 0
    Priority 13 BasePriority 13 UnusualBoost 0 ForegroundBoost 0 IoPriority 2 PagePriority 5
    ...
    
  17. 若要查看插设备树中的所有设备节点,输入以下命令:To see all the device nodes in the Plug and Play device tree, enter this command:

    !devnode 0 1!devnode 0 1

    0:000>0: kd> !devnode 0 1
    Dumping IopRootDeviceNode (= 0xffffe000002dbd30)
    DevNode 0xffffe000002dbd30 for PDO 0xffffe000002dc9e0
      InstancePath is "HTREE\ROOT\0"
      State = DeviceNodeStarted (0x308)
      Previous State = DeviceNodeEnumerateCompletion (0x30d)
      DevNode 0xffffe000002d9d30 for PDO 0xffffe000002daa40
        InstancePath is "ROOT\volmgr\0000"
        ServiceName is "volmgr"
        State = DeviceNodeStarted (0x308)
        Previous State = DeviceNodeEnumerateCompletion (0x30d)
        DevNode 0xffffe00001d49290 for PDO 0xffffe000002a9a90
          InstancePath is "STORAGE\Volume\{3007dfd3-df8d-11e3-824c-806e6f6e6963}#0000000000100000"
          ServiceName is "volsnap"
          TargetDeviceNotify List - f 0xffffc0000031b520  b 0xffffc0000008d0f0
          State = DeviceNodeStarted (0x308)
          Previous State = DeviceNodeStartPostWork (0x307)
    ...
    
  18. 若要查看其硬件资源以及设备节点,请输入以下命令:To see the device nodes along with their hardware resources, enter this command:

    !devnode 0 9!devnode 0 9

    0:000>...
            DevNode 0xffffe000010fa770 for PDO 0xffffe000010c2060
              InstancePath is "PCI\VEN_8086&DEV_2937&SUBSYS_2819103C&REV_02\3&33fd14ca&0&D0"
              ServiceName is "usbuhci"
              State = DeviceNodeStarted (0x308)
              Previous State = DeviceNodeEnumerateCompletion (0x30d)
              TranslatedResourceList at 0xffffc00003c78b00  Version 1.1  Interface 0x5  Bus #0
                Entry 0 - Port (0x1) Device Exclusive (0x1)
                  Flags (0x131) - PORT_MEMORY PORT_IO 16_BIT_DECODE POSITIVE_DECODE 
                  Range starts at 0x3120 for 0x20 bytes
                Entry 1 - DevicePrivate (0x81) Device Exclusive (0x1)
                  Flags (0000) - 
                  Data - {0x00000001, 0x00000004, 0000000000}
                Entry 2 - Interrupt (0x2) Shared (0x3)
                  Flags (0000) - LEVEL_SENSITIVE 
                  Level 0x8, Vector 0x81, Group 0, Affinity 0xf
    ...
    
  19. 若要查看的服务名称为磁盘的设备节点,输入以下命令:To see a device node that has a service name of disk, enter this command:

    !devnode 0 1 disk!devnode 0 1 disk

    0: kd> !devnode 0 1 disk
    Dumping IopRootDeviceNode (= 0xffffe000002dbd30)
    DevNode 0xffffe0000114fd30 for PDO 0xffffe00001159610
      InstancePath is "IDE\DiskST3250820AS_____________________________3.CHL___\5&14544e82&0&0.0.0"
      ServiceName is "disk"
      State = DeviceNodeStarted (0x308)
      Previous State = DeviceNodeEnumerateCompletion (0x30d)
    ...
    
  20. 输出 ! devnode 0 1 显示节点的物理设备对象 (PDO) 的地址。The output of !devnode 0 1 displays the address of the physical device object (PDO) for the node. 复制物理设备对象 (PDO) 的地址并输入以下命令:Copy the address of a physical device object (PDO), and enter this command:

    !devstack PdoAddress!devstack PdoAddress

    例如:PdoAddress!devstack 0xffffe00001159610For example: PdoAddress!devstack 0xffffe00001159610

    0:000>0: kd> !devstack 0xffffe00001159610
      !DevObj           !DrvObj            !DevExt           ObjectName
      ffffe00001d50040  \Driver\partmgr    ffffe00001d50190  
      ffffe00001d51450  \Driver\disk       ffffe00001d515a0  DR0
      ffffe00001156e50  \Driver\ACPI       ffffe000010d8bf0  
    
  21. 若要获取有关驱动程序 disk.sys 的信息,请输入以下命令:To get information about the driver disk.sys, enter this command:

    !drvobj disk 2!drvobj disk 2

    0:000>0: kd> !drvobj disk 2
    Driver object (ffffe00001d52680) is for:
     \Driver\disk
    DriverEntry:   fffff800006b1270 disk!GsDriverEntry
    DriverStartIo: 00000000 
    DriverUnload:  fffff800010b0b5c CLASSPNP!ClassUnload
    AddDevice:     fffff800010aa110 CLASSPNP!ClassAddDevice
    
    Dispatch routines:
    [00] IRP_MJ_CREATE                      fffff8000106d160    CLASSPNP!ClassGlobalDispatch
    [01] IRP_MJ_CREATE_NAMED_PIPE           fffff80002b0ab24    nt!IopInvalidDeviceRequest
    [02] IRP_MJ_CLOSE                       fffff8000106d160    CLASSPNP!ClassGlobalDispatch
    [03] IRP_MJ_READ                        fffff8000106d160    CLASSPNP!ClassGlobalDispatch
    ...
    [1b] IRP_MJ_PNP                         fffff8000106d160    CLASSPNP!ClassGlobalDispatch
    
  22. 输出 ! drvobj 显示的调度例程的地址: 例如,classpnp 会 !ClassGlobalDispatch。The output of !drvobj displays addresses of dispatch routines: for example, CLASSPNP!ClassGlobalDispatch. 若要设置并验证在 ClassGlobalDispatch 断点,请输入以下命令:To set and verify a breakpoint at ClassGlobalDispatch, enter these commands:

    bu CLASSPNP!ClassGlobalDispatchbu CLASSPNP!ClassGlobalDispatch

    blbl

    输入 g 让运行在目标计算机。Enter g to let the target computer run.

    如果目标计算机不会向调试器立即中断,在目标计算机上执行一些操作 (例如,打开记事本并保存文件)。If the target computer doesn't break in to the debugger immediately, perform a few actions on the target computer (for example, open Notepad and save a file). 目标计算机将中断到调试器时ClassGlobalDispatch调用。The target computer will break in to the debugger when ClassGlobalDispatch is called. 若要查看堆栈跟踪,请输入以下命令:To see the stack trace, enter these commands:

    .reload.reload

    kk

    输出结果类似于此:The output is similar to this:

    2: kd> k
    Child-SP          RetAddr           Call Site
    ffffd000`21d06cf8 fffff800`0056c14e CLASSPNP!ClassGlobalDispatch
    ffffd000`21d06d00 fffff800`00f2c31d volmgr!VmReadWrite+0x13e
    ffffd000`21d06d40 fffff800`0064515d fvevol!FveFilterRundownReadWrite+0x28d
    ffffd000`21d06e20 fffff800`0064578b rdyboost!SmdProcessReadWrite+0x14d
    ffffd000`21d06ef0 fffff800`00fb06ad rdyboost!SmdDispatchReadWrite+0x8b
    ffffd000`21d06f20 fffff800`0085cef5 volsnap!VolSnapReadFilter+0x5d
    ffffd000`21d06f50 fffff800`02b619f7 Ntfs!NtfsStorageDriverCallout+0x16
    ...
    
  23. 若要结束调试会话,请输入以下命令:To end your debugging session, enter this command:

    qdqd

命令摘要Summary of commands

相关主题Related topics

Getting Started with WinDbg (User-Mode)(WinDbg 入门(用户模式))Getting Started with WinDbg (User-Mode)

内核模式调试手动设置Setting Up Kernel-Mode Debugging Manually

调试程序操作Debugger Operation

调试方法Debugging Techniques

(WinDbg、 KD、 CDB、 NTSD) 的 Windows 调试工具Debugging Tools for Windows (WinDbg, KD, CDB, NTSD)