Windows PE (WinPE)Windows PE (WinPE)

适用于 Windows 10 的 Windows PE (WinPE) 是一个小型操作系统,用于安装、部署和修复 Windows 10 桌面版(家庭版、专业版、企业版和教育版)、Windows Server 和其他 Windows 操作系统。Windows PE (WinPE) for Windows 10 is a small operating system used to install, deploy, and repair Windows 10 for desktop editions (Home, Pro, Enterprise, and Education), Windows Server, and other Windows operating systems. 通过 Windows PE,你可以:From Windows PE, you can:

  • 在安装 Windows 之前设置硬盘。Set up your hard drive before installing Windows.
  • 使用来自网络或本地驱动器的应用或脚本安装 Windows。Install Windows by using apps or scripts from a network or a local drive.
  • 捕获和应用 Windows 映像。Capture and apply Windows images.
  • 在 Windows 操作系统未运行时,对其进行修改。Modify the Windows operating system while it's not running.
  • 设置自动恢复工具。Set up automatic recovery tools.
  • 从无法启动的设备中恢复数据。Recover data from unbootable devices.
  • 添加自己的自定义 shell 或 GUI 来使此类任务自动化。Add your own custom shell or GUI to automate these kinds of tasks.

Windows PE 命令行

在哪里进行下载?Where do I download it?

从 Windows 10 版本 1809 开始,WinPE 就已成为 Windows 评估和部署工具包 (ADK) 的加载项Starting with Windows 10, version 1809, WinPE is an add-on to the Windows Assessment and Deployment Kit (ADK). 而在这之前,它包含在 ADK 中。Previously it was included in the ADK. 若要获取 Windows PE,请安装 ADK,然后安装 WinPE 加载项。To get Windows PE, install the ADK, and then install the WinPE addon. 有关详细信息,请参阅 WinPE:创建 USB 可启动驱动器WinPE:创建启动 CD、DVD、ISO 或 VHD 或参阅演示:在 USB 驱动器上安装 Windows PEFor more info, see WinPE: Create USB Bootable drive, WinPE: Create a Boot CD, DVD, ISO, or VHD, or see the Demo: Installing Windows PE on a USB Drive.

支持许多 Windows 功能Support for many Windows features

Windows PE 运行 Windows 命令行环境,并支持以下 Windows 功能:Windows PE runs the Windows command line environment, and supports these Windows features:

  • 批处理文件和脚本,包括对 Windows 脚本主机 (WSH) 和 ActiveX 数据对象 (ADO) 的支持,以及对 PowerShell 的可选支持。Batch files and scripts, including support for Windows Script Host (WSH), and ActiveX Data Objects (ADO), and optional support for PowerShell.
  • 应用程序,包括 Win32 应用程序编程接口 (API),以及对 HTML 应用程序 (HTA) 的可选支持。Applications, including Win32 application programming interfaces (APIs) and optional support for HTML Applications (HTA).
  • 驱动程序,包括一组可运行网络、图形和大容量存储设备的通用驱动程序。Drivers, including a generic set of drivers that can run networking, graphics, and mass storage devices.
  • 映像捕获和服务,包括部署映像服务和管理 (DISM)。Image capturing and servicing, including Deployment Image Servicing and Management (DISM).
  • 网络,包括通过 LAN 使用 TCP/IP 和 TCP/IP 上的 NetBIOS 连接到文件服务器。Networking, including connecting to file servers using TCP/IP and NetBIOS over TCP/IP via LAN.
  • 存储,包括 NTFS、DiskPart 和 BCDBoot。Storage, including NTFS, DiskPart, and BCDBoot.
  • 安全工具,包括对 BitLocker 和受信任的平台模块 (TPM)、安全启动以及其他工具的可选支持。Security tools, including optional support for BitLocker and the Trusted Platform Module (TPM), Secure Boot, and other tools.
  • Hyper-V,包括 VHD 文件、鼠标集成、大容量存储以及允许在虚拟机监控程序中运行 Windows PE 的网络驱动程序。Hyper-V, including VHD files, mouse integration, mass storage and network drivers that allow Windows PE to run in a hypervisor.

硬件要求Hardware requirements

Windows PE 与 Windows 的要求相同,但具有以下几个不同点:Windows PE has the same requirements as Windows with these exceptions:

  • 无需硬盘驱动器。No hard drive is required. 可以完全在内存中运行 Windows PE。You can run Windows PE entirely from memory.
  • 基本版本仅需 512MB 内存。The base version requires only 512MB of memory. (如果添加驱动程序、包或应用,将需要更多内存。)(If you add drivers, packages, or apps, you'll need more memory.)
  • 若要直接从内存启动 Windows PE(也称为 RAM 磁盘启动),必须提供一个可以容纳整个 Windows PE (WIM) 映像的连续物理内存 (RAM) 部分。In order to boot Windows PE directly from memory (also known as RAM disk boot), a contiguous portion of physical memory (RAM) which can hold the entire Windows PE (WIM) image must be available. 若要优化内存使用,制造商应确保其固件将内存位置保留在了物理内存地址空间的开头或末尾处。To optimize memory use, manufacturers should ensure that their firmware reserves memory locations either at the beginning or at the end of the physical memory address space.

32 位版本的 Windows PE 可以启动 32 位 UEFI 电脑和 BIOS 电脑以及 64 位 BIOS 电脑。The 32-bit version of Windows PE can boot 32-bit UEFI and BIOS PCs, and 64-bit BIOS PCs.

64 位版本的 Windows PE 可以启动 64 位 UEFI 电脑和 BIOS 电脑。The 64-bit version of Windows PE can boot 64-bit UEFI and BIOS PCs.

限制Limitations

Windows PE 并不是常规用途操作系统。Windows PE is not a general-purpose operating system. 除部署和恢复外,它不能用于其他任何目的。It may not be used for any purpose other than deployment and recovery. 不应将其用作瘦客户端或嵌入式操作系统。It should not be used as a thin client or an embedded operating system. 其他 Microsoft 产品(如 Windows Embedded CE)可用于此类目的。There are other Microsoft products, such as Windows Embedded CE, which may be used for these purposes.

为防止将 Windows PE 作为生产操作系统使用,在连续使用 72 小时后,它会自动停止运行 shell 并重启。To prevent its use as a production operating system, Windows PE automatically stops running the shell and restarts after 72 hours of continuous use. 在此期间,不可进行配置。This period is not configurable.

Windows PE 重启时,将丢失所有更改,包括对驱动程序、驱动器号和 Windows PE 注册表所做的更改。When Windows PE reboots, all changes are lost, including changes to drivers, drive letters, and the Windows PE registry. 若要进行持久的更改,请参阅 WinPE:装载和自定义To make lasting changes, see WinPE: Mount and Customize.

默认 Windows PE 安装使用 FAT32 文件格式,这种格式有自身的限制,包括最大 4GB 文件大小和最大 32GB 驱动器大小。The default Windows PE installation uses the FAT32 file format, which poses its own limitations, including a maximum 4GB file size and maximum 32GB drive size. 如需了解详细信息,请参阅 WinPE:使用适用于 WinPE 和 WIM 文件 (.wim) 的单个 USB 密钥To learn more, see WinPE: Use a single USB key for WinPE and a WIM file (.wim).

Windows PE 不支持以下任一操作:Windows PE does not support any of the following:

  • 使用文件服务器或终端服务器。File server or Terminal Server use.
  • 加入网络域。Joining to a network domain.
  • 从 IPv6 网络上的 Windows PE 连接到 IPv4 网络。Connecting to an IPv4 network from Windows PE on an IPv6 network.
  • 远程桌面。Remote Desktop.
  • .MSI 安装文件。.MSI installation files.
  • 从包含非英语字符的路径启动。Booting from a path that contains non-English characters.
  • 在 32 位版本的 Windows PE 上运行 64 位应用。Running 64-bit apps on the 32-bit version of Windows PE.
  • 通过 DISM(.appxbundle 包)添加已捆绑的应用包。Adding bundled app packages through DISM (.appxbundle packages).

提示

通常,使用最新版本的 WinPE 部署 Windows。In general, use the latest version of WinPE to deploy Windows. 如果将自定义 WinPE 用于 Windows 10 映像,可能需要继续使用现有 Windows PE 映像,并从网络位置运行最新版本的 DISM。If you are using customized WinPE for Windows 10 images, you may prefer to continue using your existing Windows PE image and run the latest version of DISM from a network location. 如需了解详细信息,请参阅将 DISM 复制到另一台计算机To learn more, see Copy DISM to Another Computer.

 

关于在 Windows PE 中运行 Windows 安装程序的说明:Notes on running Windows Setup in Windows PE:

  • 可使用 32 位版本的 Windows PE 和 Windows 安装程序来安装 64 位版本的 Windows。You can use the 32-bit versions of Windows PE and Windows Setup to install 64-bit versions of Windows. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Windows 安装程序支持的平台和跨平台部署For more information, see Windows Setup Supported Platforms and Cross-Platform Deployments.
  • 虽然 Windows PE 支持动态磁盘,但 Windows 安装程序不支持。Although Windows PE supports dynamic disks, Windows Setup does not. 如果将 Windows 安装到在 Windows PE 中创建的动态磁盘,则动态磁盘在 Windows 中不可用。If you install Windows to a dynamic disk created in Windows PE, the dynamic disks won't be available in Windows.
  • 对于支持 UEFI 和旧版 BIOS 模式的基于 UEFI 的电脑,需要在正确的模式下启动 Windows PE 才能正确安装 Windows。For UEFI-based PCs that support both UEFI and legacy BIOS modes, Windows PE needs to be booted in the correct mode in order to correctly install Windows. 有关详细信息,请参阅 WinPE:以 UEFI 或旧版 BIOS 模式启动For more info, see WinPE: Boot in UEFI or legacy BIOS mode.

另请参阅See also

内容类型Content type 参考References

产品评估Product evaluation

WinPE 中的新增功能What's new in WinPE

部署Deployment

创建 USB 可启动驱动器 | 演示:在 USB 驱动器上安装 Windows PE | 创建启动 CD、DVD、ISO 或 VHD | 安装在硬盘驱动器(平面引导或非 RAM)上 | 以 UEFI 或旧版 BIOS 模式启动 | 引导至 UEFI 模式或旧版 BIOS 模式 | 使用适用于 WinPE 和 WIM 文件 (.wim) 的单个 USB 密钥Create a USB Bootable drive | Demo: Installing Windows PE on a USB drive | Create a boot CD, DVD, ISO, or VHD | Install on a hard drive (Flat boot or Non-RAM) | Boot in UEFI or legacy BIOS mode | Boot to UEFI Mode or legacy BIOS mode | Use a single USB key for WinPE and a WIM file (.wim)

操作Operations

装载和自定义 | 添加驱动程序 | 存储区域网络 (SAN) 策略 | 创建应用 | 优化和缩小图像Mount and customize | Add drivers | Storage Area Network (SAN) policy | Create apps | Optimize and shrink the image

疑难解答Troubleshooting

网络驱动程序:初始化和添加驱动程序 | 调试应用Network drivers: Initializing and adding drivers | Debug apps

工具和设置Tools and settings

Wpeinit 和 Startnet.cmd:使用 WinPE 启动脚本 | 脚本识别驱动器号 | 添加包(可选组件参考)Wpeinit and Startnet.cmd: Using WinPE Startup Scripts | Identify drive letters with a script | Add packages (Optional Components Reference)

命令行选项Command-line options

CopyPE | Drvload | Makewinpemedia | WpeutilCopyPE | Drvload | Makewinpemedia | Wpeutil

基于 Windows PE 的技术Technologies based on Windows PE

Windows 安装程序 | Windows 恢复环境 | 诊断和恢复工具集 (DaRT)Windows Setup | Windows Recovery Environment | Diagnostic and Recovery Toolset (DaRT)