Express 更新交付 ISV 支持Express update delivery ISV support

适用于:Windows 10、Windows Server 2016Applies To: Windows 10, Windows Server 2016

Windows 10 更新下载可能会很大,因为每个包都包含以前发布的所有修复以确保一致性和简单性。Windows 10 Update downloads can be large because every package contains all previously released fixes to ensure consistency and simplicity.

从版本 7 开始,Windows 已能够通过称为 Express 的功能减小 Windows 更新下载的大小,虽然使用者设备默认情况下支持该功能,但是 Windows 10 企业版设备需要具有 Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) 才能利用 Express。Since version 7, Windows has been able to reduce the size of Windows Update downloads with a feature called Express, and although consumer devices support it by default, Windows 10 enterprise devices require Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) to take advantage of Express.

Microsoft 如何支持 ExpressHow Microsoft supports Express

  • 独立 WSUS 上的 ExpressExpress on WSUS Standalone

    Express 更新交付已在所有受支持的 WSUS 版本上可用Express update delivery is already available on all supported versions of WSUS.

  • 直接连接到 Windows 更新的设备上的 ExpressExpress on Devices Directly Connected to Windows Update

    使用者设备支持 Express 下载:它们使用 Windows 更新 (WU) 客户端来扫描、下载和安装更新。Consumer devices support Express download: they use the Windows Update (WU) client to scan, download and install updates. 在下载阶段中,WU 客户端请求 Express 包并下载合适的字节范围。During the download phase, the WU client requests Express packages and downloads the appropriate byte ranges.

  • 使用适用于企业的 Windows 更新管理的企业设备也可受益于 Express 更新传递支持,而无需对配置进行任何更改。Enterprise devices managed using Windows Update for Business also get the benefit of Express update delivery support without any change in configuration.

ISV 如何利用 ExpressHow ISVs can take advantage of Express

ISV 可以使用 WSUS 和 WU 客户端来支持 Express 更新交付。ISVs can use WSUS and the WU client to support Express update delivery. Microsoft 建议执行以下三个步骤,下面的部分更详细地讨论了每个步骤:Microsoft recommends the following three steps, each discussed in more detail in the sections below:

  1. 配置 WSUSConfigure WSUS

    WSUS 服务器是扫描和更新同步所必需的(可在此处找到更多信息)WSUS server is required for scan & update synchronizations (additional information can be found here)

  2. 指定和填充 ISV 文件缓存Specify and populate an ISV file cache

    建议使用 ISV 文件缓存来托管更新内容,其中包括更新 Cabinet 文件(.cab 文件)和 Express 包(.psf 文件)。An ISV file cache is recommended to host the update content, which includes the update cabinet files (.cab files) and the Express packages (.psf files).

  3. 设置 ISV 客户端代理来定向 WU 客户端操作Set up an ISV client agent to direct WU client operations

备注

需要安装 Windows 10 版本 1607 的累积更新(2017 年 1 月或之后的)(KB3213986(OS 内部版本 14393.693)Requires Cumulative Update for Windows 10 Version 1607 release in (or after) January 2017 (KB3213986 (OS Build 14393.693) to be installed.

  • ISV 客户端代理确定要批准哪些更新,以及何时下载和安装更新The ISV client agent determines which updates to approve, and when do download and install updates
  • WU 客户端确定要下载的字节范围并发起下载请求The WU client determines byte ranges to download and initiates the download request

步骤 1:配置 WSUSStep 1: Configure WSUS

WSUS 充当 Windows 更新的接口,并管理描述了需要下载的 Express 包的所有元数据。WSUS serves as the interface to Windows Update and manages all metadata describing Express packages that need to be downloaded. 如果需要进行部署,请参阅 Windows Server Update Services 3.0 SP2 概述If you need to deploy, see Overview of Windows Server Update Services 3.0 SP2. 部署 WSUS 后,需要考虑的主要事项为是否将更新内容存储在 WSUS 服务器本地。Once WSUS has been deployed, the primary consideration is whether or not to store update content locally on the WSUS server. 配置 WSUS 时,我们建议不要将更新存储在本地。When configuring WSUS, we recommend not storing updates locally. 这假设你的环境中已有定向这些包的部署的软件。This assumes that you already have software directing deployment of these packages in your environment. 有关如何配置 WSUS 本地存储的详细信息,请参阅决定在何处存储更新For more about how to configure WSUS local storage, see Determine Where to Store Updates.

步骤 2:指定和填充 ISV 文件缓存Step 2: Specify and Populate the ISV File Cache

指定 ISV 文件缓存Specify the ISV File Cache

配置服务提供商参考中详述的新的客户端组策略和移动设备管理 (MDM) 设置定义了 ISV 文件缓存的位置。New client-side Group Policy and Mobile Device Management (MDM) settings detailed in the Configuration service provider reference define the location of the ISV file cache.

名称Name 描述Description
配置备用的更新下载位置。Configure an alternate download location for updates. 指定备用 Intranet 服务器,用于托管来自 Microsoft 更新的更新。Specifies an alternate intranet server to host updates from Microsoft Update. 然后,你可以使用此更新服务自动更新你的网络上的计算机。You can then use this update service to automatically update computers on your network

设置 ISV 文件缓存的备用下载位置时有两个选项:There are two options when setting up the alternate download location for the ISV file cache:

  1. 指定 ISV HTTP 服务器主机名,这是 ISV 文件缓存Specify an ISV HTTP server hostname, which is the ISV file cache

    此方法将 WU 客户端配置为向策略中指定的 HTTP 服务器发出下载请求This approach configures the WU client to make download requests to the HTTP server specified in the policy

  2. 指定 localhostSpecify localhost

    此方法将 WU 客户端配置为向 localhost 发出下载请求。This approach configures the WU client to make download requests to localhost. 这允许 ISV 客户端代理处理这些请求并根据情况进行路由来满足下载请求。This allows the ISV client agent to handle these requests and route as appropriate to fulfill the download request.

重要

ISV 文件缓存需要以下各项:The ISV file cache requires the following:

填充 ISV 文件缓存Populate the ISV File Cache

必须使用与要在托管客户端上安装的更新关联的文件来填充 ISV 文件缓存。The ISV file cache must be populated with files associated with the updates to be installed on managed clients.

若要填充 ISV 文件缓存,请执行以下步骤:To populate the ISV file cache:

  1. 使用 WSUS API 访问 MU 服务的更新的文件路径和名称。Use WSUS APIs to access the update's file path and file name for the MU service.

    WSUS 服务器上的每个更新的元数据包含该更新在 Microsoft 更新上的文件路径和文件名(Microsoft 更新主机名为粗体,后跟文件路径和文件名): http://download.windowsupdate.com /c/msdownload/update/software/updt/2016/09/windows10.0-kb3195781-x64_0c06079bccc35cba35a48bd2b1ec46f818bd2e74.msuThe metadata for each update on WSUS server contains the update's file path and file name on Microsoft Update as follows (Microsoft Update hostname in bold, followed by file path and filename): http://download.windowsupdate.com/c/msdownload/update/software/updt/2016/09/windows10.0-kb3195781-x64_0c06079bccc35cba35a48bd2b1ec46f818bd2e74.msu

  2. 从 Microsoft 更新下载文件,并使用以下两种方法之一将文件存储在 ISV 文件缓存中:Download files from Microsoft Update and store them in the ISV file cache using one of these two methods:

    • 使用与 MU 服务上相同的文件夹路径来存储文件Store files using the same folder path as on the MU service

    • 使用 ISV 定义的文件夹路径来存储文件Store files using an ISV-defined folder path

      让 HTTP 服务器(或 localhost)将 HTTP GET 请求(它们引用 MU 文件夹路径和文件名)重定向到 ISV 文件位置。Have HTTP server (or localhost) redirect HTTP GET requests, which reference the MU folder path and file name, to the ISV file location.

步骤 3:设置 ISV 客户端代理来定向 WU 客户端操作Step 3: Set up an ISV client agent to direct WU client operations

ISV 客户端代理使用以下建议的工作流来安排已批准更新的下载和安装:The ISV client agent orchestrates the download and installation of approved updates using the following recommended workflow:

  1. ISV 客户端代理调用 WU 客户端来扫描 WSUS 服务器The ISV client agent calls the WU client to scan against the WSUS server

  2. 扫描将适用的更新集返回给 WU 客户端The scan returns the set of applicable updates to the WU client

  3. ISV 客户端确定要批准、下载和安装哪些更新The ISV client determines which updates to approve, download and install

  4. ISV 客户端代理调用 WU 客户端来下载已批准的更新The ISV client agent calls WU client to download the approved updates

  5. 下载更新后,ISV 客户端代理将调用 WU 客户端来安装已批准的更新Once the updates have been downloaded, the ISV client agent calls the WU client to install the approved updates

有关使用 WU 客户端来扫描、下载和安装更新的其他信息,请参阅搜索、下载和安装更新See Searching, Downloading, and Installing Updates for additional information about using the WU client to scan, download and install updates.

下载工作流选项Download workflow options

下面是使用 ISV 文件缓存的下载工作流选项的两个插图:Following are two illustrations of download workflow options from an ISV file cache:

工作流 1

工作流 2

Express 下载的工作方式How Express download works

  • 对于支持 Express 的 OS 更新,服务上存储了两个版本的文件有效负载:For OS updates that support Express, there are two versions of the file payload stored on the service:

    • 完整文件版本 - 从根本上替换更新二进制文件的本地版本。Full-file version -- essentially replacing the local versions of the update binaries

    • Express 版本 - 包含修补设备上的现有二进制文件所需的增量。Express version -- containing the deltas needed to patch the existing binaries on the device.

      在扫描阶段中已下载到客户端的更新元数据中会同时引用完整文件版本和 Express 版本。Both the full-file version and the Express version are referenced in the update's metadata, which has been downloaded to the client as part of the Scan phase.

      Express 下载的工作方式如下所述:Express download works as follows:

      WU 客户端会首先尝试下载 Express,某些情况下会在需要时回退到完整文件(例如,如果经过不支持字节范围请求的代理)。The WU client will try to download Express first, and under certain situations fall back to full-file if needed (for example, if going through a proxy that doesn't support byte range requests).

    1. WU 客户端发起 Express 下载时,WU 客户端会首先下载一个存根,这是 Express 包的一部分。When the WU client initiates an Express download, the WU client first downloads a stub, which is part of the Express package.

    2. WU 客户端将此存根传递给 Windows Installer,后者会使用此存根进行本地清查(将设备上的文件的增量与访问所提供的最新文件版本所需的内容进行比较)。The WU client passes this stub to the Windows installer, which uses the stub to do a local inventory, comparing the deltas of the file on the device with what is needed to get to the latest version of the file being offered.

    3. Windows Installer 随后请求 WU 客户端下载已确定的必需范围。The Windows installer then requests the WU client to download the ranges which have been determined to be required.

    4. WU 客户端会下载这些范围并将它们传递给 Windows Installer,后者会应用这些范围,然后确定是否需要其他范围。The WU client downloads these ranges and passes them to the Windows installer, which applies the ranges and then determines if additional ranges are needed. 此过程会一直重复,直到 Windows Installer 告知 WU 客户端所有必需范围都已下载。This repeats until the Windows installer tells the WU client that all necessary ranges have been downloaded.

    此时,下载已完成,更新已准备好进行安装。At this point, the download is complete and the update is ready to be installed.

交付优化如何降低带宽消耗How Delivery Optimization reduces bandwidth consumption

交付优化 (DO) 是一种自我组织的分布式缓存解决方案,适用于希望降低操作系统更新、操作系统升级和应用程序所需带宽消耗的企业。Delivery Optimization (DO) is a self-organizing distributed cache solution for businesses looking to reduce bandwidth consumption for operating system updates, operating system upgrades, and applications. DO 允许客户端从备用源(例如网络上的其他对等方)以及指定的下载位置(在此场景中为 ISV 文件缓存)下载那些元素。DO allows clients to download those elements from alternate sources (such as other peers on the network) in conjunction with the specified download location (the ISV file cache in this scenario).

默认情况下,在 Windows 10 企业版和教育版中,交付优化仅允许在组织自有的网络中进行对等共享,但你可以使用组策略和移动设备管理 (MDM) 设置对其进行不同配置。By default in Windows 10 Enterprise and Education, DO allows peer-to-peer sharing on the organization's own network only, but you can configure it differently using Group Policy and mobile device management (MDM) settings.

有关 DO 的详细信息,请参阅配置适用于 Windows 10 更新的交付优化Refer to Configure Delivery Optimization for Windows 10 updates for more information about DO.