滚动升级群集操作系统Cluster operating system rolling upgrade

适用于:Windows Server(半年通道)、Windows Server 2016Applies to: Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016

群集操作系统推出升级使管理员升级操作系统中的群集节点不停止 Hyper-V 或规模文件服务器工作负载。Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade enables an administrator to upgrade the operating system of the cluster nodes without stopping the Hyper-V or the Scale-Out File Server workloads. 使用此功能,可以避免停机处罚防御服务级别协议 (SLA)。Using this feature, the downtime penalties against Service Level Agreements (SLA) can be avoided.

群集操作系统推出升级提供以下优势:Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade provides the following benefits:

  • 可以从 Windows Server 2012 R2 升级故障转移群集运行的 Hyper-V 虚拟机和规模文件服务器 (SOFS) 工作负载(上所有节点运行群集)Windows Server 2016(群集的所有群集节点上运行)而无需停机。Failover clusters running Hyper-V virtual machine and Scale-out File Server (SOFS) workloads can be upgraded from Windows Server 2012 R2 (running on all nodes in the cluster) to Windows Server 2016 (running on all cluster nodes of the cluster) without downtime. 其他群集运行工作负载中的,如 SQL Server,将不提供在故障转移到 Windows Server 2016 花费的时间(通常少于五分钟)。Other cluster workloads, such as SQL Server, will be unavailable during the time (typically less than five minutes) it takes to failover to Windows Server 2016.
  • 它不需要任何附加的硬件。It doesn't require any additional hardware. 不过,你可以添加其他群集节点暂时于小型群集群集操作系统推出升级期间改进群集的可用性处理。Although, you can add additional cluster nodes temporarily to small clusters to improve availability of the cluster during the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process.
  • 群集不需要将停止或重新启动。The cluster doesn't need to be stopped or restarted.
  • 新的群集不是必需的。A new cluster is not required. 现有的群集升级。The existing cluster is upgraded. 此外,便会使用 Active Directory 中存储的现有群集对象。In addition, existing cluster objects stored in Active Directory are used.
  • 在升级过程是可逆的直到客户 choses"点的-无-返回",所有群集节点时运行的 Windows Server 2016,并运行 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel PowerShell cmdlet 时。The upgrade process is reversible until the customer choses the "point-of-no-return", when all cluster nodes are running Windows Server 2016, and when the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel PowerShell cmdlet is run.
  • 群集可混合操作系统方式运行时支持修补和维护操作。The cluster can support patching and maintenance operations while running in the mixed-OS mode.
  • 通过 PowerShell 和 WMI 自动化,它支持。It supports automation via PowerShell and WMI.
  • 群集公共属性ClusterFunctionalLevel属性指示 Windows Server 2016 群集节点上的群集的状态。The cluster public property ClusterFunctionalLevel property indicates the state of the cluster on Windows Server 2016 cluster nodes. 可以使用来自 Windows Server 2016 群集节点属于故障转移群集 PowerShell cmdlet 查询此属性:This property can be queried using the PowerShell cmdlet from a Windows Server 2016 cluster node that belongs to a failover cluster:

    Get-Cluster | Select ClusterFunctionalLevel  
    

    8指示群集运行 Windows Server 2012 R2 功能级别。A value of 8 indicates that the cluster is running at the Windows Server 2012 R2 functional level. 9指示群集运行 Windows Server 2016 功能级别。A value of 9 indicates that the cluster is running at the Windows Server 2016 functional level.

本指南介绍了群集操作系统推出升级过程、安装步骤、功能限制和常见问题(常见问题解答)、的各个阶段和适用于 Windows Server 2016 中的以下操作系统推出升级群集方案:This guide describes the various stages of the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process, installation steps, feature limitations, and frequently asked questions (FAQs), and is applicable to the following Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade scenarios in Windows Server 2016:

  • Hyper-V 群集Hyper-V clusters
  • 规模文件服务器群集Scale-Out File Server clusters

Windows Server 2016 中不支持以下情形:The following scenario is not supported in Windows Server 2016:

  • 使用虚拟硬盘群集操作系统推出升级的访客群集 (.vhdx file) 作为共享存储Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade of guest clusters using virtual hard disk (.vhdx file) as shared storage

群集操作系统推出升级完全受支持的系统中心虚拟机管理器 (SCVMM) 2016 年。Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade is fully supported by System Center Virtual Machine Manager (SCVMM) 2016. 如果你使用的 SCVMM 2016,请参阅Windows Server 2012 R2 的升级到 Windows Server 2016 中 VMM 群集有关升级群集和自动化本文中所述的步骤的指南。If you are using SCVMM 2016, see Upgrading Windows Server 2012 R2 clusters to Windows Server 2016 in VMM for guidance on upgrading the clusters and automating the steps that are described in this document.

要求Requirements

开始群集操作系统推出升级的过程之前完成以下要求:Complete the following requirements before you begin the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process:

  • 开始与运行 Windows Server(半年通道)、Windows Server 2016 或 Windows Server 2012 2012 R2。Start with a Failover Cluster running Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016, or Windows Server 2012 R2.
  • 升级到 Windows Server 的存储空间直通 群集,版本 1709 年不受支持。Upgrading a Storage Spaces Direct cluster to Windows Server, version 1709 isn't supported.
  • 如果群集运行工作负载 Hyper-V 虚拟机的功能或规模文件服务器,你可以在未来零宕机升级。If the cluster workload is Hyper-V VMs, or Scale-Out File Server, you can expect zero-downtime upgrade.
  • 验证 Hyper-V 节点具有 Cpu 支持二级地址表 (SLAT) 使用以下方法; 之一Verify that the Hyper-V nodes have CPUs that support Second-Level Addressing Table (SLAT) using one of the following methods;
    -查看你有多大 SLAT 兼容?于 WP8 SDK 提示 01介绍两种方法以查看是否 CPU 支持 SLATs 的文章- Review the Are you SLAT Compatible? WP8 SDK Tip 01 article that describes two methods to check if a CPU supports SLATs
    -下载Coreinfo v3.31工具来确定是否 CPU 支持 SLAT。- Download the Coreinfo v3.31 tool to determine if a CPU supports SLAT.

群集操作系统推出升级期间群集转换状态Cluster transition states during Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade

此部分中介绍了在升级到 Windows Server 2016 使用群集操作系统推出升级 Windows Server 2012 R2 群集的各种转换状态。This section describes the various transition states of the Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster that is being upgraded to Windows Server 2016 using Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade.

为了防止群集好像两个节点 Windows Server 2012 R2 的操作系统运行的工作原理在群集操作系统推出升级过程中,转向 Windows Server 2016 节点群集运行工作负载从 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点运行工作负载。In order to keep the cluster workloads running during the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process, moving a cluster workload from a Windows Server 2012 R2 node to Windows Server 2016 node works as if both nodes were running the Windows Server 2012 R2 operating system. Windows Server 2016 节点添加到群集后,它们将在 Windows Server 2012 R2 兼容性模式下工作。When Windows Server 2016 nodes are added to the cluster, they operate in a Windows Server 2012 R2 compatibility mode. 称为"混合操作系统模式,"的新概念群集模式允许节点以在相同中存在的不同版本的群集(参见第 1 图)。A new conceptual cluster mode, called "mixed-OS mode", allows nodes of different versions to exist in the same cluster (see Figure 1).

图显示的三个阶段群集操作系统滚动升级:Windows Server 2012 R2 的所有节点、混合操作系统模式和所有节点 Windows Server 2016
图 1:群集操作系统状态转换Figure 1: Cluster operating system state transitions

Windows Server 2016 节点添加到群集时,Windows Server 2012 R2 群集进入混合操作系统模式。A Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster enters mixed-OS mode when a Windows Server 2016 node is added to the cluster. 该进程是完全可逆-Windows Server 2016 节点可从群集和 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点可以添加到在此模式中群集。The process is fully reversible - Windows Server 2016 nodes can be removed from the cluster and Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes can be added to the cluster in this mode. Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel PowerShell cmdlet 群集上运行时,会发生"点的否退货"。The "point of no return" occurs when the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel PowerShell cmdlet is run on the cluster. 为了让此 cmdlet 成功,所有节点都必须都是 Windows Server 2016,,并且所有节点必须都都处于联机状态。In order for this cmdlet to succeed, all nodes must be Windows Server 2016, and all nodes must be online.

转换状态的四个节点群集执行推出操作系统升级时Transition states of a four-node cluster while performing Rolling OS Upgrade

此部分中所示,并介绍了与从 Windows Server 2012 R2 升级到 Windows Server 2016 其节点共享存储群集不同的四个阶段。This section illustrates and describes the four different stages of a cluster with shared storage whose nodes are upgraded from Windows Server 2012 R2 to Windows Server 2016.

"阶段 1"是初始状态-我们与 Windows Server 2012 R2 群集开始。"Stage 1" is the initial state - we start with a Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster.

图显示初始状态:Windows Server 2012 R2 的所有节点
图 2:初始状态:Windows Server 2012 R2 故障转移群集(舞台 1)Figure 2: Initial State: Windows Server 2012 R2 Failover Cluster (Stage 1)

在"步骤 2",两个节点已暂停、耗尽、退出,重新格式化,并与 Windows Server 2016 安装。In "Stage 2", two nodes have been paused, drained, evicted, reformatted, and installed with Windows Server 2016.

图混合操作系统模式中显示群集:两个节点利用示例 4 节点群集,运行 Windows Server 2016,并且两个节点运行的 Windows Server 2012 R2
图 3:中间状态:混合操作系统模式:Windows Server 2012 R2 和 Windows Server 2016 故障转移群集 (Stage 2)Figure 3: Intermediate State: Mixed-OS mode: Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2016 Failover cluster (Stage 2)

在"步骤 3",所有中的群集节点已升级到 Windows Server 2016,并且群集已准备好升级的 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel PowerShell cmdlet。At "Stage 3", all of the nodes in the cluster have been upgraded to Windows Server 2016, and the cluster is ready to be upgraded with Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel PowerShell cmdlet.

备注

在这个阶段,可以完全撤消该过程,,和 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点可以添加到此群集。At this stage, the process can be fully reversed, and Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes can be added to this cluster.

显示群集已完全升级到 Windows Server 2016,并且已准备好进行 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet 将最多的 Windows Server 2016 的群集功能级别的图示
图 4:中间状态:所有节点升级到 Windows Server 2016,可供 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel (Stage 3)Figure 4: Intermediate State: All nodes upgraded to Windows Server 2016, ready for Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel (Stage 3)

Update-ClusterFunctionalLevelcmdlet 运行后,群集进入"阶段 4",可以使用新的 Windows Server 2016 群集功能的位置。After the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevelcmdlet is run, the cluster enters "Stage 4", where new Windows Server 2016 cluster features can be used.

图显示的群集滚动操作系统升级已成功完成;已升级到 Windows Server 2016 中,所有节点以及群集运行 Windows Server 2016 群集功能级别
图 5:最终状态:Windows Server 2016 故障转移群集(舞台 4)Figure 5: Final State: Windows Server 2016 Failover Cluster (Stage 4)

推出升级过程的群集操作系统Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade Process

本部分介绍执行群集操作系统推出升级的工作流程。This section describes the workflow for performing Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade.

显示有关升级的群集的工作流中的图示
图 6:群集操作系统推出升级过程的工作流Figure 6: Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade Process Workflow

群集操作系统推出升级包含以下步骤:Cluster OS Rolling upgrade includes the following steps:

  1. 准备群集操作系统升级如下所示:Prepare the cluster for the operating system upgrade as follows:

    1. 群集操作系统推出升级需要从群集一次删除一台节点。Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade requires removing one node at a time from the cluster. 检查是否具有足够的容量群集时从群集操作系统升级删除了某个群集节点保持 HA Sla 上。Check if you have sufficient capacity on the cluster to maintain HA SLAs when one of the cluster nodes is removed from the cluster for an operating system upgrade. 换言之,您需要向故障转移到另一个节点的工作负载的功能时个节点从群集群集操作系统推出升级的过程中删除?In other words, do you require the capability to failover workloads to another node when one node is removed from the cluster during the process of Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade? 群集是否有容量时要运行所需的工作负载一个节点取下从群集群集操作系统推出升级?Does the cluster have the capacity to run the required workloads when one node is removed from the cluster for Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade?
    2. 针对 Hyper-V 工作负载,查看所有 Windows Server 2016 Hyper-V 主机都有二级地址表 (SLAT) 的支持的 CPU。For Hyper-V workloads, check that all Windows Server 2016 Hyper-V hosts have CPU support Second-Level Address Table (SLAT). 仅支持 SLAT 的计算机可以使用 Windows Server 2016 中的 Hyper-V 角色。Only SLAT-capable machines can use the Hyper-V role in Windows Server 2016.
    3. 检查任何工作负载备份完成后,并且考虑备份群集。Check that any workload backups have completed, and consider backing-up the cluster. 添加到群集节点时停止备份操作。Stop backup operations while adding nodes to the cluster.
    4. 查看所有群集节点都处于联机状态/运行/上使用Get-ClusterNode cmdlet(参见第 7 图)。Check that all cluster nodes are online /running/up using the Get-ClusterNode cmdlet (see Figure 7).

      Screencap 显示运行 Get-ClusterNode cmdlet 结果
      图 7:如何确定使用 Get-ClusterNode cmdlet 节点状态Figure 7: Determining node status using Get-ClusterNode cmdlet

    5. 如果你运行的群集注意到更新 (CAU),则验证如果 CAU 当前运行的通过使用群集意识到更新UI,或Get-CauRun cmdlet(请参阅图 8)。If you are running Cluster Aware Updates (CAU), verify if CAU is currently running by using the Cluster-Aware Updating UI, or the Get-CauRun cmdlet (see Figure 8). 停止使用 CAU Disable-CauClusterRolecmdlet(请参阅图 9)若要防止任何暂停和群集操作系统推出升级过程中耗尽通过 CAU 节点。Stop CAU using the Disable-CauClusterRole cmdlet (see Figure 9) to prevent any nodes from being paused and drained by CAU during the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process.

      显示的输出 Get-CauRun cmdlet Screencap
      图 8 部分:使用Get-CauRun cmdlet 以确定是否群集上运行的群集注意到更新Figure 8: Using the Get-CauRun cmdlet to determine if Cluster Aware Updates is running on the cluster

      显示的输出 Disable-CauClusterRole cmdlet Screencap
      图 9:禁用群集注意到更新角色使用Disable-CauClusterRole cmdletFigure 9: Disabling the Cluster Aware Updates role using the Disable-CauClusterRole cmdlet

  2. 对于每个节点群集中,执行以下操作:For each node in the cluster, complete the following:

    1. 使用的 UI 群集管理器中,选择一个节点,然后使用暂停 |消耗节点消耗电量的菜单选项(如图 10),或者使用Suspend-ClusterNode cmdlet(参见 11 图)。Using Cluster Manager UI, select a node and use the Pause | Drain menu option to drain the node (see Figure 10) or use the Suspend-ClusterNode cmdlet (see Figure 11).

      演示如何消耗群集经理 ui 角色 Screencap
      图 10:耗费节点使用故障转移群集管理器中的角色Figure 10: Draining roles from a node using Failover Cluster Manager

      显示的输出 Suspend-ClusterNode cmdlet Screencap
      图 11:耗费节点使用中的角色Suspend-ClusterNode cmdletFigure 11: Draining roles from a node using the Suspend-ClusterNode cmdlet

    2. 使用群集经理 UI退出从群集或使用已暂停的节点Remove-ClusterNode cmdlet。Using Cluster Manager UI, Evict the paused node from cluster, or use the Remove-ClusterNode cmdlet.

      显示的输出 Remove-ClusterNode cmdlet Screencap
      图 12 部分:从群集使用删除节点Remove-ClusterNode cmdletFigure 12: Remove a node from the cluster using Remove-ClusterNode cmdlet

    3. 重新系统驱动器进行格式化并执行 Windows Server 2016 的"干净操作系统安装"节点使用自定义:安装 Windows(高级)安装 (请参阅图 13) setup.exe 中的选项。Reformat the system drive and perform a "clean operating system install" of Windows Server 2016 on the node using the Custom: Install Windows only (advanced) installation (See Figure 13) option in setup.exe. 避免选择升级:安装 Windows 并保留文件、设置和应用程序由于群集操作系统推出升级不建议就地升级选项。Avoid selecting the Upgrade: Install Windows and keep files, settings, and applications option since Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade doesn't encourage in-place upgrade.

      显示自定义 Windows Server 2016 安装向导 Screencap 安装所选的选项
      Windows Server 2016 图 13:安装可用选项Figure 13: Available installation options for Windows Server 2016

    4. 添加到适当的域的 Active Directory 节点。Add the node to the appropriate Active Directory domain.

    5. 添加到管理员组适当的用户。Add the appropriate users to the Administrators group.
    6. 使用的 UI 服务器管理器或 Install-WindowsFeature PowerShell cmdlet,安装需要例如 Hyper-V 任何服务器角色。Using the Server Manager UI or Install-WindowsFeature PowerShell cmdlet, install any server roles that you need, such as Hyper-V.

      Install-WindowsFeature -Name Hyper-V  
      
    7. 使用服务器管理器 UI 或 Install-WindowsFeature PowerShell cmdlet、安装故障转移群集的功能。Using the Server Manager UI or Install-WindowsFeature PowerShell cmdlet, install the Failover Clustering feature.

      Install-WindowsFeature -Name Failover-Clustering  
      
    8. 安装任何所需的群集的工作负载的其他功能。Install any additional features needed by your cluster workloads.

    9. 检查网络和存储使用故障转移群集 Manager UI 的连接设置。Check network and storage connectivity settings using the Failover Cluster Manager UI.
    10. 如果使用 Windows 防火墙,则检查防火墙设置群集无误。If Windows Firewall is used, check that the Firewall settings are correct for the cluster. 例如,群集注意到更新 (CAU) 启用群集可能需要防火墙配置。For example, Cluster Aware Updating (CAU) enabled clusters may require Firewall configuration.
    11. 对于 Hyper-V 工作负载中,使用 Hyper-V 管理器 UI 启动虚拟交换机用来管理器对话框(请参阅 14 图)。For Hyper-V workloads, use the Hyper-V Manger UI to launch the Virtual Switch Manager dialog (see Figure 14).

      检查相同的所有 Hyper-V 主机群集节点虚拟交换机用的名称。Check that the name of the Virtual Switch(s) used are identical for all Hyper-V host nodes in the cluster.

      Screencap 显示 Hyper-V 虚拟交换机用来管理器对话框中的位置
      图 14:虚拟交换机用来管理器Figure 14: Virtual Switch Manager

    12. 在 Windows Server 2016 节点(不使用 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点),使用故障转移群集管理器(请参阅图 15)连接到群集。On a Windows Server 2016 node (do not use a Windows Server 2012 R2 node), use the Failover Cluster Manager (see Figure 15) to connect to the cluster.

      Screencap 显示选择群集对话框
      图 15:添加到使用故障转移群集管理器的群集节点Figure 15: Adding a node to the cluster using Failover Cluster Manager

    13. 使用故障转移群集管理器 UI 或Add-ClusterNode cmdlet(请参阅图 16)添加到群集节点。Use either the Failover Cluster Manager UI or the Add-ClusterNode cmdlet (see Figure 16) to add the node to the cluster.

      显示的输出 Add-ClusterNode cmdlet Screencap
      图 16:添加到群集使用节点Add-ClusterNode cmdletFigure 16: Adding a node to the cluster using Add-ClusterNode cmdlet

      备注

      第一个 Windows Server 2016 节点加入群集时,当群集将进入"混合操作系统"模式和资源移至 Windows Server 2016 节点群集核心。When the first Windows Server 2016 node joins the cluster, the cluster enters "Mixed-OS" mode, and the cluster core resources are moved to the Windows Server 2016 node. "混合操作系统"模式下群集是充分发挥功能群集新节点以与旧节点兼容性模式运行的位置。A "Mixed-OS" mode cluster is a fully functional cluster where the new nodes run in a compatibility mode with the old nodes. "混合操作系统"模式下是群集暂时模式。"Mixed-OS" mode is a transitory mode for the cluster. 不应为永久,客户需要更新四个星期内的所有其群集节点。It is not intended to be permanent and customers are expected to update all nodes of their cluster within four weeks.

    14. Windows Server 2016 后节点成功添加到群集,你可以(可选)移某些群集运行工作负载到新添加的节点以重新工作负载平衡整个群集,如下所示:After the Windows Server 2016 node is successfully added to the cluster, you can (optionally) move some of the cluster workload to the newly added node in order to rebalance the workload across the cluster as follows:

      显示的输出 Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole cmdlet Screencap
      图 17:移动群集运行工作负载(群集 VM 角色)使用Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole cmdletFigure 17: Moving a cluster workload (cluster VM role) using Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole cmdlet

      1. 使用实时迁移从故障转移群集管理器虚拟机或Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole cmdlet(请参阅图 17)来执行虚拟机的实时迁移。Use Live Migration from the Failover Cluster Manager for virtual machines or the Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole cmdlet (see Figure 17) to perform a live migration of the virtual machines.

        Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole -Name VM1 -Node robhind-host3  
        
      2. 使用移动故障转移群集管理器或Move-ClusterGroup cmdlet 针对其他群集运行工作负载。Use Move from the Failover Cluster Manager or the Move-ClusterGroup cmdlet for other cluster workloads.

  3. 当升级到 Windows Server 2016 的每个节点并将其重新添加到群集,或退出剩余的任何 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点后,请执行以下操作:When every node has been upgraded to Windows Server 2016 and added back to the cluster, or when any remaining Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes have been evicted, do the following:

    重要

    • 更新群集功能级别后,你不能回退到 Windows Server 2012 R2 功能级别和 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点无法加入群集。After you update the cluster functional level, you cannot go back to Windows Server 2012 R2 functional level and Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes cannot be added to the cluster.
    • 直到Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel运行 cmdlet、该过程不可逆完全和 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点可以添加到此群集和 Windows Server 2016 节点都可删除。Until the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet is run, the process is fully reversible and Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes can be added to this cluster and Windows Server 2016 nodes can be removed.
    • Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel运行 cmdlet 时,新的功能将不可用。After the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet is run, new features will be available.
    1. 使用故障转移群集管理器 UI 或Get-ClusterGroup cmdlet,查看所有群集角色按预期都运行群集。Using the Failover Cluster Manager UI or the Get-ClusterGroup cmdlet, check that all cluster roles are running on the cluster as expected. 不用于可用存储在以下示例中,改为使用 CSV,因此,提供的存储显示离线状态(请参阅图 18)。In the following example, Available Storage is not being used, instead CSV is used, hence, Available Storage displays an Offline status (see Figure 18).

      显示的输出 Get-ClusterGroup cmdlet Screencap
      图 18:验证所有群集组(群集角色)运行的使用Get-ClusterGroup cmdletFigure 18: Verifying that all cluster groups (cluster roles) are running using the Get-ClusterGroup cmdlet

    2. 查看所有群集节点都处于联机状态并运行使用Get-ClusterNode cmdlet。Check that all cluster nodes are online and running using the Get-ClusterNode cmdlet.

    3. 运行Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet-没有错误应返回(请参阅图 19)。Run the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet - no errors should be returned (see Figure 19).

      显示的输出 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet Screencap
      图 19:更新群集使用 PowerShell 功能级别Figure 19: Updating the functional level of a cluster using PowerShell

    4. Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel运行 cmdlet 时,可以使用新的功能。After the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet is run, new features are available.

  4. Windows Server 2016-恢复正常群集更新和备份:Windows Server 2016 - resume normal cluster updates and backups:

    1. 如果你之前已运行 CAU,重新启动它使用 CAU UI 或使用Enable-CauClusterRole cmdlet(请参阅 20 图)。If you were previously running CAU, restart it using the CAU UI or use the Enable-CauClusterRole cmdlet (see Figure 20).

      显示的输出 Enable-CauClusterRole Screencap
      图 20:启用群集注意到更新角色使用Enable-CauClusterRole cmdletFigure 20: Enable Cluster Aware Updates role using the Enable-CauClusterRole cmdlet

    2. 恢复备份操作。Resume backup operations.

  5. 启用并使用 Hyper-V 虚拟机上的 Windows Server 2016 功能。Enable and use the Windows Server 2016 features on Hyper-V Virtual Machines.

    1. 群集已升级到 Windows Server 2016 功能级别后,例如 Hyper-V 虚拟机的功能的很多工作负载将有新功能。After the cluster has been upgraded to Windows Server 2016 functional level, many workloads like Hyper-V VMs will have new capabilities. 对于新的 Hyper-V 功能的列表。For a list of new Hyper-V capabilities. 请参阅迁移和升级虚拟机see Migrate and upgrade virtual machines

    2. 在每个 Hyper-V 主机中群集节点,使用Get-VMHostSupportedVersion cmdlet 以查看受主机 Hyper-V VM 配置版本。On each Hyper-V host node in the cluster, use the Get-VMHostSupportedVersion cmdlet to view the Hyper-V VM configuration versions that are supported by the host.

      显示的输出 Get-VMHostSupportedVersion cmdlet Screencap
      图 21:查看受主机 Hyper-V VM 配置版本Figure 21: Viewing the Hyper-V VM configuration versions supported by the host

    1. 在每个 Hyper-V 主机中群集节点,可以被与用户调度维护简要窗口、备份、关闭虚拟机和运行升级 Hyper-V VM 配置版本Update-VMVersion cmdlet(请参阅图 22)。On each Hyper-V host node in the cluster, Hyper-V VM configuration versions can be upgraded by scheduling a brief maintenance window with users, backing up, turning off virtual machines, and running the Update-VMVersion cmdlet (see Figure 22). 这将更新虚拟机的版本,并启用新的 Hyper-V 功能,不再需要的未来的 Hyper-V 集成组件(集成电路)更新。This will update the virtual machine version, and enable new Hyper-V features, eliminating the need for future Hyper-V Integration Component (IC) updates. 可从 Hyper-V 节点承载 VM 中,运行此 cmdlet 或-ComputerName使用参数远程更新 VM 版本。This cmdlet can be run from the Hyper-V node that is hosting the VM, or the -ComputerName parameter can be used to update the VM Version remotely. 在此示例中,以下我们配置版升级 VM1 5.0 从到 7.0 充分利用此 VM 配置版本,如生产检查点(应用程序一致的备份),并二进制 VM 配置文件与相关的许多新 Hyper-V 功能。In this example, here we upgrade the configuration version of VM1 from 5.0 to 7.0 to take advantage of many new Hyper-V features associated with this VM configuration version such as Production Checkpoints (Application Consistent backups), and binary VM configuration file.

      Screencap 操作中显示 Update-VMVersion cmdlet
      图 22:升级使用 Update-VMVersion PowerShell cmdlet VM 版本Figure 22: Upgrading a VM version using the Update-VMVersion PowerShell cmdlet

  6. 可以使用升级存储池中更新 StoragePool PowerShell cmdlet-这是一个联机操作。Storage pools can be upgraded using the Update-StoragePool PowerShell cmdlet - this is an online operation.

尽管我们的目标专用云方案,特别是 Hyper-V 和规模文件服务器群集,而无需停机可以升级,可以任何群集角色中用于群集操作系统推出升级的过程。Although we are targeting Private Cloud scenarios, specifically Hyper-V and Scale-out File Server clusters, which can be upgraded without downtime, the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process can be used for any cluster role.

限制 / 限制Restrictions / Limitations

  • 此功能仅适用于 Windows Server 2012 R2 对 Windows Server 2016 的版本。This feature works only for Windows Server 2012 R2 to Windows Server 2016 versions only. 此功能无法升级到 Windows Server 2016 的较早版本的 Windows Server,如 Windows Server 2008、Windows Server 2008 R2 或 Windows Server 2012。This feature cannot upgrade earlier versions of Windows Server such as Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, or Windows Server 2012 to Windows Server 2016.
  • Windows Server 2016 的每个节点应仅重新格式化/全新安装。Each Windows Server 2016 node should be reformatted/new installation only. "位置"升级"不要安装类型。"In-place" or "upgrade" installation type is discouraged.
  • Windows Server 2016 节点必须用于添加到群集节点 Windows Server 2016。A Windows Server 2016 node must be used to add Windows Server 2016 nodes to the cluster.
  • 管理混合操作系统模式群集时, 始终运行的 Windows Server 2016 上一级节点执行管理任务。When managing a mixed-OS mode cluster, always perform the management tasks from an uplevel node that is running Windows Server 2016. 下层 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点无法使用对 Windows Server 2016 的 UI 或管理工具。Downlevel Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes cannot use UI or management tools against Windows Server 2016.
  • 我们鼓励客户遍历群集升级过程中快速由于未针对混合操作系统模式优化某些群集功能。We encourage customers to move through the cluster upgrade process quickly because some cluster features are not optimized for mixed-OS mode.
  • 创建或调整 Windows Server 2016 节点上的存储时群集运行混合操作系统型由于可能不兼容的故障转移从 Windows Server 2016 节点向低级别 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点避免。Avoid creating or resizing storage on Windows Server 2016 nodes while the cluster is running in mixed-OS mode because of possible incompatibilities on failover from a Windows Server 2016 node to down-level Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes.

常见问题Frequently asked questions

多长时间可以故障转移群集混合操作系统模式下运行?How long can the failover cluster run in mixed-OS mode?
我们鼓励客户才能完成升级四个星期内。We encourage customers to complete the upgrade within four weeks. 有多种优化,在 Windows Server 2016。There are many optimizations in Windows Server 2016. 我们已成功升级四个小时内总 Hyper-V 和规模文件服务器群集零宕机。We have successfully upgraded Hyper-V and Scale-out File Server clusters with zero downtime in less than four hours total.

你将端口返回到 Windows Server 2012、Windows Server 2008 R2 或 Windows Server 2008 该功能?Will you port this feature back to Windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2008 R2, or Windows Server 2008?
我们没有任何套餐以端口回退到以前版本的此功能。We do not have any plans to port this feature back to previous versions. 群集操作系统推出升级是我们对 Windows Server 2016 到内外升级 Windows Server 2012 R2 群集的愿景。Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade is our vision for upgrading Windows Server 2012 R2 clusters to Windows Server 2016 and beyond.

Windows Server 2012 R2 群集是否需要具有开始群集操作系统推出升级过程之前安装的所有软件更新?Does the Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster need to have all the software updates installed before starting the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process?
是,在开始之前群集操作系统推出升级的过程,验证,所有群集节点进行都更新的最新的软件更新。Yes, before starting the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process, verify that all cluster nodes are updated with the latest software updates.

我是否可以运行Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet 时节点处于关闭状态,或暂停?Can I run the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet while nodes are Off or Paused?
不。No. 所有群集节点都必须在和活动的成员Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet 工作。All cluster nodes must be on and in active membership for the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet to work.

将任何群集运行工作负载的群集操作系统推出升级起作用?Does Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade work for any cluster workload? 它是否适用于 SQL Server?Does it work for SQL Server?
是,群集升级操作系统推出适用于任何群集运行工作负载。Yes, Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade works for any cluster workload. 但是,它将仅零宕机 Hyper-V 和规模文件服务器群集。However, it is only zero-downtime for Hyper-V and Scale-out File Server clusters. 大多数其他工作负载时产生某些宕机(通常几分钟)他们故障转移,并故障转移群集操作系统推出升级过程中至少运行一次,才能。Most other workloads incur some downtime (typically a couple of minutes) when they failover, and failover is required at least once during the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process.

是否可以自动完成此过程中使用 PowerShell?Can I automate this process using PowerShell?
是,我们已设计群集操作系统推出升级,以便自动使用 PowerShell。Yes, we have designed Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade to be automated using PowerShell.

对于具有额外的工作负荷和故障转移容量大群集,是否可以升级多个节点同时?For a large cluster that has extra workload and failover capacity, can I upgrade multiple nodes simultaneously?
是的。Yes. 从群集升级操作系统删除一台节点后,群集故障转移的一个较少节点,因此将拥有减少故障转移的容量。When one node is removed from the cluster to upgrade the OS, the cluster will have one less node for failover, hence will have a reduced failover capacity. 用于大型有足够的工作负荷和容量故障转移群集中,可以同时升级的多个节点。For large clusters with enough workload and failover capacity, multiple nodes can be upgraded simultaneously. 暂时,你可以添加群集节点向群集群集操作系统推出升级过程中提供工作负载的改进和故障转移容量。You can temporarily add cluster nodes to the cluster to provide improved workload and failover capacity during the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process.

如果我在我的群集后发现了以下问题时Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel已成功运行?What if I discover an issue in my cluster after Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel has been run successfully?
如果你有备份群集数据库与系统状态运行之前备份Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel,你应该能够执行权威还原 Windows Server 2012 R2 群集节点和还原原始群集数据库和配置。If you have backed-up the cluster database with a System State backup before running Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel, you should be able to perform an Authoritative restore on a Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster node and restore the original cluster database and configuration.

可以为每个节点而不是通过重新系统驱动器进行格式化使用清洁操作系统安装使用就地升级?Can I use in-place upgrade for each node instead of using clean-OS install by reformatting the system drive?
我们不会建议使用就地升级的 Windows Server,但我们所知的工作原理在某些情况下,使用默认驱动程序的位置。We do not encourage the use of in-place upgrade of Windows Server, but we are aware that it works in some cases where default drivers are used. 所有警告消息,请仔细阅读都显示群集节点就地升级的过程。Please carefully read all warning messages displayed during in-place upgrade of a cluster node.

如果我在使用 Hyper-V 复制 Hyper-V VM 我 Hyper-V 群集上,将复制保持不变期间和群集操作系统推出升级的过程后?If I am using Hyper-V replication for a Hyper-V VM on my Hyper-V cluster, will replication remain intact during and after the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process?
是,Hyper-V 副本将保持不变,期间和后群集操作系统推出升级的过程。Yes, Hyper-V replica remains intact during and after the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process.

可以使用系统中心 2016 年虚拟机管理器 (SCVMM) 赛事群集操作系统推出升级?Can I use System Center 2016 Virtual Machine Manager (SCVMM) to automate the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process?
是,你可以自动使用 VMM,系统中心 2016 年中的群集操作系统推出升级过程。Yes, you can automate the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process using VMM in System Center 2016.

请参阅See also