群集操作系统滚动升级Cluster operating system rolling upgrade

适用于:Windows 服务器 (半年频道),Windows Server 2016Applies to: Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016

群集操作系统滚动升级使管理员能够在群集节点的操作系统升级而无需停止 HYPER-V 或横向扩展文件服务器工作负荷。Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade enables an administrator to upgrade the operating system of the cluster nodes without stopping the Hyper-V or the Scale-Out File Server workloads. 使用此功能可以避免服务级别协议 (SLA) 的停机时间损失。Using this feature, the downtime penalties against Service Level Agreements (SLA) can be avoided.

群集操作系统滚动升级提供以下优势:Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade provides the following benefits:

  • 运行的 HYPER-V 虚拟机和横向扩展文件服务器 (SOFS) 工作负荷的故障转移群集可以升级从 Windows Server 2012 R2 (在群集中的所有节点上运行) 到 Windows Server 2016 (在群集的所有群集节点上运行) 而无需停机。Failover clusters running Hyper-V virtual machine and Scale-out File Server (SOFS) workloads can be upgraded from Windows Server 2012 R2 (running on all nodes in the cluster) to Windows Server 2016 (running on all cluster nodes of the cluster) without downtime. 其他群集工作负荷,如 SQL Server 故障转移到 Windows Server 2016 所花费的时间 (通常小于 5 分钟) 内将不可用。Other cluster workloads, such as SQL Server, will be unavailable during the time (typically less than five minutes) it takes to failover to Windows Server 2016.
  • 它不需要任何额外的硬件。It doesn't require any additional hardware. 尽管您可以添加其他群集节点暂时到小型群集在群集操作系统滚动升级过程中提高可用性的群集处理。Although, you can add additional cluster nodes temporarily to small clusters to improve availability of the cluster during the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process.
  • 群集不需要停止或重新启动。The cluster doesn't need to be stopped or restarted.
  • 新的群集不需要。A new cluster is not required. 现有群集升级。The existing cluster is upgraded. 此外,使用现有的群集对象存储在 Active Directory。In addition, existing cluster objects stored in Active Directory are used.
  • 客户选择"点-的-无返回",在所有群集节点时正在运行 Windows Server 2016 之前,并且运行 Update-clusterfunctionallevel PowerShell cmdlet 时,升级过程是可逆的。The upgrade process is reversible until the customer choses the "point-of-no-return", when all cluster nodes are running Windows Server 2016, and when the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel PowerShell cmdlet is run.
  • 群集可以在混合 OS 模式下运行时支持修补和维护操作。The cluster can support patching and maintenance operations while running in the mixed-OS mode.
  • 它支持通过 PowerShell 和 WMI 的自动化。It supports automation via PowerShell and WMI.
  • 群集公共属性ClusterFunctionalLevel属性指示在 Windows Server 2016 群集节点上群集的状态。The cluster public property ClusterFunctionalLevel property indicates the state of the cluster on Windows Server 2016 cluster nodes. 使用 PowerShell cmdlet 从属于故障转移群集的 Windows Server 2016 群集节点可以查询此属性:This property can be queried using the PowerShell cmdlet from a Windows Server 2016 cluster node that belongs to a failover cluster:

    Get-Cluster | Select ClusterFunctionalLevel  
    

    值为8指示群集正在运行 Windows Server 2012 R2 功能级别。A value of 8 indicates that the cluster is running at the Windows Server 2012 R2 functional level. 值为9指示群集正在运行 Windows Server 2016 功能级别。A value of 9 indicates that the cluster is running at the Windows Server 2016 functional level.

本指南介绍了群集操作系统滚动升级过程、 安装步骤、 功能限制和常见问题 (Faq) 的各个阶段,并适用于 Windows Server 2016 中的以下群集操作系统滚动升级方案:This guide describes the various stages of the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process, installation steps, feature limitations, and frequently asked questions (FAQs), and is applicable to the following Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade scenarios in Windows Server 2016:

  • HYPER-V 群集Hyper-V clusters
  • 横向扩展文件服务器群集Scale-Out File Server clusters

在 Windows Server 2016 中不支持以下方案:The following scenario is not supported in Windows Server 2016:

  • 群集操作系统滚动升级的来宾群集使用为共享存储的虚拟硬盘 (.vhdx 文件)Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade of guest clusters using virtual hard disk (.vhdx file) as shared storage

群集操作系统滚动升级是完全支持通过 System Center Virtual Machine Manager (SCVMM) 2016年。Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade is fully supported by System Center Virtual Machine Manager (SCVMM) 2016. 如果使用的 SCVMM 2016,请参阅在 VMM 中执行滚动升级到 Windows Server 2016 的 HYPER-V 主机群集的有关升级群集和自动执行本文档中所述的步骤的指导。If you are using SCVMM 2016, see Perform a rolling upgrade of a Hyper-V host cluster to Windows Server 2016 in VMM for guidance on upgrading the clusters and automating the steps that are described in this document.

要求Requirements

在开始群集操作系统滚动升级过程之前,请完成以下要求:Complete the following requirements before you begin the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process:

  • 开始运行 Windows Server (半年频道)、 Windows Server 2016 或 Windows Server 2012 R2 的故障转移群集。Start with a Failover Cluster running Windows Server (Semi-Annual Channel), Windows Server 2016, or Windows Server 2012 R2.
  • 不支持升级到 Windows Server 存储空间直通群集,版本 1709年。Upgrading a Storage Spaces Direct cluster to Windows Server, version 1709 isn't supported.
  • 如果群集工作负荷的 HYPER-V Vm 或横向扩展文件服务器,您可以预计零停机时间升级。If the cluster workload is Hyper-V VMs, or Scale-Out File Server, you can expect zero-downtime upgrade.
  • 验证 HYPER-V 节点具有支持二级地址表 (SLAT) 使用以下某种方法; 的 CpuVerify that the Hyper-V nodes have CPUs that support Second-Level Addressing Table (SLAT) using one of the following methods;
    -查看是否 SLAT 兼容?WP8 SDK 提示 01篇文章,介绍两种方法来检查 CPU 是否支持 SLATs- Review the Are you SLAT Compatible? WP8 SDK Tip 01 article that describes two methods to check if a CPU supports SLATs
    -下载Coreinfo v3.31工具来确定 CPU 是否支持 SLAT。- Download the Coreinfo v3.31 tool to determine if a CPU supports SLAT.

群集在群集操作系统滚动升级期间转换状态Cluster transition states during Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade

本部分介绍 Windows Server 2012 R2 群集正在升级到 Windows Server 2016 使用群集操作系统滚动升级各种转换的状态。This section describes the various transition states of the Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster that is being upgraded to Windows Server 2016 using Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade.

为了使运行在群集操作系统滚动升级过程中,从 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点的群集工作负荷移动到 Windows Server 2016 的群集工作负荷节点工作起来就好像这两个节点运行 Windows Server 2012 R2 操作系统。In order to keep the cluster workloads running during the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process, moving a cluster workload from a Windows Server 2012 R2 node to Windows Server 2016 node works as if both nodes were running the Windows Server 2012 R2 operating system. Windows Server 2016 节点添加到群集,它们在 Windows Server 2012 R2 兼容性模式下操作。When Windows Server 2016 nodes are added to the cluster, they operate in a Windows Server 2012 R2 compatibility mode. 新的概念群集模式下,名为"混合 OS 模式",允许的不同版本可供位于同一节点群集 (请参阅图 1)。A new conceptual cluster mode, called "mixed-OS mode", allows nodes of different versions to exist in the same cluster (see Figure 1).

显示群集操作系统滚动升级的三个阶段: Windows Server 2012 R2 的所有节点、 混合 OS 模式和 Windows Server 2016 的所有节点Illustration showing the three stages of a cluster OS rolling upgrade: all nodes Windows Server 2012 R2, mixed-OS mode, and all nodes Windows Server 2016
图 1:群集操作系统状态转换Figure 1: Cluster operating system state transitions

Windows Server 2016 节点添加到群集时,Windows Server 2012 R2 群集进入混合操作系统模式。A Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster enters mixed-OS mode when a Windows Server 2016 node is added to the cluster. 过程可完全撤消-可以从群集中删除 Windows Server 2016 节点,并且可以将 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点添加到在此模式下群集。The process is fully reversible - Windows Server 2016 nodes can be removed from the cluster and Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes can be added to the cluster in this mode. 在群集上运行 Update-clusterfunctionallevel PowerShell cmdlet 时发生"点的不返回"。The "point of no return" occurs when the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel PowerShell cmdlet is run on the cluster. 为了使此 cmdlet 成功,所有节点都必须都是 Windows Server 2016 和所有节点必须都都处于联机状态。In order for this cmdlet to succeed, all nodes must be Windows Server 2016, and all nodes must be online.

四节点群集执行滚动升级操作系统时的转换状态Transition states of a four-node cluster while performing Rolling OS Upgrade

本部分说明了,并描述具有共享存储的节点将从 Windows Server 2012 R2 升级到 Windows Server 2016 的群集的四个不同阶段。This section illustrates and describes the four different stages of a cluster with shared storage whose nodes are upgraded from Windows Server 2012 R2 to Windows Server 2016.

"阶段 1"的初始状态-我们开始将 Windows Server 2012 R2 群集。"Stage 1" is the initial state - we start with a Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster.

图中显示的初始状态: Windows Server 2012 R2 的所有节点Illustration showing the initial state: all nodes Windows Server 2012 R2
图 2:初始状态:Windows Server 2012 R2 故障转移群集 (第 1 阶段)Figure 2: Initial State: Windows Server 2012 R2 Failover Cluster (Stage 1)

在"阶段 2",两个节点已暂停,排出、 逐出、 重新格式化,并随 Windows Server 2016 一起安装。In "Stage 2", two nodes have been paused, drained, evicted, reformatted, and installed with Windows Server 2016.

在混合 OS 模式下显示群集的示意图: 移出的示例 4 节点群集,两个节点都在运行 Windows Server 2016 和两个节点都在运行 Windows Server 2012 R2Illustration showing the cluster in mixed-OS mode: out of the example 4-node cluster, two nodes are running Windows Server 2016, and two nodes are running Windows Server 2012 R2
图 3:中间状态:混合操作系统模式:Windows Server 2012 R2 和 Windows Server 2016 故障转移群集 (阶段 2)Figure 3: Intermediate State: Mixed-OS mode: Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2016 Failover cluster (Stage 2)

在"阶段 3"、 在群集中节点的所有已升级到 Windows Server 2016 和群集已准备好升级使用 Update-clusterfunctionallevel PowerShell cmdlet。At "Stage 3", all of the nodes in the cluster have been upgraded to Windows Server 2016, and the cluster is ready to be upgraded with Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel PowerShell cmdlet.

备注

在此阶段,可以完全反向执行此流程,并可以将 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点添加到此群集。At this stage, the process can be fully reversed, and Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes can be added to this cluster.

显示群集已完全升级到 Windows Server 2016 中,并已准备好 Update-clusterfunctionallevel cmdlet 以便群集功能级别由 Windows Server 2016 的示意图Illustration showing that the cluster has been fully upgraded to Windows Server 2016, and is ready for the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet to bring the cluster functional level up to Windows Server 2016
图 4:中间状态:升级到 Windows Server 2016,准备好进行 Update-clusterfunctionallevel (阶段 3) 的所有节点Figure 4: Intermediate State: All nodes upgraded to Windows Server 2016, ready for Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel (Stage 3)

运行更新 ClusterFunctionalLevelcmdlet 后,群集将进入"阶段 4",可以使用新的 Windows Server 2016 群集功能的位置。After the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevelcmdlet is run, the cluster enters "Stage 4", where new Windows Server 2016 cluster features can be used.

显示群集滚动操作系统升级已成功完成;所有节点均已都升级到 Windows Server 2016 和群集运行在 Windows Server 2016 群集功能级别Illustration showing that the cluster rolling OS upgrade has been successfully completed; all nodes have been upgraded to Windows Server 2016, and the cluster is running at the Windows Server 2016 cluster functional level
图 5:最终状态:Windows Server 2016 故障转移群集 (阶段 4)Figure 5: Final State: Windows Server 2016 Failover Cluster (Stage 4)

群集操作系统滚动升级过程Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade Process

本部分介绍用于执行群集操作系统滚动升级的工作流。This section describes the workflow for performing Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade.

显示升级群集的工作流示意图Illustration showing the workflow for upgrading a cluster
图 6:群集操作系统滚动升级过程工作流Figure 6: Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade Process Workflow

群集操作系统滚动升级包括以下步骤:Cluster OS Rolling upgrade includes the following steps:

  1. 按如下所示准备用于操作系统升级的群集:Prepare the cluster for the operating system upgrade as follows:

    1. 群集操作系统滚动升级,则需要从群集中一次删除一个节点。Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade requires removing one node at a time from the cluster. 检查您是否具有足够的容量群集来维护 HA Sla 时从操作系统升级群集中删除其中一个群集节点上。Check if you have sufficient capacity on the cluster to maintain HA SLAs when one of the cluster nodes is removed from the cluster for an operating system upgrade. 换而言之,您需要将工作负荷故障转移到另一个节点的功能时的群集操作系统滚动升级过程中从群集删除一个节点?In other words, do you require the capability to failover workloads to another node when one node is removed from the cluster during the process of Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade? 群集是否足够容量来时为群集操作系统滚动升级从群集删除一个节点运行所需的工作负荷?Does the cluster have the capacity to run the required workloads when one node is removed from the cluster for Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade?
    2. 对于 HYPER-V 工作负荷,检查所有 Windows Server 2016 HYPER-V 主机都必须支持二级地址表 (SLAT) 的 CPU。For Hyper-V workloads, check that all Windows Server 2016 Hyper-V hosts have CPU support Second-Level Address Table (SLAT). 仅支持 SLAT 的计算机可以使用 Windows Server 2016 中的 HYPER-V 角色。Only SLAT-capable machines can use the Hyper-V role in Windows Server 2016.
    3. 检查任何工作负荷备份已完成,并考虑备份群集。Check that any workload backups have completed, and consider backing-up the cluster. 向群集添加节点时停止备份操作。Stop backup operations while adding nodes to the cluster.
    4. 检查所有群集节点都处于联机状态/运行/上使用 Get-ClusterNode cmdlet (请参阅图 7)。Check that all cluster nodes are online /running/up using the Get-ClusterNode cmdlet (see Figure 7).

      方屏幕截图显示正在运行的 Get-clusternode cmdlet 的结果Screencap showing the results of running the Get-ClusterNode cmdlet
      图 7:确定使用 Get-clusternode cmdlet 的节点状态Figure 7: Determining node status using Get-ClusterNode cmdlet

    5. 如果运行的群集感知更新 (CAU),验证是否当前正在 CAU 运行通过使用群集意识到更新UI 中,或 Get-CauRun cmdlet (请参阅图 8)。If you are running Cluster Aware Updates (CAU), verify if CAU is currently running by using the Cluster-Aware Updating UI, or the Get-CauRun cmdlet (see Figure 8). 停止使用 CAU Disable-CauClusterRole cmdlet (见图 9) 以防止被暂停或由 CAU 在群集操作系统滚动升级过程中排除任何节点。Stop CAU using the Disable-CauClusterRole cmdlet (see Figure 9) to prevent any nodes from being paused and drained by CAU during the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process.

      方屏幕截图显示 Get-caurun cmdlet 的输出Screencap showing the output of the Get-CauRun cmdlet
      图 8:使用 Get-CauRun cmdlet 来确定在群集上运行的群集感知更新Figure 8: Using the Get-CauRun cmdlet to determine if Cluster Aware Updates is running on the cluster

      方屏幕截图显示 Disable-cauclusterrole cmdlet 的输出Screencap showing the output of the Disable-CauClusterRole cmdlet
      图 9:群集感知更新角色使用禁用 Disable-CauClusterRole cmdletFigure 9: Disabling the Cluster Aware Updates role using the Disable-CauClusterRole cmdlet

  2. 对于群集中每个节点,完成以下任务:For each node in the cluster, complete the following:

    1. 使用群集管理器 UI,选择一个节点,然后使用暂停 |清空菜单选项来排出该节点 (请参阅图 10) 或使用 Suspend-ClusterNode cmdlet (请参阅图 11)。Using Cluster Manager UI, select a node and use the Pause | Drain menu option to drain the node (see Figure 10) or use the Suspend-ClusterNode cmdlet (see Figure 11).

      方屏幕截图显示了如何清空角色使用群集管理器 UIScreencap showing how to drain roles with the Cluster Manager UI
      图 10:排出节点使用故障转移群集管理器中的角色Figure 10: Draining roles from a node using Failover Cluster Manager

      方屏幕截图显示 Suspend-clusternode cmdlet 的输出Screencap showing the output of the Suspend-ClusterNode cmdlet
      图 11:排出节点使用的角色 Suspend-ClusterNode cmdletFigure 11: Draining roles from a node using the Suspend-ClusterNode cmdlet

    2. 使用群集管理器 UI逐出暂停的节点从群集中或使用 Remove-ClusterNode cmdlet。Using Cluster Manager UI, Evict the paused node from cluster, or use the Remove-ClusterNode cmdlet.

      方屏幕截图显示删除节点 cmdlet 的输出Screencap showing the output of the Remove-ClusterNode cmdlet
      图 12:从群集中使用删除节点 Remove-ClusterNode cmdletFigure 12: Remove a node from the cluster using Remove-ClusterNode cmdlet

    3. 系统驱动器重新格式化和执行"干净操作系统安装"Windows Server 2016 的节点使用自定义:仅安装 Windows (高级) 在 setup.exe 的安装 (请参阅图 13) 选项。Reformat the system drive and perform a "clean operating system install" of Windows Server 2016 on the node using the Custom: Install Windows only (advanced) installation (See Figure 13) option in setup.exe. 避免选择升级:安装 Windows 和保留文件、 设置和应用程序选项由于群集操作系统滚动升级不鼓励在就地升级。Avoid selecting the Upgrade: Install Windows and keep files, settings, and applications option since Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade doesn't encourage in-place upgrade.

      方的 Windows Server 2016 安装向导显示所选的自定义安装选项的屏幕截图Screencap of the Windows Server 2016 installation wizard showing the custom install option selected
      图 13:Windows Server 2016 的可用安装选项Figure 13: Available installation options for Windows Server 2016

    4. 将节点添加到相应的 Active Directory 域。Add the node to the appropriate Active Directory domain.

    5. 将相应的用户添加到管理员组。Add the appropriate users to the Administrators group.
    6. 使用服务器管理器 UI 或 Install-windowsfeature PowerShell cmdlet 安装任何需要例如 HYPER-V 的服务器角色。Using the Server Manager UI or Install-WindowsFeature PowerShell cmdlet, install any server roles that you need, such as Hyper-V.

      Install-WindowsFeature -Name Hyper-V  
      
    7. 使用服务器管理器 UI 或 Install-windowsfeature PowerShell cmdlet 安装故障转移群集功能。Using the Server Manager UI or Install-WindowsFeature PowerShell cmdlet, install the Failover Clustering feature.

      Install-WindowsFeature -Name Failover-Clustering  
      
    8. 安装所需的群集工作负荷的任何其他功能。Install any additional features needed by your cluster workloads.

    9. 检查网络和存储的连接设置,请使用故障转移群集管理器 UI。Check network and storage connectivity settings using the Failover Cluster Manager UI.
    10. 如果使用 Windows 防火墙,检查防火墙设置是否适合群集。If Windows Firewall is used, check that the Firewall settings are correct for the cluster. 例如,群集感知更新 (CAU) 启用了群集可能需要防火墙配置。For example, Cluster Aware Updating (CAU) enabled clusters may require Firewall configuration.
    11. 对于 HYPER-V 工作负荷,使用 HYPER-V 管理器 UI 中启动的虚拟交换机管理器对话框 (请参阅图 14)。For Hyper-V workloads, use the Hyper-V Manger UI to launch the Virtual Switch Manager dialog (see Figure 14).

      检查虚拟 Switch(s) 使用的名称是相同的 HYPER-V 主机群集中的所有节点。Check that the name of the Virtual Switch(s) used are identical for all Hyper-V host nodes in the cluster.

      方屏幕截图显示 HYPER-V 虚拟交换机管理器对话框中的位置Screencap showing the location of the Hyper-V Virtual Switch Manager dialog
      图 14:虚拟交换机管理器Figure 14: Virtual Switch Manager

    12. Windows Server 2016 节点上 (不使用 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点),使用故障转移群集管理器 (请参阅图 15) 以连接到群集。On a Windows Server 2016 node (do not use a Windows Server 2012 R2 node), use the Failover Cluster Manager (see Figure 15) to connect to the cluster.

      方屏幕截图显示选择群集对话框Screencap showing the select cluster dialog
      图 15:将节点添加到群集使用故障转移群集管理器Figure 15: Adding a node to the cluster using Failover Cluster Manager

    13. 使用故障转移群集管理器 UI 或 Add-ClusterNode cmdlet (参阅图 16) 将节点添加到群集。Use either the Failover Cluster Manager UI or the Add-ClusterNode cmdlet (see Figure 16) to add the node to the cluster.

      方屏幕截图显示 Add-clusternode cmdlet 的输出Screencap showing the output of the Add-ClusterNode cmdlet
      图 16:将节点添加到群集使用 Add-ClusterNode cmdletFigure 16: Adding a node to the cluster using Add-ClusterNode cmdlet

      备注

      当第一个 Windows Server 2016 节点加入群集时,群集进入"Mixed OS"模式和群集核心资源移到 Windows Server 2016 节点。When the first Windows Server 2016 node joins the cluster, the cluster enters "Mixed-OS" mode, and the cluster core resources are moved to the Windows Server 2016 node. "混合 OS"模式下群集是新的节点在兼容性模式下使用旧的节点的运行位置的完全正常运行群集。A "Mixed-OS" mode cluster is a fully functional cluster where the new nodes run in a compatibility mode with the old nodes. "混合 OS"模式是为群集的暂时性模式。"Mixed-OS" mode is a transitory mode for the cluster. 它不应为永久重定向,客户需四个星期内更新其群集的所有节点。It is not intended to be permanent and customers are expected to update all nodes of their cluster within four weeks.

    14. 在 Windows Server 2016 后节点已成功添加到群集,你可以 (可选) 将一些移动的群集工作负荷到新添加的节点才能间重新平衡工作负荷的群集,如下所示:After the Windows Server 2016 node is successfully added to the cluster, you can (optionally) move some of the cluster workload to the newly added node in order to rebalance the workload across the cluster as follows:

      方屏幕截图显示 Move-clustervirtualmachinerole cmdlet 的输出Screencap showing the output of the Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole cmdlet
      图 17:群集工作负载 (群集 VM 角色) 使用移动 Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole cmdletFigure 17: Moving a cluster workload (cluster VM role) using Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole cmdlet

      1. 使用实时迁移从故障转移群集管理器的虚拟机或 Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole cmdlet (参阅图 17) 来执行虚拟机的实时迁移。Use Live Migration from the Failover Cluster Manager for virtual machines or the Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole cmdlet (see Figure 17) to perform a live migration of the virtual machines.

        Move-ClusterVirtualMachineRole -Name VM1 -Node robhind-host3  
        
      2. 使用移动从故障转移群集管理器或 Move-ClusterGroup cmdlet 的其他群集工作负荷。Use Move from the Failover Cluster Manager or the Move-ClusterGroup cmdlet for other cluster workloads.

  3. 当升级到 Windows Server 2016 的每个节点并将其添加回群集,或已逐出任何剩余的 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点时,请执行以下操作:When every node has been upgraded to Windows Server 2016 and added back to the cluster, or when any remaining Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes have been evicted, do the following:

    重要

    • 更新群集功能级别后,不能返回到 Windows Server 2012 R2 的功能级别并不能将 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点添加到群集。After you update the cluster functional level, you cannot go back to Windows Server 2012 R2 functional level and Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes cannot be added to the cluster.
    • 直到 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel 运行 cmdlet,该过程是完全可还原和可以将 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点添加到此群集可以删除 Windows Server 2016 节点。Until the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet is run, the process is fully reversible and Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes can be added to this cluster and Windows Server 2016 nodes can be removed.
    • 之后 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel 运行 cmdlet 时,新功能将不可用。After the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet is run, new features will be available.
    1. 使用故障转移群集管理器 UI 或 Get-ClusterGroup cmdlet,检查所有群集角色都正在群集按预期方式。Using the Failover Cluster Manager UI or the Get-ClusterGroup cmdlet, check that all cluster roles are running on the cluster as expected. 在以下示例中,未使用可用的存储,改为使用 CSV,因此,显示可用的存储脱机状态 (请参阅图 18)。In the following example, Available Storage is not being used, instead CSV is used, hence, Available Storage displays an Offline status (see Figure 18).

      方屏幕截图显示 Get-clustergroup cmdlet 的输出Screencap showing the output of the Get-ClusterGroup cmdlet
      图 18:验证所有群集组 (群集角色) 使用运行 Get-ClusterGroup cmdletFigure 18: Verifying that all cluster groups (cluster roles) are running using the Get-ClusterGroup cmdlet

    2. 检查所有群集节点都处于联机状态和运行使用 Get-ClusterNode cmdlet。Check that all cluster nodes are online and running using the Get-ClusterNode cmdlet.

    3. 运行 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet-不应返回错误 (请参阅图 19)。Run the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet - no errors should be returned (see Figure 19).

      方屏幕截图显示 Update-clusterfunctionallevel cmdlet 的输出Screencap showing the output of the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet
      图 19:更新使用 PowerShell 的群集的功能级别Figure 19: Updating the functional level of a cluster using PowerShell

    4. 之后 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel 运行 cmdlet 时,提供了新功能。After the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet is run, new features are available.

  4. Windows Server 2016-恢复正常的群集更新和备份:Windows Server 2016 - resume normal cluster updates and backups:

    1. 如果以前运行 CAU,请重新启动它使用 CAU UI 或使用 Enable-CauClusterRole cmdlet (请参阅图 20)。If you were previously running CAU, restart it using the CAU UI or use the Enable-CauClusterRole cmdlet (see Figure 20).

      方屏幕截图显示 Enable-cauclusterrole 的输出Screencap showing the output of the Enable-CauClusterRole
      图 20:启用群集感知更新角色使用 Enable-CauClusterRole cmdletFigure 20: Enable Cluster Aware Updates role using the Enable-CauClusterRole cmdlet

    2. 恢复备份操作。Resume backup operations.

  5. 启用和使用的 HYPER-V 虚拟机上的 Windows Server 2016 功能。Enable and use the Windows Server 2016 features on Hyper-V Virtual Machines.

    1. 群集升级到 Windows Server 2016 功能级别后,许多工作负载,如 HYPER-V Vm 将具有新功能。After the cluster has been upgraded to Windows Server 2016 functional level, many workloads like Hyper-V VMs will have new capabilities. 有关新的 HYPER-V 功能的列表。For a list of new Hyper-V capabilities. 请参阅迁移和升级虚拟机see Migrate and upgrade virtual machines

    2. 在群集中每个 HYPER-V 主机节点上使用 Get-VMHostSupportedVersion cmdlet 查看支持的主机的 HYPER-V VM 配置版本。On each Hyper-V host node in the cluster, use the Get-VMHostSupportedVersion cmdlet to view the Hyper-V VM configuration versions that are supported by the host.

      方屏幕截图显示 Get VMHostSupportedVersion cmdlet 的输出Screencap showing the output of the Get-VMHostSupportedVersion cmdlet
      图 21:查看支持的主机的 HYPER-V VM 配置版本Figure 21: Viewing the Hyper-V VM configuration versions supported by the host

    1. 在群集中的每个 HYPER-V 主机节点,可以通过与用户计划一个短的维护时段、 备份、 关闭虚拟机和运行升级的 HYPER-V VM 配置版本 Update-VMVersion cmdlet (请参阅图 22)。On each Hyper-V host node in the cluster, Hyper-V VM configuration versions can be upgraded by scheduling a brief maintenance window with users, backing up, turning off virtual machines, and running the Update-VMVersion cmdlet (see Figure 22). 这将更新虚拟机版本,并启用新的 HYPER-V 功能,从而无需将来的 HYPER-V 集成组件 (IC) 更新。This will update the virtual machine version, and enable new Hyper-V features, eliminating the need for future Hyper-V Integration Component (IC) updates. 可以从托管 VM 的 HYPER-V 节点运行此 cmdlet 或-ComputerName参数可用于远程更新 VM 版本。This cmdlet can be run from the Hyper-V node that is hosting the VM, or the -ComputerName parameter can be used to update the VM Version remotely. 在此示例中,此处我们 VM1 的配置版本从升级 5.0 到 7.0 才能利用此虚拟机配置版本为生产检查点 (应用程序一致性备份) 和二进制 VM 等相关联的许多新的 HYPER-V 功能配置文件。In this example, here we upgrade the configuration version of VM1 from 5.0 to 7.0 to take advantage of many new Hyper-V features associated with this VM configuration version such as Production Checkpoints (Application Consistent backups), and binary VM configuration file.

      在操作中显示 Update-vmversion cmdlet 方屏幕截图Screencap showing the Update-VMVersion cmdlet in action
      图 22:使用 Update-vmversion PowerShell cmdlet 将 VM 版本升级Figure 22: Upgrading a VM version using the Update-VMVersion PowerShell cmdlet

  6. 可以使用升级存储池Update-storagepool PowerShell cmdlet-这是一个联机操作。Storage pools can be upgraded using the Update-StoragePool PowerShell cmdlet - this is an online operation.

尽管我们面向私有云方案,特别是 HYPER-V 和横向扩展文件服务器群集,可以升级而无需停机,群集操作系统滚动升级过程可以用于任何群集角色。Although we are targeting Private Cloud scenarios, specifically Hyper-V and Scale-out File Server clusters, which can be upgraded without downtime, the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process can be used for any cluster role.

限制 / 限制Restrictions / Limitations

  • 此功能仅适用于 Windows Server 2012 R2 到 Windows Server 2016 版本。This feature works only for Windows Server 2012 R2 to Windows Server 2016 versions only. 此功能不能如 Windows Server 2008、 Windows Server 2008 R2 或 Windows Server 2012 的 Windows Server 的早期版本升级到 Windows Server 2016。This feature cannot upgrade earlier versions of Windows Server such as Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2, or Windows Server 2012 to Windows Server 2016.
  • Windows Server 2016 中的每个节点应重新格式化/新的安装。Each Windows Server 2016 node should be reformatted/new installation only. "就地"升级"安装类型,建议不要使用。"In-place" or "upgrade" installation type is discouraged.
  • Windows Server 2016 节点必须用于将 Windows Server 2016 节点添加到群集。A Windows Server 2016 node must be used to add Windows Server 2016 nodes to the cluster.
  • 在管理混合 OS 模式群集时,始终从正在运行 Windows Server 2016 的上一级节点中执行管理任务。When managing a mixed-OS mode cluster, always perform the management tasks from an uplevel node that is running Windows Server 2016. 下层 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点不能使用针对 Windows Server 2016 的 UI 或管理工具。Downlevel Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes cannot use UI or management tools against Windows Server 2016.
  • 我们鼓励客户迁移完成群集升级过程快速由于某些群集功能并没有对混合 OS 模式优化。We encourage customers to move through the cluster upgrade process quickly because some cluster features are not optimized for mixed-OS mode.
  • 避免创建或同时群集在混合 OS 模式下运行由于可能的不兼容性故障转移从 Windows Server 2016 的节点的下级 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点到调整 Windows Server 2016 节点上的存储的大小。Avoid creating or resizing storage on Windows Server 2016 nodes while the cluster is running in mixed-OS mode because of possible incompatibilities on failover from a Windows Server 2016 node to down-level Windows Server 2012 R2 nodes.

常见问题解答Frequently asked questions

故障转移群集的运行时间在混合 OS 模式下?How long can the failover cluster run in mixed-OS mode?
我们鼓励客户完成四个星期内的升级。We encourage customers to complete the upgrade within four weeks. 有很多优化 Windows Server 2016 中。There are many optimizations in Windows Server 2016. 我们已成功升级的 HYPER-V 和横向扩展文件服务器在不超过 4 小时内总群集零停机时间。We have successfully upgraded Hyper-V and Scale-out File Server clusters with zero downtime in less than four hours total.

将端口回 Windows Server 2012、 Windows Server 2008 R2 或 Windows Server 2008 的此功能?Will you port this feature back to Windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2008 R2, or Windows Server 2008?
我们并没有任何端口返回到以前版本此功能的计划。We do not have any plans to port this feature back to previous versions. 群集操作系统滚动升级是我们的愿景的 Windows Server 2012 R2 群集升级到 Windows Server 2016 和更高版本。Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade is our vision for upgrading Windows Server 2012 R2 clusters to Windows Server 2016 and beyond.

Windows Server 2012 R2 群集是否需要在开始群集操作系统滚动升级过程之前安装的所有软件更新?Does the Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster need to have all the software updates installed before starting the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process?
是的开始群集操作系统滚动升级过程之前,验证所有群集节点都将都更新与最新的软件更新。Yes, before starting the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process, verify that all cluster nodes are updated with the latest software updates.

可以运行 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet 时节点处于关闭状态或暂停?Can I run the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet while nodes are Off or Paused?
否。No. 所有群集节点都必须都是在和中的有效的成员资格 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet 来工作。All cluster nodes must be on and in active membership for the Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel cmdlet to work.

对于任何群集工作负荷的群集操作系统滚动升级工作原理?它是否适用于 SQL Server?Does Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade work for any cluster workload? Does it work for SQL Server?
是的群集操作系统滚动升级适用于任何群集工作负荷。Yes, Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade works for any cluster workload. 但是,它是仅零停机时间的 HYPER-V 和横向扩展文件服务器群集。However, it is only zero-downtime for Hyper-V and Scale-out File Server clusters. 大多数其他工作负荷会产生一定的停机时间 (通常需要花费几分钟),当它们至少一次在群集操作系统滚动升级过程中的故障转移和故障转移是必需。Most other workloads incur some downtime (typically a couple of minutes) when they failover, and failover is required at least once during the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process.

可以自动执行此过程使用 PowerShell?Can I automate this process using PowerShell?
是的我们已经设计群集操作系统滚动升级以使用 PowerShell 自动完成。Yes, we have designed Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade to be automated using PowerShell.

针对大型群集具有额外的工作负荷和故障转移容量,可以升级多个节点同时?For a large cluster that has extra workload and failover capacity, can I upgrade multiple nodes simultaneously?
是。Yes. 当从以升级操作系统的群集中删除一个节点时,群集将有一个较少节点进行故障转移,因此将具有降低的故障转移容量。When one node is removed from the cluster to upgrade the OS, the cluster will have one less node for failover, hence will have a reduced failover capacity. 对于具有足够的工作负荷和故障转移容量的大型群集,可以同时升级多个节点。For large clusters with enough workload and failover capacity, multiple nodes can be upgraded simultaneously. 您可以临时将群集节点添加到群集以在群集操作系统滚动升级过程中提供改进的工作负荷和故障转移容量。You can temporarily add cluster nodes to the cluster to provide improved workload and failover capacity during the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process.

在我的群集后发现了问题怎么办 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel 已成功运行?What if I discover an issue in my cluster after Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel has been run successfully?
如果您已备份的群集数据库与之前运行的系统状态备份 Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel ,您应能够执行授权还原 Windows Server 2012 R2 群集节点上并还原原始的群集数据库和配置。If you have backed-up the cluster database with a System State backup before running Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel, you should be able to perform an Authoritative restore on a Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster node and restore the original cluster database and configuration.

可以为每个节点而不是通过重新格式化系统驱动器中使用的清理操作系统安装使用就地升级?Can I use in-place upgrade for each node instead of using clean-OS install by reformatting the system drive?
我们不建议使用的 Windows Server 的就地升级,但我们已经注意到它在某些情况下,使用默认驱动程序的位置工作。We do not encourage the use of in-place upgrade of Windows Server, but we are aware that it works in some cases where default drivers are used. 请仔细阅读在群集节点的就地升级过程中显示所有警告消息。Please carefully read all warning messages displayed during in-place upgrade of a cluster node.

如果我正在使用 HYPER-V 复制的 HYPER-V vm 上的 HYPER-V 群集,将复制保持不变期间和之后群集操作系统滚动升级过程?If I am using Hyper-V replication for a Hyper-V VM on my Hyper-V cluster, will replication remain intact during and after the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process?
是的 HYPER-V 副本保持不变,期间和之后群集操作系统滚动升级过程。Yes, Hyper-V replica remains intact during and after the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process.

可以使用 System Center 2016 Virtual Machine Manager (SCVMM) 自动执行群集操作系统滚动升级过程?Can I use System Center 2016 Virtual Machine Manager (SCVMM) to automate the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process?
是的您可以在 System Center 2016 中使用 VMM 群集操作系统滚动升级过程进行自动化。Yes, you can automate the Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade process using VMM in System Center 2016.

请参阅See also