简化的 SMB 多通道和多 NIC 群集网络Simplified SMB Multichannel and Multi-NIC Cluster Networks

适用于:Windows Server 2019、Windows Server 2016Applies to: Windows Server 2019, Windows Server 2016

简化的 SMB 多通道和多-<abbr title="网络接口卡Simplified SMB Multichannel and Multi-NIC群集网络是一项功能,允许使用多个 Nic 上的相同的群集网络子网,并自动启用 SMB 多通道。NIC Cluster Networks is a feature that enables the use of multiple NICs on the same cluster network subnet, and automatically enables SMB Multichannel.

简化的 SMB 多通道和多 NIC 群集网络提供以下优势:Simplified SMB Multichannel and Multi-NIC Cluster Networks provides the following benefits:

  • 故障转移群集会自动识别正在使用相同的交换机的节点上的所有 Nic / 相同子网-无需额外配置。Failover Clustering automatically recognizes all NICs on nodes that are using the same switch / same subnet - no additional configuration needed.
  • 自动启用 SMB 多通道。SMB Multichannel is enabled automatically.
  • 仅限群集的 (专用) 网络上识别网络只有 IPv6 链接本地 (fe80) IP 地址资源。Networks that only have IPv6 Link Local (fe80) IP Addresses resources are recognized on cluster-only (private) networks.
  • 默认情况下在每个群集的访问点 (CAP) 网络名称 (NN) 配置单个 IP 地址资源。A single IP Address resource is configured on each Cluster Access Point (CAP) Network Name (NN) by default.
  • 当多个 Nic 位于相同子网上时,群集验证不再发出警告消息。Cluster validation no longer issues warning messages when multiple NICs are found on the same subnet.

要求Requirements

  • 每个服务器,使用相同的交换机的多个 Nic / 子网。Multiple NICs per server, using the same switch / subnet.

如何充分利用多 NIC 群集网络和简化的 SMB 多通道How to take advantage of multi-NIC clusters networks and simplified SMB multichannel

本部分介绍如何充分利用新的多 NIC 群集网络和简化的 SMB 多通道功能。This section describes how to take advantage of the new multi-NIC clusters networks and simplified SMB multichannel features.

使用故障转移群集的至少两个网络Use at least two networks for Failover Clustering

虽然很少见,但可能会失败的网络交换机-它仍然最佳做法是使用至少两个网络故障转移群集。Although it is rare, network switches can fail - it is still best practice to use at least two networks for Failover Clustering. 找到的所有网络都用于群集检测信号。All networks that are found are used for cluster heartbeats. 避免使用故障转移群集的单个网络,以避免单点故障。Avoid using a single network for your Failover Cluster in order to avoid a single point of failure. 理想情况下,应该有多个物理通信路径在群集中的节点之间任何单点故障。Ideally, there should be multiple physical communication paths between the nodes in the cluster, and no single point of failure.

有关故障转移群集的两个网络图示Illustration of two networks for Failover Clustering
图 1:使用故障转移群集的至少两个网络Figure 1: Use at least two networks for Failover Clustering

跨群集使用多个 NicUse Multiple NICs across clusters

简化的 SMB 多通道的最大的好处是跨群集的存储和存储工作负荷群集中使用多个 Nic 时实现的。Maximum benefit of the simplified SMB multichannel is achieved when multiple NICs are used across clusters - in both storage and storage workload clusters. 这样更有效地使用网络中的工作负荷群集 (HYPER-V、 SQL Server 故障转移群集实例,存储副本等) 使用 SMB 多通道和结果。This allows the workload clusters (Hyper-V, SQL Server Failover Cluster Instance, Storage Replica, etc.) to use SMB multichannel and results in more efficient use of the network. 在聚合 (也称为非聚合) 群集的配置用于存储的 HYPER-V 工作负荷数据的横向扩展文件服务器群集或 SQL Server 故障转移群集实例的群集,此网络通常称为"北-南子网"位置/网络.In a converged (also known as disaggregated) cluster configuration where a Scale-out File Server cluster is used for storing workload data for a Hyper-V or SQL Server Failover Cluster Instance cluster, this network is often called "the North-South subnet" / network. 许多客户通过投资 RDMA 支持的 NIC 卡和交换机中的此网络吞吐量最大化。Many customers maximize throughput of this network by investing in RDMA capable NIC cards and switches.

北-南 SMB 子网的图示Illustration of a North-South SMB Subnet
图 2:若要实现最大网络吞吐量,使用多个 Nic 上的横向扩展文件服务器群集和 HYPER-V 或 SQL Server 故障转移群集实例群集-共享北-南子网Figure 2: To achieve maximum network throughput, use multiple NICs on both the Scale-out File Server cluster and the Hyper-V or SQL Server Failover Cluster Instance cluster - which share the North-South subnet

两个群集位于同一子网使用多个 Nic 利用 SMB 多通道的方屏幕截图Screencap of two clusters using multiple NICs in the same subnet to leverage SMB multichannel
图 3:两个群集 (横向扩展文件服务器存储、 SQL ServerFCI工作负荷) 都使用相同的子网中的多个 Nic 来利用 SMB 多通道和实现更好的网络吞吐量。Figure 3: Two clusters (Scale-out File Server for storage, SQL Server FCI for workload) both use multiple NICs in the same subnet to leverage SMB Multichannel and achieve better network throughput.

检测到具有多个 Nic 的专用 (仅限群集) 网络后,群集会自动识别 IPv6 链接本地 (fe80) IP 地址的每个 NIC 上的每个子网。When private (cluster only) networks with multiple NICs are detected, the cluster will automatically recognize IPv6 Link Local (fe80) IP addresses for each NIC on each subnet. 因为它们不再必须手动配置 IPv6 链接本地 (fe80) IP 地址资源此节省管理员时间。This saves administrators time since they no longer have to manually configure IPv6 Link Local (fe80) IP Address resources.

使用多个专用 (仅限群集) 网络时,检查以确保该路由未配置为跨子网,因为这会降低网络性能的 IPv6 路由配置。When using more than one private (cluster only) network, check the IPv6 routing configuration to ensure that routing is not configured to cross subnets, since this will reduce network performance.

自动网络配置故障转移群集管理器 UI 中的方屏幕截图Screencap of automatic network configuration in the Failover Cluster Manager UI
图 4:自动 IPv6 链接本地 (fe80) 地址资源配置Figure 4: Automatic IPv6 Link Local (fe80) Address resource configuration

吞吐量和容错能力Throughput and Fault Tolerance

Windows Server 2016 和 Windows Server 2019 自动检测 NIC 功能,并将尝试使用最快的可能配置中的每个 NIC。Windows Server 2019 and Windows Server 2016 automatically detect NIC capabilities and will attempt to use each NIC in the fastest possible configuration. 已成组 Nic,使用 RSS 的 Nic 和 Nic 具有 RDMA 功能都可用。NICs that are teamed, NICs using RSS, and NICs with RDMA capability can all be used. 下表总结了权衡时使用这些技术。The table below summarizes the trade-offs when using these technologies. 使用支持的多个 RDMA Nic 时,才能够达到最大吞吐量。Maximum throughput is achieved when using multiple RDMA capable NICs. 有关详细信息,请参阅SMB Mutlichannel 的基础知识For more information, see The basics of SMB Mutlichannel.

举例说明了各种 NIC 配置吞吐量和容错能力An illustration of throughput and fault tolerance for various NIC configurations
图 5:有关各种 NIC conifigurations 吞吐量和容错能力Figure 5: Throughput and fault tolerance for various NIC conifigurations

常见问题解答Frequently asked questions

多 NIC 网络中的所有 Nic 的都用途是群集信号?Are all NICs in a multi-NIC network used for cluster heart beating?
是。Yes.

多 NIC 网络是否可用于群集的通信或者,可它仅用于客户端和群集通信?Can a multi-NIC network be used for cluster communication only? Or can it only be used for client and cluster communication?
可以配置将起作用-所有群集网络角色将在多个 NIC 的网络上都工作。Either configuration will work - all cluster network roles will work on a multi-NIC network.

SMB 多通道还用于 CSV 和群集流量?Is SMB Multichannel also used for CSV and cluster traffic?
是的默认情况下所有群集和 CSV 流量将都使用可用的多个 NIC 的网络。Yes, by default all cluster and CSV traffic will use available multi-NIC networks. 管理员可以使用故障转移群集 PowerShell cmdlet 或故障转移群集管理器 UI 更改网络角色。Administrators can use the Failover Clustering PowerShell cmdlets or Failover Cluster Manager UI to change the network role.

如何看到 SMB 多通道设置?How can I see the SMB Multichannel settings?
使用Get SMBServerConfiguration cmdlet,寻找 EnableMultiChannel 属性的值。Use the Get-SMBServerConfiguration cmdlet, look for the value of the EnableMultiChannel property.

多 NIC 网络上是群集公用属性,PlumbAllCrossSubnetRoutes 考虑?Is the cluster common property PlumbAllCrossSubnetRoutes respected on a multi-NIC network?
是。Yes.

请参阅See also