收集网络信息Collecting Network Information

适用于:Windows Server 2016、Windows Server 2012 R2、Windows Server 2012Applies To: Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2012

在 Active Directory 域服务 (AD DS) 中设计有效站点拓扑的第一步是,查看组织的网络组,以便定期收集相关信息并与物理网络拓扑通信。The first step in designing an effective site topology in Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) is to consult your organization's networking group to collect information and communicate with them regularly about your physical network topology.

创建位置映射Creating a location map

创建一个位置映射,用于表示组织的物理网络基础结构。Create a location map that represents the physical network infrastructure of your organization. 在位置地图上,标识包含一组计算机的地理位置,这些计算机的内部连接的内部连接为每秒10兆位 (Mbps) 或更高版本 (局域网 (LAN) 速度或更好的) 。On the location map, identify the geographic locations that contain groups of computers with internal connectivity of 10 megabits per second (Mbps) or higher (local area network (LAN) speed or better).

创建位置映射后,记录通信链接的类型、其链接速度和每个位置之间可用的带宽。After creating a location map, document the type of communication link, its link speed, and the available bandwidth between each location. 从网络组中获取广域网) 拓扑 (广域网。Obtain a wide area network (WAN) topology from your networking group. 有关常见 WAN 线路类型及其带宽的列表,请参阅 创建站点链接设计中的 "确定成本" 一节。For a list of common WAN circuit types and their bandwidths, see "Determining the cost" section in Creating a Site Link Design. 稍后你将需要此信息在站点拓扑设计过程中创建站点链接。You will need this information to create site links later in the site topology design process.

带宽是指可以在给定时间内跨信道传输的数据量。Bandwidth refers to the amount of data that you can transmit across a communication channel in a given amount of time. 可用带宽是指可供 AD DS 实际使用的带宽量。Available bandwidth refers to the amount of bandwidth actually available for use by AD DS. 你可以从网络组获取可用的带宽信息,或者可以使用协议分析器(如网络监视器)分析每个链接上的流量。You can obtain available bandwidth information from your networking group, or you can analyze traffic on each link by using a protocol analyzer such as Network Monitor. 有关安装网络监视器的信息,请参阅 监视网络流量的文章。For information about installing Network Monitor, see the article Monitoring network traffic.

记录每个位置以及链接到该位置的其他位置。Document each location and the other locations that are linked to it. 此外,记录通信链接类型及其可用带宽。In addition, record the type of communication link and its available bandwidth. 要使工作表可以帮助你列出通信链接和可用带宽,请参阅 Windows Server 2003 部署工具包的作业帮助,下载 Job_Aids_Designing_and_Deploying_Directory_and_Security_Services.zip,并打开 "地理位置和通信链接" ( # A1) 。For a worksheet to assist you in listing communication links and available bandwidth, see Job Aids for Windows Server 2003 Deployment Kit, download Job_Aids_Designing_and_Deploying_Directory_and_Security_Services.zip, and open "Geographic Locations and Communication Links" (DSSTOPO_1.doc).

列出每个位置中的 IP 子网Listing IP subnets within each location

记录通信链接和每个位置之间可用的带宽后,请记录每个位置中的 IP 子网。After you document the communication links and the available bandwidth between each location, record the IP subnets within each location. 如果你还不知道每个位置中的子网掩码和 IP 地址,请咨询你的网络组。If you do not already know the subnet mask and IP address within each location, consult your networking group.

AD DS 通过将工作站的 IP 地址与每个站点相关联的子网进行比较,将工作站与站点相关联。AD DS associates a workstation with a site by comparing the workstation's IP address with the subnets that are associated with each site. 向域中添加域控制器时,AD DS 还会检查其 IP 地址,并将其放置在最合适的站点中。As you add domain controllers to a domain, AD DS also examines their IP addresses and places them in the most appropriate site.

要使工作表帮助你列出每个位置中的 IP 子网,请参阅 Windows Server 2003 部署工具包的作业帮助、下载 Job_Aids_Designing_and_Deploying_Directory_and_Security_Services.zip,并打开 "位置和子网" ( # A1) 。For a worksheet to assist you in listing the IP subnets within each location, see Job Aids for Windows Server 2003 Deployment Kit, download Job_Aids_Designing_and_Deploying_Directory_and_Security_Services.zip, and open "Locations and Subnets" (DSSTOPO_2.doc).

备注

除了 IP 版本 4 (IPv4) 地址,Windows Server 还支持 IP 版本 6 (IPv6) 子网前缀。In addition to IP version 4 (IPv4) addresses, Windows Server also supports IP version 6 (IPv6) subnet prefixes. 要使工作表可以帮助你列出 IPv6 子网前缀,请参阅 附录 a:位置和子网前缀For a worksheet to assist you in listing the IPv6 subnet prefixes, see Appendix A: Locations and subnet prefixes.

列出每个位置的域和用户数Listing domains and number of users for each location

位置中所代表的每个地区性域的用户数量是确定区域域控制器和全局编录服务器的位置的因素之一,这是站点拓扑设计过程中的下一步。The number of users for each regional domain that is represented in a location is one of the factors that determine the placement of regional domain controllers and global catalog servers, which is the next step in the site topology design process. 例如,计划将区域域控制器放置在包含超过100个区域域用户的位置,以便他们仍可在 WAN 链接失败时登录到域。For example, plan to place a regional domain controller in a location that contains more than 100 regional domain users so they can still log on to the domain if the WAN link fails.

记录位置、在每个位置显示的域,以及每个位置中表示的每个域的用户数量。Record the locations, the domains that are represented in each location, and the number of users for each domain that is represented in each location. 要使工作表可以帮助你列出每个位置中所表示的域和用户数,请参阅 Windows Server 2003 部署工具包的作业帮助,下载 Job_Aids_Designing_and_Deploying_Directory_and_Security_Services.zip,并打开 "每个位置中的域和用户" ( # A1) 。For a worksheet to assist you in listing the domains and the number of users that are represented in each location, see Job Aids for Windows Server 2003 Deployment Kit, download Job_Aids_Designing_and_Deploying_Directory_and_Security_Services.zip, and open "Domains and Users in Each Location" (DSSTOPO_3.doc).