站点函数Site Functions

适用于:Windows Server 2016、Windows Server 2012 R2、Windows Server 2012Applies To: Windows Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2012

Windows Server 2008 出于多种目的使用站点信息,包括路由复制、客户端关联、系统卷 (SYSVOL) 复制、分布式文件系统命名空间 (DFSN) 和服务位置。Windows Server 2008 uses site information for many purposes, including routing replication, client affinity, system volume (SYSVOL) replication, Distributed File System Namespaces (DFSN), and service location.

路由复制Routing replication

Active Directory 域服务 (AD DS) 使用多主机、存储和转发的复制方法。Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) uses a multimaster, store-and-forward method of replication. 域控制器将目录更改与第二个域控制器进行通信,后者随后会与第三个域控制器通信,依此类推,直到所有域控制器都接收到更改为止。A domain controller communicates directory changes to a second domain controller, which then communicates to a third, and so on, until all domain controllers have received the change. 为了实现降低复制延迟和减少流量之间的最佳平衡,站点拓扑通过区分站点内发生的复制与站点之间发生的复制,来控制 Active Directory 复制。To achieve the best balance between reducing replication latency and reducing traffic, site topology controls Active Directory replication by distinguishing between replication that occurs within a site and replication that occurs between sites.

在站点中,复制经过优化,可实现速度、数据更新触发复制,而无需数据压缩就会发送数据。Within sites, replication is optimized for speed, data updates trigger replication, and the data is sent without the overhead required by data compression. 相反,站点间的复制会被压缩,以最大程度地降低通过 (广域网) 链接传输的成本。Conversely, replication between sites is compressed to minimize the cost of transmission over wide area network (WAN) links. 当站点之间发生复制时,每个站点中的单个域控制器将收集并存储目录更改,并在计划的时间将其传递到另一个站点中的域控制器。When replication occurs between sites, a single domain controller per domain at each site collects and stores the directory changes and communicates them at a scheduled time to a domain controller in another site.

客户端相关性Client affinity

域控制器使用站点信息向 Active Directory 的客户端通知有关最近站点中存在的域控制器的客户端。Domain controllers use site information to inform Active Directory clients about domain controllers present within the closest site as the client. 例如,请考虑西雅图站点中的客户端,该客户端不知道其站点从属关系,并与亚特兰大站点的域控制器联系。For example, consider a client in the Seattle site that does not know its site affiliation and contacts a domain controller from the Atlanta site. 根据客户端的 IP 地址,亚特兰大中的域控制器确定客户端实际来自哪个站点,并将站点信息发送回客户端。Based on the IP address of the client, the domain controller in Atlanta determines which site the client is actually from and sends the site information back to the client. 域控制器还向客户端通知所选的域控制器是否与最接近的域控制器。The domain controller also informs the client whether the chosen domain controller is the closest one to it. 客户端缓存亚特兰大域控制器提供的站点信息,对站点特定服务的查询 (SRV) 资源记录 (域名系统 (DNS) 用于查找 AD DS 的域控制器的 DNS) 资源记录,从而查找同一站点内的域控制器。The client caches the site information provided by the domain controller in Atlanta, queries for the site-specific service (SRV) resource record (a Domain Name System (DNS) resource record used to locate domain controllers for AD DS) and thereby finds a domain controller within the same site.

通过在同一站点中查找域控制器,客户端可避免通过 WAN 链接进行通信。By finding a domain controller in the same site, the client avoids communications over WAN links. 如果客户端站点上没有域控制器,则相对于其他连接的站点,具有最低开销连接的域控制器将播发自身 (在没有域控制器的站点中的 DNS) 中注册特定于站点的服务 (SRV) 资源记录。If no domain controllers are located at the client site, a domain controller that has the lowest cost connections relative to other connected sites advertises itself (registers a site-specific service (SRV) resource record in DNS) in the site that does not have a domain controller. 在 DNS 中发布的域控制器是指由站点拓扑定义的最近站点中的域控制器。The domain controllers that are published in DNS are those from the closest site as defined by the site topology. 此过程可确保每个站点都有一个用于身份验证的首选域控制器。This process ensures that every site has a preferred domain controller for authentication.

有关查找域控制器的过程的详细信息,请参阅 Active Directory 集合For more information about the process of locating a domain controller, see Active Directory Collection.

SYSVOL 复制SYSVOL replication

SYSVOL 是在域中的每个域控制器上存在的文件系统中的文件夹的集合。SYSVOL is a collection of folders in the file system that exists on each domain controller in a domain. SYSVOL 文件夹为必须在整个域中复制的文件提供默认 Active Directory 位置,包括 Gpo) 、启动和关闭脚本以及登录和注销脚本 (组策略对象。The SYSVOL folders provide a default Active Directory location for files that must be replicated throughout a domain, including Group Policy objects (GPOs), startup and shutdown scripts, and logon and logoff scripts. Windows Server 2008 可以 (FRS) 使用文件复制服务,也可以分布式文件系统复制 (DFSR) 将从一个域控制器对 SYSVOL 文件夹所做的更改复制到其他域控制器。Windows Server 2008 can use the File Replication Service (FRS) or Distributed File System Replication (DFSR) to replicate changes made to the SYSVOL folders from one domain controller to other domain controllers. FRS 和 DFSR 会根据你在站点拓扑设计期间创建的计划来复制这些更改。FRS and DFSR replicate these changes according to the schedule that you create during your site topology design.

DFSNDFSN

DFSN 使用站点信息将客户端定向到在站点中承载请求的数据的服务器。DFSN uses site information to direct a client to the server that is hosting the requested data within the site. 如果 DFSN 在客户端所在的站点中找不到数据的副本,则 DFSN 将使用 AD DS 中的站点信息来确定具有 DFSN 共享数据的文件服务器最近的客户端。If DFSN does not find a copy of the data within the same site as the client, DFSN uses the site information in AD DS to determine which file server that has DFSN shared data is closest to the client.

服务定位Service location

通过在 AD DS 中发布文件和打印服务等服务,你允许 Active Directory 客户端在相同或最近的站点中查找请求的服务。By publishing services such as file and print services in AD DS, you allow Active Directory clients to locate the requested service within the same or nearest site. 打印服务使用存储在 AD DS 中的位置属性,使用户无需知道其确切位置即可按位置浏览打印机。Print services use the location attribute stored in AD DS to let users browse for printers by location without knowing their precise location. 有关设计和部署打印服务器的详细信息,请参阅 设计和部署打印服务器For more information about designing and deploying print servers, see Designing and Deploying Print Servers.