存储空间直通的硬件要求Storage Spaces Direct hardware requirements

适用于:Windows Server 2019、Windows Server 2016Applies to: Windows Server 2019, Windows Server 2016

本主题描述 Windows Server 上存储空间直通的最低硬件要求。This topic describes minimum hardware requirements for Storage Spaces Direct on Windows Server. 对于 Azure Stack HCI 上的硬件要求,为通过与云连接而设计的超聚合部署的操作系统,请参阅 部署 Azure Stack HCI 之前,请参阅部署 HCI:确定硬件要求For hardware requirements on Azure Stack HCI, our operating system designed for hyperconverged deployments with a connection to the cloud, see Before you deploy Azure Stack HCI: Determine hardware requirements.

对于生产环境,Microsoft 建议购买合作伙伴提供的经验证的硬件/软件解决方案,其中包括部署工具和过程。For production, Microsoft recommends purchasing a validated hardware/software solution from our partners, which include deployment tools and procedures. 这些解决方案是依据我们的参考体系结构设计和汇编的,并且经过了验证,能够确保兼容性和可靠性,因此你可以快速起步和运行。These solutions are designed, assembled, and validated against our reference architecture to ensure compatibility and reliability, so you get up and running quickly. 对于 Windows Server 2019 解决方案,请访问 AZURE STACK HCI 解决方案网站For Windows Server 2019 solutions, visit the Azure Stack HCI solutions website. 对于 Windows Server 2016 解决方案,请参阅 Windows Server 软件定义的详细信息。For Windows Server 2016 solutions, learn more at Windows Server Software-Defined.

提示

想要评估存储空间直通但没有硬件?Want to evaluate Storage Spaces Direct but don't have hardware? 使用 来宾虚拟机群集中的存储空间直通中所述的 Hyper-v 或 Azure 虚拟机。Use Hyper-V or Azure virtual machines as described in Using Storage Spaces Direct in guest virtual machine clusters.

基本要求Base requirements

必须针对你在 Windows Server 目录中使用的操作系统认证系统、组件、设备和驱动程序。Systems, components, devices, and drivers must be certified for the operating system you’re using in the Windows Server Catalog. 此外,我们建议服务器、驱动器、主机总线适配器和网络适配器都具有 软件定义的数据中心 (sddc) 标准 和/或 软件定义的数据中心 (sddc) 高级 额外资格 (AQs) ,如下图所示。In addition, we recommend that servers, drives, host bus adapters, and network adapters have the Software-Defined Data Center (SDDC) Standard and/or Software-Defined Data Center (SDDC) Premium additional qualifications (AQs), as pictured below. 具有 SDDC AQs 的组件超过1000个。There are over 1,000 components with the SDDC AQs.

Windows Server 目录的屏幕截图,显示包含软件定义数据中心的系统 (SDDC) 高级认证

完全配置的群集 (服务器、网络和存储) 必须通过向导中的每个向导或故障转移群集管理器在 PowerShell 中通过 cmdlet 传递所有群集验证测试 Test-Cluster cmdletThe fully configured cluster (servers, networking, and storage) must pass all cluster validation tests per the wizard in Failover Cluster Manager or with the Test-Cluster cmdlet in PowerShell.

此外,还需要满足以下要求:In addition, the following requirements apply:

服务器Servers

  • 最少 2 台服务器,最多 16 台服务器Minimum of 2 servers, maximum of 16 servers
  • 建议所有服务器都是相同的制造商和型号Recommended that all servers be the same manufacturer and model

CPUCPU

  • Intel Nehalem 或更高版本的兼容处理器;或Intel Nehalem or later compatible processor; or
  • AMD EPYC 或更高版本的兼容处理器AMD EPYC or later compatible processor

内存Memory

  • 适用于 Windows Server、Vm 和其他应用或工作负荷的内存;加大Memory for Windows Server, VMs, and other apps or workloads; plus
  • 每 tb 每 tb (TB) 缓存驱动器容量的 RAM,适用于存储空间直通元数据4 GB of RAM per terabyte (TB) of cache drive capacity on each server, for Storage Spaces Direct metadata

启动Boot

  • Windows Server 支持的任何启动设备, 现在包括 SATADOMAny boot device supported by Windows Server, which now includes SATADOM
  • RAID 1 镜像 是必需的,但支持启动RAID 1 mirror is not required, but is supported for boot
  • 建议: 200 GB 的最小大小Recommended: 200 GB minimum size

网络Networking

存储空间直通需要在每个节点之间进行可靠的高带宽、低延迟的网络连接。Storage Spaces Direct requires a reliable high bandwidth, low latency network connection between each node.

小规模2-3 节点的最小互连Minimum interconnect for small scale 2-3 node

  • 10 Gbps 网络接口卡 (NIC) 或更快10 Gbps network interface card (NIC), or faster
  • 每个节点中有两个或更多个网络连接,以实现冗余和性能Two or more network connections from each node recommended for redundancy and performance

适用于高性能、大规模或部署 4 + 的建议互连Recommended interconnect for high performance, at scale, or deployments of 4+

  • 远程直接内存访问 (RDMA) 支持的 Nic、iWARP (建议的) 或 RoCENICs that are remote-direct memory access (RDMA) capable, iWARP (recommended) or RoCE
  • 每个节点中有两个或更多个网络连接,以实现冗余和性能Two or more network connections from each node recommended for redundancy and performance
  • 25 Gbps NIC 或更快25 Gbps NIC or faster

交换或 switchless 节点互连Switched or switchless node interconnects

  • 交换:必须正确配置网络交换机以处理带宽和网络类型。Switched: Network switches must be properly configured to handle the bandwidth and networking type. 如果使用的 RDMA 实现了 RoCE 协议,则网络设备和交换机配置更为重要。If using RDMA that implements the RoCE protocol, network device and switch configuration is even more important.
  • Switchless:可以使用直接连接互连节点,避免使用交换机。Switchless: Nodes can be interconnected using direct connections, avoiding using a switch. 每个节点都必须与群集中的每个其他节点具有直接连接。It is required that every node have a direct connection with every other node of the cluster.

驱动器Drives

存储空间直通使用直接连接 SATA、SAS、NVMe 或永久性内存 (PMem) 驱动器,每个驱动器都物理连接到一台服务器。Storage Spaces Direct works with direct-attached SATA, SAS, NVMe, or persistent memory (PMem) drives that are physically attached to just one server each. 有关选择驱动器的更多帮助,请参阅 选择驱动器理解和部署永久性内存 主题。For more help choosing drives, see the Choosing drives and Understand and deploy persistent memory topics.

  • 支持 SATA、SAS、永久性内存和 NVMe (2、U. 2 和外接程序卡) 驱动器。SATA, SAS, persistent memory, and NVMe (M.2, U.2, and Add-In-Card) drives are all supported
  • 支持512n、512e 和4K 本机驱动器512n, 512e, and 4K native drives are all supported
  • 固态硬盘必须提供 电源丢失保护Solid-state drives must provide power-loss protection
  • 每个服务器中相同数量和类型的驱动器–请参阅 驱动对称注意事项Same number and types of drives in every server – see Drive symmetry considerations
  • 缓存设备必须为 32 GB 或更大Cache devices must be 32 GB or larger
  • 永久性内存设备在块存储模式下使用Persistent memory devices are used in block storage mode
  • 当使用永久性内存设备作为缓存设备时,必须使用 NVMe 或 SSD 容量设备, (不能使用 Hdd) When using persistent memory devices as cache devices, you must use NVMe or SSD capacity devices (you can't use HDDs)
  • NVMe 驱动程序是 Microsoft 提供的驱动程序,它包含在 Windows ( # A0) NVMe driver is the Microsoft-provided one included in Windows (stornvme.sys)
  • 建议:容量驱动器数是缓存驱动器数的整数倍Recommended: Number of capacity drives is a whole multiple of the number of cache drives
  • 建议:缓存驱动器应具有高写入高耐用性:每日至少3个驱动器写入 (DWPD) 或至少 4 tb 写入 (TBW) ,请参阅 了解每日的驱动器写入数 (DWPD) ,tb 写入 (TBW) ,以及建议的最小值存储空间直通Recommended: Cache drives should have high write endurance: at least 3 drive-writes-per-day (DWPD) or at least 4 terabytes written (TBW) per day – see Understanding drive writes per day (DWPD), terabytes written (TBW), and the minimum recommended for Storage Spaces Direct

下面是如何连接存储空间直通的驱动器:Here's how drives can be connected for Storage Spaces Direct:

  • 直连 SATA 驱动器Direct-attached SATA drives
  • 直连 NVMe 驱动器Direct-attached NVMe drives
  • SAS 主机总线适配器 (HBA) 与 SAS 驱动器SAS host-bus adapter (HBA) with SAS drives
  • SAS 主机总线适配器 (HBA) 与 SATA 驱动器SAS host-bus adapter (HBA) with SATA drives
  • 不支持: RAID 控制器卡或 SAN (光纤通道、iSCSI、FCoE) 存储。NOT SUPPORTED: RAID controller cards or SAN (Fibre Channel, iSCSI, FCoE) storage. 主机总线适配器 (HBA) 卡必须实现简单的直通模式。Host-bus adapter (HBA) cards must implement simple pass-through mode.

显示支持的驱动器互连的关系图,不支持 RAID 卡

驱动器可以是服务器的内部驱动器,也可以是仅连接到一台服务器的外接盒。Drives can be internal to the server, or in an external enclosure that is connected to just one server. 槽映射和标识需要 SCSI 机箱服务 (SES)。SCSI Enclosure Services (SES) is required for slot mapping and identification. 每个外接盒都必须提供唯一标识符(唯一 ID)。Each external enclosure must present a unique identifier (Unique ID).

  • 服务器的内部驱动器Drives internal to the server
  • 外部机箱中的驱动器 ( "JBOD" ) 连接到一台服务器Drives in an external enclosure ("JBOD") connected to one server
  • 不支持: 共享 SAS 机箱连接到多台服务器或任何形式的多路径 IO (MPIO) ,驱动器可通过多个路径进行访问。NOT SUPPORTED: Shared SAS enclosures connected to multiple servers or any form of multi-path IO (MPIO) where drives are accessible by multiple paths.

此图显示了如何支持直接连接到服务器的内部和外部驱动器,但不支持共享 SAS

驱动器的最小数目 (排除启动驱动器) Minimum number of drives (excludes boot drive)

  • 如果有用作缓存的驱动器,则每个服务器必须至少有 2 个驱动器If there are drives used as cache, there must be at least 2 per server
  • 每个服务器必须至少有 4 个容量(非缓存)驱动器There must be at least 4 capacity (non-cache) drives per server
存在驱动器类型Drive types present 所需的最小数量Minimum number required
所有永久内存 (相同的模型) All persistent memory (same model) 4永久性内存4 persistent memory
所有 NVMe(同一型号)All NVMe (same model) 4 个 NVMe4 NVMe
所有 SSD(同一型号)All SSD (same model) 4 个 SSD4 SSD
永久性内存 + NVMe 或 SSDPersistent memory + NVMe or SSD 2永久性内存 + 4 NVMe 或 SSD2 persistent memory + 4 NVMe or SSD
NVMe + SSDNVMe + SSD 2 个 NVMe + 4 个 SSD2 NVMe + 4 SSD
NVMe + HDDNVMe + HDD 2 个 NVMe + 4 个 HDD2 NVMe + 4 HDD
SSD + HDDSSD + HDD 2 个 SSD + 4 个 HDD2 SSD + 4 HDD
NVMe + SSD + HDDNVMe + SSD + HDD 2 个 NVMe + 4 个其他2 NVMe + 4 Others

备注

此表提供了硬件部署的最低要求。This table provides the minimum for hardware deployments. 如果要使用虚拟机和虚拟化存储(如 Microsoft Azure 中的存储)进行部署,请参阅在 来宾虚拟机群集中使用存储空间直通If you're deploying with virtual machines and virtualized storage, such as in Microsoft Azure, see Using Storage Spaces Direct in guest virtual machine clusters.

最大容量Maximum capacity

Maximums Windows Server 2019Windows Server 2019 Windows Server 2016Windows Server 2016
每台服务器的原始容量Raw capacity per server 400 TB400 TB 100 TB100 TB
池容量Pool capacity 4 PB (4000 TB) 4 PB (4,000 TB) 1 PB1 PB