存储空间直通概述Storage Spaces Direct overview

适用于:Windows Server 2016Applies to: Windows Server 2016

存储空间直通使用具有本地连接驱动器的行业标准服务器来创建高度可用、高度可扩展的软件定义存储,其成本仅占传统 SAN 或 NAS 阵列的一小部分。Storage Spaces Direct uses industry-standard servers with local-attached drives to create highly available, highly scalable software-defined storage at a fraction of the cost of traditional SAN or NAS arrays. 及其聚合或超收敛体系结构大大简化了采购和部署功能时如缓存、 存储层和擦除编码,如 RDMA 网络和 NVMe 驱动器的最新硬件创新功能,以及提供无与伦比的效率和性能。Its converged or hyper-converged architecture radically simplifies procurement and deployment, while features such as caching, storage tiers, and erasure coding, together with the latest hardware innovations such as RDMA networking and NVMe drives, deliver unrivaled efficiency and performance.

Windows Server 2016 Datacenter 和 Windows Server Insider Preview 版本中包括存储空间直通。Storage Spaces Direct is included in Windows Server 2016 Datacenter and Windows Server Insider Preview Builds.

其他应用程序的存储空间,例如共享 SAS 群集和独立的服务器,请参阅存储空间概述For other applications of Storage Spaces, such as Shared SAS clusters and stand-alone servers, see Storage Spaces overview. 如果您正在寻找有关使用 Windows 10 PC 上的存储空间的信息,请参阅Windows 10 中的存储空间If you're looking for info about using Storage Spaces on a Windows 10 PC, see Storage Spaces in Windows 10.


了解Understand 规划Plan
部署Deploy 管理Manage
故障排除Troubleshooting 内幕预览内容Insider Preview content

视频Videos

快速视频概述 (5 分钟)Quick Video Overview (5 minutes)

直接在 Microsoft Ignite 2017 (1 小时) 的空格存储Storage Spaces Direct at Microsoft Ignite 2017 (1 hour)

观看 YouTube 上Watch on YouTube

启动事件在 Microsoft Ignite 2016 (1 小时)Launch Event at Microsoft Ignite 2016 (1 hour)

观看 YouTube 上Watch on YouTube

主要优势Key benefits

简单易用。Simplicity. 在 15 分钟内即可从运行 Windows Server 2016 的行业标准服务器转到第一个存储空间直通群集。Go from industry-standard servers running Windows Server 2016 to your first Storage Spaces Direct cluster in under 15 minutes. 对于 System Center 用户而言,部署不仅仅只是一个复选框。For System Center users, deployment is just one checkbox.
无可匹敌的性能。Unrivaled Performance. 无论是全闪存还是混合存储空间直通,都可以轻松超越每台服务器 150,000 次混合 4K 随机 IOPS 的限制,并且具有较高的一致性和较低的延迟,所有这一切均归功于其嵌入虚拟机监控程序的体系结构、内置的读/写缓存,以及对直接安装在 PCIe 总线上的尖端 NVMe 驱动器的支持。Whether all-flash or hybrid, Storage Spaces Direct easily exceeds 150,000 mixed 4k random IOPS per server with consistent, low latency thanks to its hypervisor-embedded architecture, its built-in read/write cache, and support for cutting-edge NVMe drives mounted directly on the PCIe bus.
容错。内置的复原功能可在不影响可用性的情况下处理驱动器、服务器或组件故障。 Fault Tolerance. Built-in resiliency handles drive, server, or component failures with continuous availability. 大规模部署还可以配置机箱和机架容错Larger deployments can also be configured for chassis and rack fault tolerance. 如果硬件发生故障,只需更换发生故障的硬件,而软件会自行复原,不需要复杂的管理步骤。When hardware fails, just swap it out; the software heals itself, with no complicated management steps.
资源效率。Resource Efficiency. 擦除编码最多可提高 2.4 倍的存储效率,它采用独特的创新(如本地重建代码和 ReFS 实时层),使效率优势扩展到了硬盘驱动器及热/冷混合工作负载,同时最大程度降低了 CPU 使用率,为最需要的设备(即 VM)提供资源。Erasure coding delivers up to 2.4x greater storage efficiency, with unique innovations like Local Reconstruction Codes and ReFS real-time tiers to extend these gains to hard disk drives and mixed hot/cold workloads, all while minimizing CPU consumption to give resources back to where they're needed most - the VMs.
可管理性。Manageability. 使用存储 QoS 控件,使过于繁忙的 VM 保持符合每台 VM 的 IOPS 上限和下限。Use Storage QoS Controls to keep overly busy VMs in check with minimum and maximum per-VM IOPS limits. 运行状况服务提供连续的内置监视和警报,并使用新的 API,可在群集范围内轻松收集大量性能和容量指标。The Health Service provides continuous built-in monitoring and alerting, and new APIs make it easy to collect rich, cluster-wide performance and capacity metrics.
可扩展性。Scalability. 可扩展到 16 台服务器以及超过 400 个驱动器,每个群集拥有最高 1 PB (1,000 TB) 的存储。Go up to 16 servers and over 400 drives, for up to 1 petabyte (1,000 terabytes) of storage per cluster. 只需添加驱动器或添加更多服务器即可实现扩展,存储空间直通会自动载入新的驱动器,并开始使用它们。To scale out, simply add drives or add more servers; Storage Spaces Direct will automatically onboard new drives and begin using them. 存储效率和性能如预期大幅提升。Storage efficiency and performance improve predictably at scale.

部署选项Deployment options

存储空间直通适用于两种不同的部署选项:Storage Spaces Direct was designed for two distinct deployment options:

聚合Converged

单独群集中的存储和计算。Storage and compute in separate clusters. 聚合部署选项(也称为“分解部署”)将横向扩展文件服务器 (SoFS) 放在存储空间直通之上,通过 SMB3 文件共享提供网络连接存储。The converged deployment option, also known as 'disaggregated', layers a Scale-out File Server (SoFS) atop Storage Spaces Direct to provide network-attached storage over SMB3 file shares. 它可以独立于存储群集扩展计算/工作负荷,服务提供商和企业的 Hyper-V IaaS(服务架构)等大规模部署就需要采用这种部署。This allows for scaling compute/workload independently from the storage cluster, essential for larger-scale deployments such as Hyper-V IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) for service providers and enterprises.

存储空间直通使用横向扩展文件服务器功能为另一个服务器或群集中的 Hyper-V VM 提供存储

超聚合Hyper-Converged

一个用于计算和存储的群集。One cluster for compute and storage. 超聚合部署选项直接在提供存储、在本地卷上存储文件的服务器上运行 Hyper-V 虚拟机或 SQL Server 数据库。The hyper-converged deployment option runs Hyper-V virtual machines or SQL Server databases directly on the servers providing the storage, storing their files on the local volumes. 此部署选项无需配置文件服务访问和权限,降低了中小型企业或远程机构/分支机构部署的硬件成本。This eliminates the need to configure file server access and permissions, and reduces hardware costs for small-to-medium business or remote office/branch office deployments. 请参阅直接部署存储空间See Deploy Storage Spaces Direct.

存储空间直通为同一群集中的 Hyper-V VM 提供存储

工作原理How it works

存储空间直通由存储空间演变而来,最先在 Windows Server 2012 中引入。Storage Spaces Direct is the evolution of Storage Spaces, first introduced in Windows Server 2012. 它利用 Windows Server 中当前已知的许多功能,如故障转移群集、群集共享卷 (CSV) 文件系统、服务器消息块 (SMB) 3 以及存储空间。It leverages many of the features you know today in Windows Server, such as Failover Clustering, the Cluster Shared Volume (CSV) file system, Server Message Block (SMB) 3, and of course Storage Spaces. 它还引入了新技术,最值得注意的是软件存储总线。It also introduces new technology, most notably the Software Storage Bus.

下面部分概括介绍存储空间直通堆栈:Here's an overview of the Storage Spaces Direct stack:

存储空间直通堆栈

网络硬件。Networking Hardware. 存储空间直通使用 SMB3(包括 SMB 直通和 SMB 多通道)通过以太网在服务器之间通信。Storage Spaces Direct uses SMB3, including SMB Direct and SMB Multichannel, over Ethernet to communicate between servers. We strongly recommend 10+ GbE with remote-direct memory access (RDMA), either iWARP or RoCE.We strongly recommend 10+ GbE with remote-direct memory access (RDMA), either iWARP or RoCE.

存储硬件。Storage Hardware. 2-16 台具有本地连接 SATA、SAS 或 NVMe 驱动器的服务器。From 2 to 16 servers with local-attached SATA, SAS, or NVMe drives. 每台服务器至少必须有 2 个固态驱动器,至少 4 个其他驱动器。Each server must have at least 2 solid-state drives, and at least 4 additional drives. SATA 和 SAS 设备应位于主机总线适配器 (HBA) 和 SAS 扩展器之后。The SATA and SAS devices should be behind a host-bus adapter (HBA) and SAS expander. 强烈建议使用合作伙伴提供的平台,这种平台经过精心设计并广泛验证,即将推出。We strongly recommend the meticulously engineered and extensively validated platforms from our partners (coming soon).

故障转移群集。Failover Clustering. Windows Server 的内置群集功能用于连接服务器。The built-in clustering feature of Windows Server is used to connect the servers.

软件存储总线。Software Storage Bus. 存储空间直通中新增了软件存储总线。The Software Storage Bus is new in Storage Spaces Direct. 它可以跨越群集,建立软件定义的存储构造,在这种构造中,所有服务器都可以相互看到对方的所有本地驱动器。It spans the cluster and establishes a software-defined storage fabric whereby all the servers can see all of each other's local drives. 可以考虑使用它来代替成本高昂且局限的光纤通道或共享 SAS 电缆。You can think of it as replacing costly and restrictive Fibre Channel or Shared SAS cabling.

存储总线层缓存。Storage Bus Layer Cache. 软件存储总线将目前最快的驱动器(例如 SSD)动态绑定到较慢的驱动器(例如 HDD),以提供服务器端读/写缓存,从而加速 IO 并提高吞吐量。The Software Storage Bus dynamically binds the fastest drives present (e.g. SSD) to slower drives (e.g. HDDs) to provide server-side read/write caching that accelerates IO and boosts throughput.

存储池。Storage Pool. 形成存储空间基础的驱动器集合称为存储池。The collection of drives that form the basis of Storage Spaces is called the storage pool. 存储池是自动创建的,它自动发现符合条件的所有驱动器,并将这些驱动器添加到池中。It is automatically created, and all eligible drives are automatically discovered and added to it. 强烈建议一个群集使用一个池,并采用默认设置。We strongly recommend you use one pool per cluster, with the default settings. 请阅读我们的深入探讨存储池,了解详细信息。Read our Deep Dive into the Storage Pool to learn more.

存储空间。Storage Spaces. 存储空间通过镜像和/或擦除编码对虚拟“磁盘”提供容错功能。Storage Spaces provides fault tolerance to virtual "disks" using mirroring, erasure coding, or both. 可以将其视为软件定义的分布式 RAID,使用的是池中的驱动器。You can think of it as distributed, software-defined RAID using the drives in the pool. 在存储空间直通中,除了机箱和机架容错外,这些虚拟磁盘通常还具有复原功能,可以复原两个同时发生的驱动器或服务器故障(例如,3 向镜像,各数据副本存储在不同的服务器中)。In Storage Spaces Direct, these virtual disks typically have resiliency to two simultaneous drive or server failures (e.g. 3-way mirroring, with each data copy in a different server) though chassis and rack fault tolerance is also available.

复原文件系统 (ReFS)。Resilient File System (ReFS). ReFS 是专门针对虚拟化构建的首要文件系统。ReFS is the premier filesystem purpose-built for virtualization. 它可以显著加快 .vhdx 文件的操作速度(如创建、扩展以及检查点合并),并内置了校验和功能,可检测并纠正位错误。It includes dramatic accelerations for .vhdx file operations such as creation, expansion, and checkpoint merging, and built-in checksums to detect and correct bit errors. 它还引入了实时层,可以根据使用情况在所谓的“热”、“冷”存储层之间实时轮换数据。It also introduces real-time tiers that rotate data between so-called "hot" and "cold" storage tiers in real-time based on usage.

群集共享卷。Cluster Shared Volumes. CSV 文件系统将所有 ReFS 卷整合为一个命名空间,可以通过任何服务器进行访问,对于每台服务器而言,每个卷的运行就像是本地安装在每台服务器上一样。The CSV file system unifies all the ReFS volumes into a single namespace accessible through any server, so that to each server, every volume looks and acts like it's mounted locally.

横向扩展文件服务器。Scale-Out File Server. 这是最后一层,仅在聚合部署中才需要。This final layer is necessary in converged deployments only. 它提供远程文件访问功能,可使用 SMB3 访问协议通过网络访问客户端(如运行 Hyper-V 的另一个群集),有效地将存储空间直通变为网络连接存储 (NAS)。It provides remote file access using the SMB3 access protocol to clients, such as another cluster running Hyper-V, over the network, effectively turning Storage Spaces Direct into network-attached storage (NAS).

用于管理存储空间直通的工具Tools for managing Storage Spaces Direct

部署存储后,你将执行某些管理任务,包括监视故障物理磁盘或其他问题、更换故障的磁盘以及更新固件和驱动程序。After you've deployed your storage, some of the management tasks you'll perform include monitoring for failed physical disks or other issues, replacing disks that fail, and updating firmware and drivers. 有关常见的管理选项,请参阅下表。See the following table for common management options.

工具Tool 优点Advantages 缺点Disadvantages
Windows Admin CenterWindows Admin Center -功能强大且易于使用-Powerful and easy to use
-图形显示为监控单个群集和服务器-Graphical displays for monitoring individual clusters and servers
-必须安装 (它是很容易安装但...)-Must be installed (it is pretty easy to install though...)
Windows PowerShellWindows PowerShell - 全面控制存储的所有方面- Complete control over all aspects of storage
- 可以通过编写脚本来自动执行- Can automate by writing scripts
- 有功能强大的示例脚本可用- Powerful example scripts available
-更适合比直观地监控存储的整体运行状况管理- Better for management than visually monitoring overall storage health
- 脚本需要开发和测试- Scripts require development and testing
System Center Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) 和 Operations ManagerSystem Center Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) & Operations Manager - 简单易用- Easy to use
- 用于监视多个系统的图形显示- Graphical displays for monitoring multiple systems
- 常见问题警报- Alerting for common problems
- 用于管理 VM 和存储的常见工具- Common tool for managing VMs and storage
- 一些任务需要 Windows PowerShell- Some tasks require Windows PowerShell
- 需要 System Center 许可证- Requires System Center licenses
- 如果你还没有 System Center 或者你的部署规模大于你的现有部署所能处理的规模,则可能需要额外的基础结构- Might require additional infrastructure if you don't already have System Center or are deploying at a scale that's greater than your existing deployment can handle
故障转移群集管理器和服务器管理器Failover Cluster Manager & Server Manager - 简单易用- Easy to use
- 用于监视的图形显示- Graphical displays for monitoring
- 一些任务需要 Windows PowerShell- Some tasks require Windows PowerShell
- 使用存储时在服务器管理器中慢速自动刷新- Slow automatic refreshes in Server Manager when working with storage
- 性能和可用性因存在大量对象而降低- Performance and usability decreases with large numbers of objects

有关将 VMM 与存储空间直通配合使用的详细信息,请参阅在 VMM 中管理存储空间直通,以及在 VMM 构造中管理存储空间直通中的存储For more info about using VMM with Storage Spaces Direct, see Manage Storage Spaces Direct in VMM, and Manage storage in Storage Spaces Direct in the VMM fabric.

入门Get started

在 Microsoft Azure 中试用存储空间直通,或者从 Windows Server 评估 中下载 WindowsServer 的 180 天许可证评估副本。Try Storage Spaces Direct in Microsoft Azure, or download a 180-day-licensed evaluation copy of Windows Server from Windows Server Evaluations.

另请参阅See also