Windows Server 2016 中存储方面的新增功能What's new in Storage in Windows Server 2016

适用于:WindowsServer 2016Applies To: Windows Server 2016

本主题介绍 Windows 10 2016 中存储方面的新功能和更改的功能。This topic explains the new and changed functionality in Storage in Windows Server 2016.

Storage Spaces DirectStorage Spaces Direct

存储空间直通允许通过使用具有本地存储的服务器构建高可用性和可缩放存储。Storage Spaces Direct enables building highly available and scalable storage using servers with local storage. 该功能简化了软件定义的存储系统的部署和管理并且允许使用 SATA SSD 和 NVMe 磁盘设备等新型磁盘设备,而之前群集存储空间无法使用共享磁盘。It simplifies the deployment and management of software-defined storage systems and unlocks use of new classes of disk devices, such as SATA SSD and NVMe disk devices, that were previously not possible with clustered Storage Spaces with shared disks.

这一更改增添了什么价值?What value does this change add?
空间存储直通使服务提供商和企业可使用带本地存储的行业标准服务器来构建高可用性和高扩展性的软件定义的存储。Storage Spaces Direct enables service providers and enterprises to use industry standard servers with local storage to build highly available and scalable software defined storage. 使用带本地存储的服务器可降低复杂性、增强可伸缩性,并允许使用之前不可能使用的存储设备,如使用 SATA 固态磁盘降低闪存存储成本或使用 NVMe 固态磁盘实现更加性能。Using servers with local storage decreases complexity, increases scalability, and enables use of storage devices that were not previously possible, such as SATA solid state disks to lower cost of flash storage, or NVMe solid state disks for better performance.

空间存储直通不再需要共享 SAS 结构,从而简化了部署和配置。Storage Spaces Direct removes the need for a shared SAS fabric, simplifying deployment and configuration. 它改为使用网络作为存储结构,利用 SMB3 和 SMB 直通 (RDMA) 实现高速、低延迟的 CPU 高效存储。Instead it uses the network as a storage fabric, leveraging SMB3 and SMB Direct (RDMA) for high-speed, low-latency CPU efficient storage. 若要横向扩展,只需添加更多服务器以增加存储容量和 I/O 性能To scale out, simply add more servers to increase storage capacity and I/O performance
有关详细信息,请参阅 Windows Server 2016 中的存储空间直通.For more information, see the Storage Spaces Direct in Windows Server 2016.

工作原理的不同之处是什么?What works differently?
此功能是 Windows Server 2016 的新增功能。This capability is new in Windows Server 2016.

存储副本Storage Replica

存储副本可在各个服务器或群集之间实现存储不可知的块级同步复制,以便在站点间进行灾难恢复及故障转移群集扩展。Storage Replica enables storage-agnostic, block-level, synchronous replication between servers or clusters for disaster recovery, as well as stretching of a failover cluster between sites. 同步复制支持物理站点中的镜像数据和在崩溃时保持一致的卷,以确保文件系统级别的数据损失为零。Synchronous replication enables mirroring of data in physical sites with crash-consistent volumes to ensure zero data loss at the file-system level. 异步复制允许超出都市范围、可能存在数据损失的站点扩展。Asynchronous replication allows site extension beyond metropolitan ranges with the possibility of data loss.

这一更改增添了什么价值?What value does this change add?
使用存储复制可执行下列操作:Storage Replication enables you to do the following:

  • 为关键任务工作负荷的计划内和计划外中断提供单一供应商灾难恢复解决方案。Provide a single vendor disaster recovery solution for planned and unplanned outages of mission critical workloads.
  • 使用具有广为赞誉的可靠性、可伸缩性和高性能的 SMB3 传输。Use SMB3 transport with proven reliability, scalability, and performance.
  • 将 Windows 故障转移群集扩展到都市距离。Stretch Windows failover clusters to metropolitan distances.
  • 将端到端的 Microsoft 软件用于存储和群集(例如 Hyper-V、存储复本、存储空间、群集、向外扩展文件服务器、SMB3、重复数据删除和 ReFS/NTFS)。Use Microsoft software end to end for storage and clustering, such as Hyper-V, Storage Replica, Storage Spaces, Cluster, Scale-Out File Server, SMB3, Deduplication, and ReFS/NTFS.
  • 可帮助降低成本和复杂性,如下所示:Help reduce cost and complexity as follows:
    • 与硬件无关,对特定存储配置(例如 DAS 或 SAN)没有要求。Is hardware agnostic, with no requirement for a specific storage configuration like DAS or SAN.
    • 允许使用商品存储和网络技术。Allows commodity storage and networking technologies.
    • 通过故障转移群集管理器轻松对单独的节点和群集进行图形管理的功能。Features ease of graphical management for individual nodes and clusters through Failover Cluster Manager.
    • 包括通过 Windows PowerShell 的全面、大型的脚本选项。Includes comprehensive, large-scale scripting options through Windows PowerShell.
  • 有助于减少停机时间,提高可靠性和 Windows 内部的工作效率。Help reduce downtime, and increase reliability and productivity intrinsic to Windows.
  • 提供支持能力、性能度量标准和诊断功能。Provide supportability, performance metrics, and diagnostic capabilities.

有关详细信息,请参阅 Windows Server 2016 中的存储副本For more information, see the Storage Replica in Windows Server 2016.

工作原理的不同之处是什么?What works differently?
此功能是 Windows Server 2016 的新增功能。This capability is new in Windows Server 2016.

存储服务质量Storage Quality of Service

现在可以使用存储服务质量 (QoS) 来集中监控端到端存储性能,并使用 Windows Server 2016 中的 Hyper-V 和 CSV 群集创建策略。You can now use storage quality of service (QoS) to centrally monitor end-to-end storage performance and create management policies using Hyper-V and CSV clusters in Windows Server 2016.

这一更改增添了什么价值?What value does this change add?
你现在可以在 CSV 群集上创建存储 QoS 策略,并将它们分配给 Hyper-V 虚拟机上的一个或多个虚拟磁盘。You can now create storage QoS policies on a CSV cluster and assign them to one or more virtual disks on Hyper-V virtual machines. 存储性能将随工作负载和存储负载波动自动重新调整以符合策略。Storage performance is automatically readjusted to meet policies as the workloads and storage loads fluctuate.

  • 每个策略可以指定保留(最小)和/或限制(最大),以应用于数据流集合,例如虚拟硬盘、单个虚拟机或虚拟机组、服务或租户的集合。Each policy can specify a reserve (minimum) and/or a limit (maximum) to be applied to a collection of data flows, such as a virtual hard disk, a single virtual machine or a group of virtual machines, a service, or a tenant.
  • 使用 Windows PowerShell 或 WMI 可以执行以下任务:Using Windows PowerShell or WMI, you can perform the following tasks:
    • 在 CSV 群集上创建策略。Create policies on a CSV cluster.
    • 枚举 CSV 群集上的可用策略。Enumerate policies available on a CSV cluster.
    • 将策略分配给 Hyper-V 虚拟机的虚拟硬盘。Assign a policy to a virtual hard disk of a Hyper-V virtual machine.
    • 监控每个流的性能和策略中的状态。Monitor the performance of each flow and status within the policy.
  • 如果多个虚拟硬盘共享同一策略,性能将进行公平分配,在策略的最小和最大设置内满足需求。If multiple virtual hard disks share the same policy, performance is fairly distributed to meet demand within the policy's minimum and maximum settings. 因此,策略可用于管理一个虚拟硬盘、一个虚拟机、构成服务的多个虚拟机或租户拥有的所有虚拟机。Therefore, a policy can be used to manage a virtual hard disk, a virtual machine, multiple virtual machines comprising a service, or all virtual machines owned by a tenant.

工作原理的不同之处是什么?What works differently?
此功能是 Windows Server 2016 的新增功能。This capability is new in Windows Server 2016. 管理最小预留,通过单个命令监视跨群集的所有虚拟磁盘流,在早期版本的 Windows Server 中无法实现基于策略的集中式管理。Managing minimum reserves, monitoring flows of all virtual disks across the cluster via a single command, and centralized policy based management were not possible in previous releases of Windows Server.

有关详细信息,请参阅存储服务质量For more information, see Storage Quality of Service

重复数据删除Data Deduplication

功能Functionality 新功能或更新功能New or Updated 说明Description
支持大型卷Support for Large Volumes 已更新Updated 在 Windows Server 2016 之前,必须专门调整卷的大小实现预期改动,大小超过 10 TB 的卷不适合进行重复数据删除。Prior to Windows Server 2016, volumes had to specifically sized for the expected churn, with volume sizes above 10 TB not being good candidates for deduplication. 在 Windows Server 2016 中,重复数据删除支持高达 64 TB 的卷大小。In Windows Server 2016, Data Deduplication supports volume sizes up to 64 TB.
支持大型文件Support for Large Files 已更新Updated 在 Windows Server 2016 之前,大小接近 1 TB 的文件不适合进行重复数据删除。Prior to Windows Server 2016, files approaching 1 TB in size were not good candidates for deduplication. 在 Windows Server 2016 中,完全支持高达 1 TB 的文件。In Windows Server 2016, files up to 1 TB are fully supported.
支持 Nano ServerSupport for Nano Server “新建”New 重复数据删除在 Windows Server 2016 的新 Nano Server 部署选项中可用且完全受支持。Data Deduplication is available and fully supported in the new Nano Server deployment option for Windows Server 2016.
简化的备份支持Simplified Backup Support “新建”New 在 Windows Server 2012 R2 中,通过一系列手动配置步骤支持虚拟化备份应用程序,如 Microsoft 的 Data Protection ManagerIn Windows Server 2012 R2, Virtualized Backup Applications, such as Microsoft's Data Protection Manager, were supported through a series of manual configuration steps. 在 Windows Server 2016 中,已针对虚拟化备份应用程序的重复数据删除的无缝部署添加了新的默认使用类型“备份”。In Windows Server 2016, a new default Usage Type "Backup", has been added for seamless deployment of Data Deduplication for Virtualized Backup Applications.
支持群集操作系统滚动升级Support for Cluster OS Rolling Upgrades “新建”New 重复数据删除完全支持 Windows Server 2016 的新功能群集操作系统滚动升级Data Deduplication fully supports the new Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade feature of Windows Server 2016.

SMB 针对 SYSVOL 和 NETLOGON 连接的强化改进SMB hardening improvements for SYSVOL and NETLOGON connections

在到默认的 Active Directory 域服务 SYSVOL 和 NETLOGON 的 Windows 10 和 Windows Server 2016 客户端连接中,域控制器上的共享现在要求 SMB 签名和相互身份验证(例如 Kerberos)。In Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016 client connections to the Active Directory Domain Services default SYSVOL and NETLOGON shares on domain controllers now require SMB signing and mutual authentication (such as Kerberos).

这一更改增添了什么价值?What value does this change add?
此更改降低了中间人攻击的可能性。This change reduces the likelihood of man-in-the-middle attacks.

作用有何不同?What works differently?
如果 SMB 签名和相互身份验证都不可用,Windows 10 或 Windows Server 2016 计算机不会处理基于域的组策略和脚本。If SMB signing and mutual authentication are unavailable, a Windows 10 or Windows Server 2016 computer won't process domain-based Group Policy and scripts.

备注

这些设置的注册表值默认情况下并不出现,但在被组策略或其他注册表值替代前,强化规则仍然适用。The registry values for these settings aren't present by default, but the hardening rules still apply until overridden by Group Policy or other registry values.

有关这些安全改进(也称为 UNC 强化)的详细信息,请参阅 Microsoft 知识库文章 3000483MS15-011 & MS15-014:强化组策略For more information on these security improvements - also referred to as UNC hardening, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article 3000483 and MS15-011 & MS15-014: Hardening Group Policy.

工作文件夹Work Folders

改进了工作文件夹服务器正在运行 Windows Server 2016 并且工作文件夹客户端是 Windows 10 时的更改通知。Improved change notification when the Work Folders sever is running Windows Server 2016 and the Work Folders client is Windows 10.

这一更改增添了什么价值?What value does this change add?
对于 Windows Server 2012 R2,当文件更改同步到工作文件夹服务器上时,不向客户端通知这一更改并等待 10 分钟获取更新。For Windows Server 2012 R2, when file changes are synced to the Work Folders server, clients are not notified of the change and wait up to 10 minutes to get the update. 在使用 Windows Sever 2016 时,工作文件夹服务器会立即通知 Windows 10 客户端并立即同步文件更改。When using Windows Sever 2016, the Work Folders server immediately notifies Windows 10 clients and the file changes are synced immediately.

工作原理的不同之处是什么?What works differently?
此功能是 Windows Server 2016 的新增功能。This capability is new in Windows Server 2016. 这要求 Windows Server 2016 工作文件夹服务器和客户端必须是 Windows 10。This requires a Windows Server 2016 Work Folders server and the client must be Windows 10.

如果你使用的是较旧客户端或工作文件夹服务器为 Windows Server 2012 R2,则客户端将继续每 10 分钟轮询一次更改。If you're using an older client or the Work Folders server is Windows Server 2012 R2, the client will continue to poll every 10 minutes for changes.

ReFSReFS

下一次 ReFS 迭代提供对具有各种工作负荷的大规模存储部署的支持,为你的数据提供可靠性、复原能力和可扩展性。The next iteration of ReFS provides support for large-scale storage deployments with diverse workloads, delivering reliability, resiliency, and scalability for your data.

这一更改增添了什么价值?What value does this change add?
ReFS 做了以下改进:ReFS introduces the following improvements:

  • ReFS 实现了新存储层功能,帮助提供更快的性能和更大的存储容量。ReFS implements new storage tiers functionality, helping deliver faster performance and increased storage capacity. 此新功能将启用以下内容:This new functionality enables:
    • 在同一虚拟磁盘上使用多个复原类型(例如,使用性能层中的镜像和容量层中的奇偶校验)。Multiple resiliency types on the same virtual disk (using mirroring in the performance tier and parity in the capacity tier, for example).
    • 提高了对偏离工作集的响应能力。Increased responsiveness to drifting working sets.
    • SMR(叠瓦式磁记录)媒体支持。Support for SMR (Shingled Magnetic Recording) media.
  • 块克隆的引入大大提高了 VM 操作(例如,.vhdx 检查点合并操作)的性能。The introduction of block cloning substantially improves the performance of VM operations, such as .vhdx checkpoint merge operations.
  • 新的 ReFS 扫描工具支持泄露存储的恢复,并可帮助回收数据避免严重损坏。The new ReFS scan tool enables the recovery of leaked storage and helps salvage data from critical corruptions.

工作原理的不同之处是什么?What works differently?
这些功能是 Windows Server 2016 中的新增功能。These capabilities are new in Windows Server 2016.

另请参阅See also