Hyper-v 上的 Linux 和 FreeBSD 虚拟机的功能说明Feature Descriptions for Linux and FreeBSD virtual machines on Hyper-V

适用于: Azure Stack HCI,版本 20H2;Windows Server 2016,Hyper-v Server 2016,Windows Server 2012 R2,Hyper-v Server 2012 R2,Windows Server 2012,Hyper-v Server 2012,Windows Server 2008 R2,Windows 10,Windows 8.1,Windows 8,Windows 7.1,Windows 7Applies To: Azure Stack HCI, version 20H2; Windows Server 2016, Hyper-V Server 2016, Windows Server 2012 R2, Hyper-V Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2012, Hyper-V Server 2012, Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows 10, Windows 8.1, Windows 8, Windows 7.1, Windows 7

本文介绍在虚拟机上使用 Linux 和 FreeBSD 时组件中的可用功能,如核心、网络、存储和内存。This article describes features available in components such as core, networking, storage, and memory when using Linux and FreeBSD on a virtual machine.

核心Core

功能Feature 说明Description
集成关闭Integrated shutdown 使用此功能,管理员可以从 Hyper-v 管理器关闭虚拟机。With this feature, an administrator can shut down virtual machines from the Hyper-V Manager. 有关详细信息,请参阅 操作系统关闭For more information, see Operating system shutdown.
时间同步Time synchronization 此功能可确保虚拟机内的维护时间与主机上的维护时间保持同步。This feature ensures that the maintained time inside a virtual machine is kept synchronized with the maintained time on the host. 有关详细信息,请参阅 时间同步For more information, see Time synchronization.
Windows Server 2016 准确时间Windows Server 2016 Accurate Time 此功能允许来宾使用 Windows Server 2016 准确的时间功能,这会缩短与主机之间的时间同步以1ms 准确性。This feature allows the guest to use the Windows Server 2016 Accurate Time capability, which improves time synchronization with the host to 1ms accuracy. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Windows Server 2016 准确时间For more information, see Windows Server 2016 Accurate Time
多处理支持Multiprocessing support 利用此功能,虚拟机可以通过配置多个虚拟 Cpu 在主机上使用多个处理器。With this feature, a virtual machine can use multiple processors on the host by configuring multiple virtual CPUs.
检测信号Heartbeat 利用此功能,主机可以跟踪虚拟机的状态。With this feature, the host to can track the state of the virtual machine. 有关详细信息,请参阅 检测信号For more information, see Heartbeat.
集成鼠标支持Integrated mouse support 利用此功能,你可以在虚拟机桌面上使用鼠标,还可以在 Windows Server 桌面和虚拟机的 Hyper-v 控制台之间无缝使用鼠标。With this feature, you can use a mouse on a virtual machine's desktop and also use the mouse seamlessly between the Windows Server desktop and the Hyper-V console for the virtual machine.
Hyper-v 特定存储设备Hyper-V specific Storage device 此功能为连接到虚拟机的存储设备授予高性能访问权限。This feature grants high-performance access to storage devices that are attached to a virtual machine.
Hyper-v 特定网络设备Hyper-V specific Network device 此功能为连接到虚拟机的网络适配器授予高性能访问权限。This feature grants high-performance access to network adapters that are attached to a virtual machine.

网络Networking

功能Feature 说明Description
Jumbo 帧Jumbo frames 使用此功能,管理员可以增加超过1500个字节的网络帧大小,这将导致网络性能大幅提高。With this feature, an administrator can increase the size of network frames beyond 1500 bytes, which leads to a significant increase in network performance.
VLAN 标记和中继VLAN tagging and trunking 此功能允许你为虚拟机配置虚拟 LAN (VLAN) 通信。This feature allows you to configure virtual LAN (VLAN) traffic for virtual machines.
实时迁移Live Migration 利用此功能,可以将虚拟机从一台主机迁移到另一台主机。With this feature, you can migrate a virtual machine from one host to another host. 有关详细信息,请参阅 虚拟机实时迁移概述For more information, see Virtual Machine Live Migration Overview.
静态 IP 注入Static IP Injection 利用此功能,可以在虚拟机故障转移到另一台主机上的副本后复制该虚拟机的静态 IP 地址。With this feature, you can replicate the static IP address of a virtual machine after it has been failed over to its replica on a different host. 此类 IP 复制确保在发生故障转移事件后,网络工作负载可以继续顺利运行。Such IP replication ensures that network workloads continue to work seamlessly after a failover event.
vRSS (虚拟接收方缩放) vRSS (Virtual Receive Side Scaling) 跨虚拟机中的多个虚拟处理器跨虚拟网络适配器的负载。有关详细信息,请参阅 Windows Server 2012 R2 中的虚拟接收方缩放Spreads the load from a virtual network adapter across multiple virtual processors in a virtual machine.For more information, see Virtual Receive-side Scaling in Windows Server 2012 R2.
TCP 分段和校验和卸载TCP Segmentation and Checksum Offloads 在网络数据传输过程中,将分段和校验和从来宾 CPU 传输到主机虚拟交换机或网络适配器。Transfers segmentation and checksum work from the guest CPU to the host virtual switch or network adapter during network data transfers.
大型接收卸载 (LRO) Large Receive Offload (LRO) 通过将多个数据包聚合到更大的缓冲区中来增加高带宽连接的入站吞吐量,从而降低 CPU 开销。Increases inbound throughput of high-bandwidth connections by aggregating multiple packets into a larger buffer, decreasing CPU overhead.
SR-IOVSR-IOV 单个根 i/o 设备使用 DDA 允许来宾访问特定 NIC 卡的某些部分,从而降低延迟并提高吞吐量。Single Root I/O devices use DDA to allow guests access to portions of specific NIC cards allowing for reduced latency and increased throughput. SR-IOV 需要最新的物理功能 (PF) 主机上的驱动程序和虚函数上的驱动程序 (虚拟机上的虚拟机) 驱动程序。SR-IOV requires up to date physical function (PF) drivers on the host and virtual function (VF) drivers on the guest.

存储Storage

功能Feature 说明Description
VHDX 调整大小VHDX resize 使用此功能,管理员可以调整附加到虚拟机的固定大小的 .vhdx 文件的大小。With this feature, an administrator can resize a fixed-size .vhdx file that is attached to a virtual machine. 有关详细信息,请参阅 联机虚拟硬盘大小调整概述For more information, see Online Virtual Hard Disk Resizing Overview.
虚拟光纤通道Virtual Fibre Channel 利用此功能,虚拟机可以识别光纤通道设备并以本机方式装载它。With this feature, virtual machines can recognize a fiber channel device and mount it natively. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Hyper-V 虚拟光纤通道概述For more information, see Hyper-V Virtual Fibre Channel Overview.
实时虚拟机备份Live virtual machine backup 此功能便于零停机实时虚拟机的备份。This feature facilitates zero down time backup of live virtual machines.

请注意,如果虚拟机的虚拟硬盘 (Vhd) (如服务器消息块 (SMB) 共享或 iSCSI 卷),则备份操作不会成功。Note that the backup operation does not succeed if the virtual machine has virtual hard disks (VHDs) that are hosted on remote storage such as a Server Message Block (SMB) share or an iSCSI volume. 此外,请确保备份目标不与备份的卷位于同一卷上。Additionally, ensure that the backup target does not reside on the same volume as the volume that you back up.

剪裁支持TRIM support TRIM 提示通知驱动器,应用程序不再需要以前分配的某些扇区,并且可以将其清除。TRIM hints notify the drive that certain sectors that were previously allocated are no longer required by the app and can be purged. 当应用通过文件进行大空间分配,然后自行管理对文件(例如虚拟硬盘文件)的分配时,通常使用此过程。This process is typically used when an app makes large space allocations via a file and then self-manages the allocations to the file, for example, to virtual hard disk files.
SCSI WWNSCSI WWN Storvsc 驱动程序从连接到虚拟机的设备的端口和节点提取全球通用名称 (WWN) 信息,并创建相应的 sysfs 文件。The storvsc driver extracts World Wide Name (WWN) information from the port and node of devices attached to the virtual machine and creates the appropriate sysfs files.

内存Memory

功能Feature 说明Description
PAE 内核支持PAE Kernel Support 物理地址扩展 (PAE) 技术允许32位内核访问大于4GB 的物理地址空间。Physical Address Extension (PAE) technology allows a 32-bit kernel to access a physical address space that is larger than 4GB. 旧版 Linux 分发(如 RHEL 1.x)用于发送启用了 PAE 的单独内核。Older Linux distributions such as RHEL 5.x used to ship a separate kernel that was PAE enabled. 新分发(如 RHEL 1.x)具有预生成的 PAE 支持。Newer distributions such as RHEL 6.x have pre-built PAE support.
MMIO 间隙的配置Configuration of MMIO gap 利用此功能,设备制造商可以配置内存映射 i/o (MMIO) 间隔的位置。With this feature, appliance manufacturers can configure the location of the Memory Mapped I/O (MMIO) gap. MMIO 间隙通常用于将设备上的可用物理内存划分 (JeOS) 和设备支持的实际软件基础结构之间。The MMIO gap is typically used to divide the available physical memory between an appliance's Just Enough Operating Systems (JeOS) and the actual software infrastructure that powers the appliance.
动态内存-Hot-AddDynamic Memory - Hot-Add 当虚拟机正在运行时,主机可以动态增加或减少可用于虚拟机的内存量。The host can dynamically increase or decrease the amount of memory available to a virtual machine while it is in operation. 预配之前,管理员在 "虚拟机设置" 面板中启用动态内存,并指定虚拟机的启动内存、最小内存和最大内存。Before provisioning, the Administrator enables Dynamic Memory in the Virtual Machine Settings panel and specify the Startup Memory, Minimum Memory, and Maximum Memory for the virtual machine. 如果虚拟机处于操作状态动态内存则无法禁用,只能更改最小值和最大值设置。When the virtual machine is in operation Dynamic Memory cannot be disabled and only the Minimum and Maximum settings can be changed. (最好的做法是将这些内存大小指定为128MB 的倍数。 ) (It is a best practice to specify these memory sizes as multiples of 128MB.)

虚拟机首次启动时,可用内存等于 启动内存When the virtual machine is first started available memory is equal to the Startup Memory. 由于应用程序工作负载的原因,Hyper-v 可能会通过 Hot-Add 机制动态分配更多内存给虚拟机,前提是该版本的内核支持。As Memory Demand increases due to application workloads Hyper-V may dynamically allocate more memory to the virtual machine via the Hot-Add mechanism, if supported by that version of the kernel. 分配的最大内存量受 最大内存 参数值的限制。The maximum amount of memory allocated is capped by the value of the Maximum Memory parameter.

Hyper-v 管理器的 "内存" 选项卡将显示分配给虚拟机的内存量,但虚拟机中的内存统计信息将显示分配的最大内存量。The Memory tab of Hyper-V manager will display the amount of memory assigned to the virtual machine, but memory statistics within the virtual machine will show the highest amount of memory allocated.

有关详细信息,请参阅 hyper-v 动态内存概述For more information, see Hyper-V Dynamic Memory Overview.

动态内存-膨胀Dynamic Memory - Ballooning 当虚拟机正在运行时,主机可以动态增加或减少可用于虚拟机的内存量。The host can dynamically increase or decrease the amount of memory available to a virtual machine while it is in operation. 预配之前,管理员在 "虚拟机设置" 面板中启用动态内存,并指定虚拟机的启动内存、最小内存和最大内存。Before provisioning, the Administrator enables Dynamic Memory in the Virtual Machine Settings panel and specify the Startup Memory, Minimum Memory, and Maximum Memory for the virtual machine. 如果虚拟机处于操作状态动态内存则无法禁用,只能更改最小值和最大值设置。When the virtual machine is in operation Dynamic Memory cannot be disabled and only the Minimum and Maximum settings can be changed. (最好的做法是将这些内存大小指定为128MB 的倍数。 ) (It is a best practice to specify these memory sizes as multiples of 128MB.)

虚拟机首次启动时,可用内存等于 启动内存When the virtual machine is first started available memory is equal to the Startup Memory. 由于应用程序工作负载的原因,Hyper-v 可能会通过以上) (的 Hot-Add 机制,动态分配更多内存给虚拟机。As Memory Demand increases due to application workloads Hyper-V may dynamically allocate more memory to the virtual machine via the Hot-Add mechanism (above). 随着内存需求的增加,Hyper-v 可能会通过气球机制从虚拟机自动取消预配内存。As Memory Demand decreases Hyper-V may automatically deprovision memory from the virtual machine via the Balloon mechanism. Hyper-v 将不会在 最小内存 参数下取消预配内存。Hyper-V will not deprovision memory below the Minimum Memory parameter.

Hyper-v 管理器的 "内存" 选项卡将显示分配给虚拟机的内存量,但虚拟机中的内存统计信息将显示分配的最大内存量。The Memory tab of Hyper-V manager will display the amount of memory assigned to the virtual machine, but memory statistics within the virtual machine will show the highest amount of memory allocated.

有关详细信息,请参阅 hyper-v 动态内存概述For more information, see Hyper-V Dynamic Memory Overview.

运行时内存大小调整Runtime Memory Resize 管理员可以设置虚拟机在运行时可用的内存量,增加内存 ( "热添加" ) 或降低 ( "热删除" ) 。An administrator can set the amount of memory available to a virtual machine while it is in operation, either increasing memory ("Hot Add") or decreasing it ("Hot Remove"). 内存通过气球驱动程序返回到 Hyper-v (参阅 "动态内存-膨胀" ) 。Memory is returned to Hyper-V via the balloon driver (see "Dynamic Memory - Ballooning"). 气球驱动程序在膨胀之后维护最少的可用内存(称为 "楼层"),因此,在当前需求和此楼层量之后,分配的内存不能减少。The balloon driver maintains a minimum amount of free memory after ballooning, called the "floor", so assigned memory cannot be reduced below the current demand plus this floor amount. Hyper-v 管理器的 "内存" 选项卡将显示分配给虚拟机的内存量,但虚拟机中的内存统计信息将显示分配的最大内存量。The Memory tab of Hyper-V manager will display the amount of memory assigned to the virtual machine, but memory statistics within the virtual machine will show the highest amount of memory allocated. (最好的做法是将内存值指定为128MB 的倍数。 ) (It is a best practice to specify memory values as multiples of 128MB.)

视频Video

功能Feature 说明Description
Hyper-v 特定视频设备Hyper-V-specific video device 此功能为虚拟机提供高性能的图形和卓越的分辨率。This feature provides high-performance graphics and superior resolution for virtual machines. 此设备不提供增强会话模式或 RemoteFX 功能。This device does not provide Enhanced Session Mode or RemoteFX capabilities.

杂项Miscellaneous

功能Feature 说明Description
KVP) exchange (键值对KVP (Key-Value pair) exchange 此功能为虚拟机的 KVP) exchange 服务 (提供密钥/值对。This feature provides a key/value pair (KVP) exchange service for virtual machines. 通常,管理员使用 KVP 机制在虚拟机上执行读取和写入自定义数据操作。Typically administrators use the KVP mechanism to perform read and write custom data operations on a virtual machine. 有关详细信息,请参阅 数据交换:使用键值对在 hyper-v 上的主机和来宾之间共享信息For more information, see Data Exchange: Using key-value pairs to share information between the host and guest on Hyper-V.
不可屏蔽中断Non-Maskable Interrupt 使用此功能,管理员可以) 虚拟机 (NMI 发出不可屏蔽的中断。With this feature, an administrator can issue Non-Maskable Interrupts (NMI) to a virtual machine. 在获取因应用程序错误而变得无响应的操作系统崩溃转储时,NMIs 非常有用。NMIs are useful in obtaining crash dumps of operating systems that have become unresponsive due to application bugs. 重新启动后,可以诊断这些故障转储。These crash dumps can be diagnosed after you restart.
从主机到来宾的文件复制File copy from host to guest 此功能允许在不使用网络适配器的情况下将文件从主机物理计算机复制到来宾虚拟机。This feature allows files to be copied from the host physical computer to the guest virtual machines without using the network adaptor. 有关详细信息,请参阅 " 来宾服务"。For more information, see Guest services.
lsvmbus 命令lsvmbus command 此命令获取有关 Hyper-v 虚拟机总线上的设备的信息 (VMBus) 类似于 lspci 之类的信息命令。This command gets information about devices on the Hyper-V virtual machine bus (VMBus) similar to information commands like lspci.
Hyper-v 套接字Hyper-V Sockets 这是主机和来宾操作系统之间的附加信道。This is an additional communication channel between the host and guest operating system. 若要加载和使用 Hyper-v 套接字内核模块,请参阅 创建自己的 integration servicesTo load and use the Hyper-V Sockets kernel module, see Make your own integration services.
PCI 传递/DDAPCI Passthrough/DDA 使用 Windows Server 2016,管理员可以通过离散设备分配机制传递 PCI Express 设备。With Windows Server 2016 administrators can pass through PCI Express devices via the Discrete Device Assignment mechanism. 常见设备为网卡、图形卡和特殊存储设备。Common devices are network cards, graphics cards, and special storage devices. 虚拟机将需要适当的驱动程序才能使用公开的硬件。The virtual machine will require the appropriate driver to use the exposed hardware. 必须为虚拟机分配硬件,才能使用该硬件。The hardware must be assigned to the virtual machine for it to be used.

有关详细信息,请参阅 离散设备分配说明和背景For more information, see Discrete Device Assignment - Description and Background.

DDA 是 SR-IOV 网络的先决条件。DDA is a pre-requisite for SR-IOV networking. 需要将虚拟端口分配给虚拟机,并且虚拟机必须使用正确的虚拟功能 (VF) 驱动程序以进行设备多路复用。Virtual ports will need to be assigned to the virtual machine and the virtual machine must use the correct Virtual Function (VF) drivers for device multiplexing.

第 2 代虚拟机Generation 2 virtual machines

功能Feature 说明Description
使用 UEFI 启动Boot using UEFI 此功能允许虚拟机使用统一可扩展固件接口 (UEFI) 启动。This feature allows virtual machines to boot using Unified Extensible Firmware Interface (UEFI).

有关详细信息,请参阅第 2 代虚拟机概述For more information, see Generation 2 Virtual Machine Overview.

安全启动Secure boot 此功能允许虚拟机使用基于 UEFI 的安全启动模式。This feature allows virtual machines to use UEFI based secure boot mode. 在安全模式下启动虚拟机时,将使用 UEFI 数据存储中存在的签名来验证各种操作系统组件。When a virtual machine is booted in secure mode, various operating system components are verified using signatures present in the UEFI data store.

有关详细信息,请参阅安全启动For more information, see Secure Boot.

另请参阅See Also