什么是 Windows Server 2016 上的 HYPER-V 中的新增功能What's new in Hyper-V on Windows Server 2016

适用于:Microsoft 的 HYPER-V Server 2016 中,Windows Server 2016Applies To: Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2016, Windows Server 2016

本文介绍在 Windows Server 2016 和 Microsoft HYPER-V Server 2016 上的 HYPER-V 的新功能和更改功能。This article explains the new and changed functionality of Hyper-V on Windows Server 2016 and Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2016. 若要在虚拟机使用 Windows Server 2012 R2 创建和移动或导入到 Windows Server 2016 运行 HYPER-V 的服务器上使用新功能,您将需要手动升级虚拟机配置版本。To use new features on virtual machines created with Windows Server 2012 R2 and moved or imported to a server that runs Hyper-V on Windows Server 2016, you'll need to manually upgrade the virtual machine configuration version. 有关说明,请参阅升级虚拟机版本For instructions, see Upgrade virtual machine version.

下面是本文中包含的内容和功能是新的或更新。Here's what's included in this article and whether the functionality is new or updated.

与连接待机兼容(新)Compatible with Connected Standby (new)

在使用始终可用/始终连接 (AOAC) 电源模型的计算机上安装 HYPER-V 角色时连接待机电源状态现已推出。When the Hyper-V role is installed on a computer that uses the Always On/Always Connected (AOAC) power model, the Connected Standby power state is now available.

离散设备分配(新)Discrete device assignment (new)

此功能允许你授予虚拟机对某些 PCIe 硬件设备的直接和独占访问权限。This feature lets you give a virtual machine direct and exclusive access to some PCIe hardware devices. 以这种方式使用设备将绕过 Hyper-V 虚拟化堆栈,使访问更迅速。Using a device in this way bypasses the Hyper-V virtualization stack, which results in faster access. 支持的硬件的详细信息,请参阅"离散设备分配"中System requirements for Windows Server 2016 上的 HYPER-V 要求For details on supported hardware, see "Discrete device assignment" in System requirements for Hyper-V on Windows Server 2016. 有关详细信息,包括如何使用此功能和注意事项,请参阅文章"离散设备分配-说明和背景"虚拟化博客中。For details, including how to use this feature and considerations, see the post "Discrete Device Assignment — Description and background" in the Virtualization blog.

在第 1 代虚拟机中的操作系统磁盘的加密支持(新)Encryption support for the operating system disk in generation 1 virtual machines (new)

你现在可以保护在第 1 代虚拟机中使用 BitLocker 驱动器加密的操作系统磁盘。You can now protect the operating system disk using BitLocker drive encryption in generation 1 virtual machines. 一项新功能,密钥存储中,创建一个小型的专用的驱动器来存储系统驱动器的 BitLocker 密钥。A new feature, key storage, creates a small, dedicated drive to store the system drive’s BitLocker key. 这是而不是使用虚拟受信任的平台模块 (TPM),这仅在第 2 代虚拟机中可用。This is done instead of using a virtual Trusted Platform Module (TPM), which is available only in generation 2 virtual machines. 若要解密该磁盘并启动虚拟机,HYPER-V 主机必须是授权受保护的构造的一部分或从一个虚拟机的 guardians 具有私钥。To decrypt the disk and start the virtual machine, the Hyper-V host must either be part of an authorized guarded fabric or have the private key from one of the virtual machine's guardians. 密钥存储需要版本 8 虚拟机。Key storage requires a version 8 virtual machine. 有关虚拟机版本的信息,请参阅在 Windows 10 或 Windows Server 2016 上的 HYPER-V 中的升级虚拟机版本For information on virtual machine version, see Upgrade virtual machine version in Hyper-V on Windows 10 or Windows Server 2016.

主机资源保护(新)Host resource protection (new)

此功能可帮助阻止虚拟机使用多个其共享系统资源寻找过多级别的活动的。This feature helps prevent a virtual machine from using more than its share of system resources by looking for excessive levels of activity. 这可以帮助防止虚拟机的活动过多会降低主机或其他虚拟机的性能。This can help prevent a virtual machine's excessive activity from degrading the performance of the host or other virtual machines. 当监视检测与活动过多的虚拟机时,虚拟机提供较少的资源。When monitoring detects a virtual machine with excessive activity, the virtual machine is given fewer resources. 这种监视和强制请默认情况下处于关闭状态。This monitoring and enforcement is off by default. 使用 Windows PowerShell,若要将其打开或关闭。Use Windows PowerShell to turn it on or off. 若要将其打开,请运行以下命令:To turn it on, run this command:

Set-VMProcessor TestVM -EnableHostResourceProtection $true 

有关此 cmdlet 的详细信息,请参阅Set-vmprocessorFor details about this cmdlet, see Set-VMProcessor.

热添加和删除网络适配器和内存的(新)Hot add and remove for network adapters and memory (new)

现在,运行虚拟机期间,可以添加或删除网络适配器而不出现停机。You can now add or remove a network adapter while the virtual machine is running, without incurring downtime. 这适用于运行 Windows 或 Linux 操作系统的第 2 代虚拟机。This works for generation 2 virtual machines that run either Windows or Linux operating systems.

此外可以调整分配给虚拟机在运行时,即使尚未启用动态内存的内存量。You can also adjust the amount of memory assigned to a virtual machine while it's running, even if you haven't enabled Dynamic Memory. 这适用于第 1 代和第 2 代虚拟机,运行 Windows Server 2016 或 Windows 10。This works for both generation 1 and generation 2 virtual machines, running Windows Server 2016 or Windows 10.

Hyper-v 管理器改进(更新)Hyper-V Manager improvements (updated)

  • 备用凭据支持-你现在可以使用一组不同的凭据中的 HYPER-V 管理器连接到另一台 Windows Server 2016 或 Windows 10 的远程主机时。Alternate credentials support - You can now use a different set of credentials in Hyper-V Manager when you connect to another Windows Server 2016 or Windows 10 remote host. 此外可以保存这些凭据以使其更轻松地重新登录。You can also save these credentials to make it easier to log on again.

  • 管理早期版本-使用 HYPER-V 管理器在 Windows Server 2016 和 Windows 10 中,你可以管理 Windows Server 2012、 Windows 8、 Windows Server 2012 R2 和 Windows 8.1 上运行 HYPER-V 的计算机。Manage earlier versions - With Hyper-V Manager in Windows Server 2016 and Windows 10, you can manage computers running Hyper-V on Windows Server 2012, Windows 8, Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows 8.1.

  • 更新的管理协议-Hyper-v 管理器现在与使用 WS-MAN 协议允许 CredSSP、 Kerberos 或 NTLM 身份验证的远程 HYPER-V 主机进行通信。Updated management protocol - Hyper-V Manager now communicates with remote Hyper-V hosts using the WS-MAN protocol, which permits CredSSP, Kerberos or NTLM authentication. 当使用 CredSSP 连接到远程 HYPER-V 主机时,不会实时迁移启用 Active Directory 中的约束的委派。When you use CredSSP to connect to a remote Hyper-V host, you can do a live migration without enabling constrained delegation in Active Directory. WS MAN 基于基础结构还可以更轻松地启用远程管理的主机。The WS-MAN-based infrastructure also makes it easier to enable a host for remote management. WS-MAN 通过端口 80(该端口默认处于打开状态)进行连接。WS-MAN connects over port 80, which is open by default.

通过 Windows 更新传递的集成服务(更新)Integration services delivered through Windows Update (updated)

针对 Windows 来宾的集成服务更新通过 Windows 更新分配。Updates to integration services for Windows guests are distributed through Windows Update. 对于服务提供商和私有云托管商,这会将应用更新的控制权置于拥有虚拟机的租户手中。For service providers and private cloud hosters, this puts the control of applying updates into the hands of the tenants who own the virtual machines. 租户现在可以通过单个方法为其 Windows 虚拟机更新所有更新(包括集成服务)。Tenants can now update their Windows virtual machines with all updates, including the integration services, using a single method. 有关适用于 Linux 来宾集成服务的详细信息,请参阅Linux 和 FreeBSD 虚拟机上的 HYPER-VFor details about integration services for Linux guests, see Linux and FreeBSD Virtual Machines on Hyper-V.


不再需要 vmguest.iso 图像文件,因此它不包含在 Windows Server 2016 上的 HYPER-V。The vmguest.iso image file is no longer needed, so it isn't included with Hyper-V on Windows Server 2016.

Linux 安全启动(新)Linux Secure Boot (new)

在第 2 代虚拟机上运行的 Linux 操作系统现可以使用支持的“安全启动”选项进行启动。Linux operating systems running on generation 2 virtual machines can now boot with the Secure Boot option enabled. Ubuntu 14.04 及更高版本、 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 和更高版本、 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 及更高版本和 CentOS 7.0 及更高版本的运行 Windows Server 2016 主机上启用安全启动的。Ubuntu 14.04 and later, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 and later, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 and later, and CentOS 7.0 and later are enabled for Secure Boot on hosts that run Windows Server 2016. 首次启动虚拟机之前,必须将虚拟机配置为使用 Microsoft UEFI 证书颁发机构。Before you boot the virtual machine for the first time, you must configure the virtual machine to use the Microsoft UEFI Certificate Authority. 可以从 Hyper-V 管理器、Virtual Machine Manager 或提升的 Windows Powershell 会话执行此操作。You can do this from Hyper-V Manager, Virtual Machine Manager, or an elevated Windows Powershell session. 对于 Windows PowerShell,运行此命令:For Windows PowerShell, run this command:

Set-VMFirmware TestVM -SecureBootTemplate MicrosoftUEFICertificateAuthority  

有关 HYPER-V 上的 Linux 虚拟机的详细信息,请参阅Linux 和 FreeBSD 虚拟机上的 HYPER-VFor more information about Linux virtual machines on Hyper-V, see Linux and FreeBSD Virtual Machines on Hyper-V. 有关该 cmdlet 的详细信息,请参阅Set-vmfirmwareFor more information about the cmdlet, see Set-VMFirmware.

更多内存和处理器,用于第 2 代虚拟机和 HYPER-V 主机(更新)More memory and processors for generation 2 virtual machines and Hyper-V hosts (updated)

从版本 8 开始,第 2 代虚拟机可以使用更多内存和虚拟处理器。Starting with version 8, generation 2 virtual machines can use significantly more memory and virtual processors. 主机还可以配置具有显著更多内存和虚拟处理器不是以前支持。Hosts also can be configured with significantly more memory and virtual processors than were previously supported. 这些更改支持新方案,例如运行用于联机事务处理 (OLTP) 和数据仓库 (DW) 的大型内存中数据库的电子商务。These changes support new scenarios such as running e-commerce large in-memory databases for online transaction processing (OLTP) and data warehousing (DW). Windows Server 博客最近发布的虚拟机的 5.5 万亿字节的内存和 128 个虚拟处理器运行 4 TB 内存中数据库的性能结果。The Windows Server blog recently published the performance results of a virtual machine with 5.5 terabytes of memory and 128 virtual processors running 4 TB in-memory database. 性能   95%的物理服务器的性能。Performance was greater than 95% of the performance of a physical server. 有关详细信息,请参阅内存中事务处理的 Windows Server 2016 HYPER-V 大规模 VM 性能For details, see Windows Server 2016 Hyper-V large-scale VM performance for in-memory transaction processing. 有关虚拟机版本的详细信息,请参阅在 Windows 10 或 Windows Server 2016 上的 HYPER-V 中的升级虚拟机版本For details about virtual machine versions, see Upgrade virtual machine version in Hyper-V on Windows 10 or Windows Server 2016. 有关支持的最大配置的完整列表,请参阅规划 Windows Server 2016 中的 HYPER-V 可伸缩性For the full list of supported maximum configurations, see Plan for Hyper-V scalability in Windows Server 2016.

嵌套虚拟化(新)Nested virtualization (new)

此功能允许你将虚拟机用作 Hyper-V 主机并在该虚拟化的主机中创建虚拟机。This feature lets you use a virtual machine as a Hyper-V host and create virtual machines within that virtualized host. 这对于开发和测试环境尤其有用。This can be especially useful for development and test environments. 若要使用嵌套虚拟化,你需要:To use nested virtualization, you'll need:

  • 若要在至少运行 Windows Server 2016 或 Windows 10 在物理 HYPER-V 主机和虚拟化的主机上。To run at least Windows Server 2016 or Windows 10 on both the physical Hyper-V host and the virtualized host.

  • 具有 Intel VT-x 的处理器(嵌套虚拟化目前仅适用于 Intel 处理器)。A processor with Intel VT-x (nested virtualization is available only for Intel processors at this time).

有关详细信息和说明,请参阅运行的 HYPER-V 中具有嵌套虚拟化的虚拟机For details and instructions, see Run Hyper-V in a Virtual Machine with Nested Virtualization.

网络功能(新)Networking features (new)

新网络功能包括:New networking features include:

  • 远程直接内存访问 (RDMA) 和交换机嵌入式组合 (SET)Remote direct memory access (RDMA) and switch embedded teaming (SET). 无论是否同时使用 SET,都可以在绑定到 Hyper-V 虚拟交换机的网络适配器上设置 RDMA。You can set up RDMA on network adapters bound to a Hyper-V virtual switch, regardless of whether SET is also used. SET 提供与 NIC 组合具有某些相同功能的虚拟交换机。SET provides a virtual switch with some of same capabilities as NIC teaming. 有关详细信息,请参阅远程直接内存访问 (RDMA) 和交换机嵌入式组合 (SET)For details, see Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) and Switch Embedded Teaming (SET).

  • 虚拟机多队列 (VMMQ)Virtual machine multi queues (VMMQ). 通过为每台虚拟机分配多个硬件队列提升 VMQ 吞吐量。Improves on VMQ throughput by allocating multiple hardware queues per virtual machine. 对于一台虚拟机,默认的一个队列变为一组队列,而流量在队列之间传播。The default queue becomes a set of queues for a virtual machine, and traffic is spread between the queues.

  • 软件定义网络的服务质量 (QoS)Quality of service (QoS) for software-defined networks. 通过默认类带宽内的虚拟交换机管理流量的默认类。Manages the default class of traffic through the virtual switch within the default class bandwidth.

有关新网络功能的详细信息,请参阅什么是网络中的新增功能For more about new networking features, see What's new in Networking.

生产检查点(新)Production checkpoints (new)

生产检查点是虚拟机的"时间点"映像。Production checkpoints are "point-in-time" images of a virtual machine. 这些报告提供应用检查点,当虚拟机运行生产工作负荷时,遵循支持策略的方法。These give you a way to apply a checkpoint that complies with support policies when a virtual machine runs a production workload. 生产检查点基于内而不是已保存状态来宾的备份技术。Production checkpoints are based on backup technology inside the guest instead of a saved state. 对于 Windows 虚拟机,使用卷快照服务 (VSS)。For Windows virtual machines, the Volume Snapshot Service (VSS) is used. 对于 Linux 虚拟机,文件系统缓冲区刷新到创建检查点与文件系统一致。For Linux virtual machines, the file system buffers are flushed to create a checkpoint that's consistent with the file system. 如果您更愿意使用基于已保存状态的检查点,请改为选择标准检查点。If you'd rather use checkpoints based on saved states, choose standard checkpoints instead. 有关详细信息,请参阅中的 HYPER-V 的标准或生产检查点之间进行选择For details, see Choose between standard or production checkpoints in Hyper-V.


新的虚拟机将默认使用生产检查点。New virtual machines use production checkpoints as the default.

HYPER-V 群集滚动升级(新)Rolling Hyper-V Cluster upgrade (new)

现在可以添加到 HYPER-V 群集包含运行 Windows Server 2012 R2 的节点运行 Windows Server 2016 的节点。You can now add a node running Windows Server 2016 to a Hyper-V Cluster with nodes running Windows Server 2012 R2. 这使您无需停机即可群集升级。This allows you to upgrade the cluster without downtime. 群集运行在 Windows Server 2012 R2 功能级别之前升级群集中的所有节点并使用 Windows PowerShell cmdlet 更新群集功能级别, Update-clusterfunctionallevelThe cluster runs at a Windows Server 2012 R2 feature level until you upgrade all nodes in the cluster and update the cluster functional level with the Windows PowerShell cmdlet, Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel.


更新群集功能级别后,您不能返回到 Windows Server 2012 R2。After you update the cluster functional level, you can't return it to Windows Server 2012 R2.

对于具有与运行 Windows Server 2012 R2 和 Windows Server 2016 的节点的功能级别的 Windows Server 2012 R2 的 HYPER-V 群集,请注意以下问题:For a Hyper-V cluster with a functional level of Windows Server 2012 R2 with nodes running Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2016, note the following:

  • 管理群集、 HYPER-V 和虚拟机从运行 Windows Server 2016 或 Windows 10 的节点。Manage the cluster, Hyper-V, and virtual machines from a node running Windows Server 2016 or Windows 10.

  • 所有的 HYPER-V 群集中的节点之间,可以移动虚拟机。You can move virtual machines between all of the nodes in the Hyper-V cluster.

  • 若要使用新的 HYPER-V 功能,所有节点必须都运行 Windows Server 2016,必须更新群集功能级别。To use new Hyper-V features, all nodes must run Windows Server 2016 and the cluster functional level must be updated.

  • 不升级现有的虚拟机的虚拟机配置版本。The virtual machine configuration version for existing virtual machines isn't upgraded. 仅在升级群集功能级别后,可以升级配置版本。You can upgrade the configuration version only after you upgrade the cluster functional level.

  • 您创建的虚拟机都与 Windows Server 2012 R2 虚拟机配置级别 5 兼容。Virtual machines that you create are compatible with Windows Server 2012 R2, virtual machine configuration level 5.

后更新群集功能级别:After you update the cluster functional level:

  • 可以启用新的 HYPER-V 功能。You can enable new Hyper-V features.

  • 若要使新的虚拟机功能,使用 Update-vmconfigurationversion cmdlet 手动更新虚拟机配置级别。To make new virtual machine features available, use the Update-VmConfigurationVersion cmdlet to manually update the virtual machine configuration level. 有关说明,请参阅升级虚拟机版本For instructions, see Upgrade virtual machine version.

  • 不能将节点添加到运行 Windows Server 2012 R2 的 Hyper-V 群集。You can't add a node to the Hyper-V Cluster that runs Windows Server 2012 R2.


Windows 10 上的 HYPER-V 不支持故障转移群集。Hyper-V on Windows 10 doesn't support failover clustering.

有关详细信息和说明,请参阅群集操作系统滚动升级For details and instructions, see the Cluster Operating System Rolling Upgrade.

共享虚拟硬盘(更新)Shared virtual hard disks (updated)

您还可以调整共享虚拟硬盘 (.vhdx 文件) 用于来宾群集,而无需停机。You can now resize shared virtual hard disks (.vhdx files) used for guest clustering, without downtime. 共享虚拟硬盘可以增长或收缩虚拟机处于联机状态时。Shared virtual hard disks can be grown or shrunk while the virtual machine is online. 来宾群集现在还可以保护共享虚拟硬盘通过使用 HYPER-V 副本进行灾难恢复。Guest clusters can now also protect shared virtual hard disks by using Hyper-V Replica for disaster recovery.

集合上启用复制。Enable replication on the collection. 集合上启用复制是通过 WMI 接口仅公开Enabling replication on a collection is only exposed through the WMI interface. 请参阅的文档Msvm_CollectionReplicationService 类的更多详细信息。See the documentation for Msvm_CollectionReplicationService class for more details. 不能管理复制通过 UI 或 PowerShell cmdlet 的集合。You cannot manage replication of a collection through PowerShell cmdlet or UI. Vm 应属于的 HYPER-V 群集,以访问特定于集合的功能的主机上。The VMs should be on hosts that are part of a Hyper-V cluster to access features that are specific to a collection. 这包括共享 VHD-在独立主机上的共享的 Vhd 不受 HYPER-V 副本。This includes Shared VHD - shared VHDs on stand-alone hosts are not supported by Hyper-V Replica.

对于共享 Vhd 遵循的准则Virtual Hard Disk Sharing Overview,并确保共享的 Vhd 是来宾群集的一部分。Follow the guidelines for shared VHDs in Virtual Hard Disk Sharing Overview, and be sure that your shared VHDs are part of a guest cluster.

具有共享的 VHD,但没有关联的来宾群集的集合不能创建引用点 (而不考虑共享的 VHD 中是否包含引用点创建与否) 的集合。A collection with a shared VHD but no associated guest cluster cannot create reference points for the collection (regardless of whether the shared VHD is included in the reference point creation or not).

虚拟机备份(新)Virtual machine backup(new)

如果要备份单个虚拟机 (无论是否已群集主机),则不应使用 VM 组。If you are backing up a single virtual machine (regardless of whether host is clustered or not), you should not use a VM group. 也不应使用快照集合。Nor should you use a snapshot collection. VM 组和快照集合是为了仅用于备份正在使用共享的 vhdx 来宾群集。VM groups and snapshot collection are meant to be used solely for backing up guest clusters that are using shared vhdx. 相反,应执行快照使用HYPER-V WMI v2 提供程序Instead, you should take a snapshot using the Hyper-V WMI v2 provider. 同样,不要使用故障转移群集 WMI 提供程序Likewise, do not use the Failover Cluster WMI provider.

受防护的虚拟机(新)Shielded virtual machines (new)

受防护的虚拟机使用的多种功能,以使其更难 HYPER-V 管理员和在主机上的恶意软件检查、 篡改或窃取数据从受防护的虚拟机的状态。Shielded virtual machines use several features to make it harder for Hyper-V administrators and malware on the host to inspect, tamper with, or steal data from the state of a shielded virtual machine. 加密数据和状态后,HYPER-V 管理员无法看到视频输出和磁盘,并且虚拟机可以进行限制,从而仅在由主机保护者服务器已知的正常运行的主机上运行。Data and state is encrypted, Hyper-V administrators can't see the video output and disks, and the virtual machines can be restricted to run only on known, healthy hosts, as determined by a Host Guardian Server. 有关详细信息,请参阅受保护的构造和受防护的 VmFor details, see Guarded Fabric and Shielded VMs.


受防护的虚拟机都与 HYPER-V 副本兼容。Shielded virtual machines are compatible with Hyper-V Replica. 若要复制的受防护的虚拟机,你想要复制到的主机必须有权运行该受防护的虚拟机。To replicate a shielded virtual machine, the host you want to replicate to must be authorized to run that shielded virtual machine.

启动订单为群集虚拟机的优先级(新)Start order priority for clustered virtual machines (new)

此功能可以更好地控制对其启动或首次重新启动群集的虚拟机。This feature gives you more control over which clustered virtual machines are started or restarted first. 这使得更轻松地开始提供服务之前使用这些服务的虚拟机的虚拟机。This makes it easier to start virtual machines that provide services before virtual machines that use those services. 定义集、 将虚拟机放置在集中,并指定依赖项。Define sets, place virtual machines in sets, and specify dependencies. 使用 Windows PowerShell cmdlet 来管理设置,例如新建 ClusterGroupSetGet ClusterGroupSet,并添加 ClusterGroupSetDependencyUse Windows PowerShell cmdlets to manage the sets, such as New-ClusterGroupSet, Get-ClusterGroupSet, and Add-ClusterGroupSetDependency. ..

存储服务质量 (QoS)(更新)Storage quality of service (QoS) (updated)

你现在可以在横向扩展文件服务器上创建存储 QoS 策略,并将它们分配给 Hyper-V 虚拟机上的一个或多个虚拟磁盘。You can now create storage QoS policies on a Scale-Out File Server and assign them to one or more virtual disks on Hyper-V virtual machines. 存储性能将随存储负载波动自动重新调整以符合策略。Storage performance is automatically readjusted to meet policies as the storage load fluctuates. 有关详细信息,请参阅存储服务质量For details, see Storage Quality of Service.

虚拟机配置文件格式(更新)Virtual machine configuration file format (updated)

虚拟机配置文件使用新的格式,使读取和写入配置数据更高效。Virtual machine configuration files use a new format that makes reading and writing configuration data more efficient. 格式还使数据损坏不太可能在存储失败时。The format also makes data corruption less likely if a storage failure occurs. 虚拟机配置数据文件使用.vmcx 文件扩展名和运行时状态数据文件使用.vmrs 文件扩展名。Virtual machine configuration data files use a .vmcx file name extension and runtime state data files use a .vmrs file name extension.


.Vmcx 文件扩展名表示二进制文件。The .vmcx file name extension indicates a binary file. 不支持编辑.vmcx 或.vmrs 文件。Editing .vmcx or .vmrs files isn't supported.

虚拟机配置版本(更新)Virtual machine configuration version (updated)

配置版本表示虚拟机的配置,使用的版本的 HYPER-V 保存状态和快照文件的兼容性。The version represents the compatibility of the virtual machine's configuration, saved state, and snapshot files with the version of Hyper-V. 版本 5 的虚拟机与 Windows Server 2012 R2 兼容,并可以在 Windows Server 2012 R2 和 Windows Server 2016 上运行。Virtual machines with version 5 are compatible with Windows Server 2012 R2 and can run on both Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2016 . 与 Windows Server 2016 中引入的版本的虚拟机不会在 HYPER-V 中运行 Windows Server 2012 R2 上。Virtual machines with versions introduced in Windows Server 2016 won't run in Hyper-V on Windows Server 2012 R2.

如果移动或导入 Windows Server 2016 运行的 HYPER-V,从 Windows Server 2012 R2 的服务器的虚拟机,虚拟机的配置不会自动更新。If you move or import a virtual machine to a server that runs Hyper-V on Windows Server 2016 from Windows Server 2012 R2, the virtual machine's configuration isn't automatically updated. 这意味着可以将虚拟机移动回运行 Windows Server 2012 R2 的服务器。This means you can move the virtual machine back to a server that runs Windows Server 2012 R2. 但这也意味着在你手动更新虚拟机配置的版本前,不能使用新的虚拟机功能。But, this also means you can't use the new virtual machine features until you manually update the version of the virtual machine configuration.

检查和升级版本的说明,请参阅升级虚拟机版本For instructions on checking and upgrading the version, see Upgrade virtual machine version. 这篇文章还列出了一些功能引入的版本。This article also lists the version in which some features were introduced.


  • 更新版本后,您不能将虚拟机移动到运行 Windows Server 2012 R2 的服务器。After you update the version, you can't move the virtual machine to a server that runs Windows Server 2012 R2.
  • 不能降级到以前的版本的配置。You can't downgrade the configuration to a previous version.
  • Update-vmversion cmdlet 时,阻止在 HYPER-V 群集上群集功能级别为 Windows Server 2012 R2。The Update-VMVersion cmdlet is blocked on a Hyper-V Cluster when the cluster functional level is Windows Server 2012 R2.

第 2 代虚拟机 Virtualization-based 安全(新)Virtualization-based security for generation 2 virtual machines (new)

基于虚拟化的安全提供支持功能,例如 Device Guard 和 Credential Guard,产品/服务的恶意软件防御攻击的操作系统的增强的保护。Virtualization-based security powers features such as Device Guard and Credential Guard, offering increased protection of the operating system against exploits from malware. 从版本 8 开始生成 2 个来宾虚拟机中提供了基于虚拟化的安全性。Virtualization based-security is available in generation 2 guest virtual machines starting with version 8. 有关虚拟机版本的信息,请参阅在 Windows 10 或 Windows Server 2016 上的 HYPER-V 中的升级虚拟机版本For information on virtual machine version, see Upgrade virtual machine version in Hyper-V on Windows 10 or Windows Server 2016.

Windows 容器(新)Windows Containers (new)

Windows 容器允许多个独立的应用程序在一个计算机系统上运行。Windows Containers allow many isolated applications to run on one computer system. 它们将随时快速构建和高度可缩放且可移植。They're fast to build and are highly scalable and portable. 有两种类型的容器运行时,每个都具有不同程度的应用程序隔离。Two types of container runtime are available, each with a different degree of application isolation. Windows Server 容器使用命名空间和进程隔离。Windows Server Containers use namespace and process isolation. HYPER-V 容器使用为每个容器的轻型虚拟机。Hyper-V Containers use a light-weight virtual machine for each container.

关键功能包括:Key features include:

  • 对网站和应用程序使用 HTTPS 的支持Support for web sites and applications using HTTPS

  • Nano 服务器可以承载 Windows Server 和 HYPER-V 容器Nano server can host both Windows Server and Hyper-V Containers

  • 能够通过容器共享文件夹管理数据Ability to manage data through container shared folders

  • 限制容器资源的功能Ability to restrict container resources

有关详细信息,包括快速入门指南,请参阅Windows 容器文档For details, including quick start guides, see the Windows Containers Documentation.

Windows PowerShell 直接(新)Windows PowerShell Direct (new)

这样,您从主机的虚拟机中运行 Windows PowerShell 命令的方式。This gives you a way to run Windows PowerShell commands in a virtual machine from the host. Windows PowerShell 直接运行在主机和虚拟机之间。Windows PowerShell Direct runs between the host and the virtual machine. 这意味着它不需要网络或防火墙要求以及工作而不考虑远程管理配置。This means it doesn't require networking or firewall requirements, and it works regardless of your remote management configuration.

Windows PowerShell 直接是 HYPER-V 管理员使用连接到虚拟机的 HYPER-V 主机上的现有工具的替代方法:Windows PowerShell Direct is an alternative to the existing tools that Hyper-V administrators use to connect to a virtual machine on a Hyper-V host:

  • 远程管理工具,例如 PowerShell 或远程桌面Remote management tools such as PowerShell or Remote Desktop

  • Hyper-V 虚拟机连接 (VMConnect)Hyper-V Virtual Machine Connection (VMConnect)

这些工具很好,但需要进行权衡:VMConnect 可靠,但可能难以自动执行。Those tools work well, but have trade-offs: VMConnect is reliable, but can be hard to automate. 远程 PowerShell 功能强大,但可能难以设置和维护。Remote PowerShell is powerful, but can be hard to set up and maintain. 这些取舍之中可能变得更加重要,随着 HYPER-V 部署。These trade-offs may become more important as your Hyper-V deployment grows. Windows PowerShell 直接解决此问题通过提供功能强大的脚本编写和自动化体验,就像使用 VMConnect 一样简单。Windows PowerShell Direct addresses this by providing a powerful scripting and automation experience that's as simple as using VMConnect.

有关要求和说明,请参阅使用 PowerShell Direct 管理 Windows 虚拟机For requirements and instructions, see Manage Windows virtual machines with PowerShell Direct.