Windows Server 上的 Hyper-v 中的新增功能What's new in Hyper-V on Windows Server

适用于:Windows Server 2019,Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2016,Windows Server 2016Applies To: Windows Server 2019, Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2016, Windows Server 2016

本文介绍 Windows Server 2019、Windows Server 2016 和 Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2016 上的 Hyper-v 的新功能和更改的功能。This article explains the new and changed functionality of Hyper-V on Windows Server 2019, Windows Server 2016, and Microsoft Hyper-V Server 2016. 若要在使用 Windows Server 2012 R2 创建的虚拟机上使用新功能,并将其移动或导入到在 Windows Server 2019 或 Windows Server 2016 上运行 Hyper-v 的服务器,你将需要手动升级虚拟机配置版本。To use new features on virtual machines created with Windows Server 2012 R2 and moved or imported to a server that runs Hyper-V on Windows Server 2019 or Windows Server 2016, you'll need to manually upgrade the virtual machine configuration version. 有关说明,请参阅升级虚拟机版本For instructions, see Upgrade virtual machine version.

本文包含此是,以及该功能是新增功能还是更新功能。Here's what's included in this article and whether the functionality is new or updated.

Windows Server 版本 1903Windows Server, version 1903

将 Hyper-v 管理器添加到服务器核心安装(已更新)Add Hyper-V Manager to Server Core installations (updated)

在生产环境中使用 Windows Server 半年频道时,我们建议使用 Server Core 安装选项。As you might know, we recommend using the Server Core installation option when using Windows Server, Semi-Annual Channel in production. 但是,Server Core 在默认情况下会忽略许多有用的管理工具。However, Server Core by default omits a number of useful management tools. 可以通过安装应用兼容性功能来添加许多最常用的工具,但这仍会缺少一些工具。You can add many of the most commonly used tools by installing the App Compatibility feature, but there have still been some missing tools.

因此,根据客户的反馈,我们在此版本中添加了一个用于应用兼容性功能的工具:Hyper-v 管理器(virtmgmt)。So, based on customer feedback, we added one more tools to the App Compatibility feature in this version: Hyper-V Manager (virtmgmt.msc).

有关详细信息,请参阅 Server Core 应用兼容性功能For more info, see Server Core app compatibility feature.

Windows Server 2019Windows Server 2019

安全性:防护虚拟机改进(新)Security: Shielded Virtual Machines improvements (new)

  • 分支机构改进Branch office improvements

    现在可以利用新的回退 HGS脱机模式功能在计算机上运行受防护的虚拟机,以间歇性方式连接到主机保护者服务。You can now run shielded virtual machines on machines with intermittent connectivity to the Host Guardian Service by leveraging the new fallback HGS and offline mode features. 可以通过回退 HGS 配置第二组用于 Hyper-V 的 URL,试试是否无法访问主 HGS 服务器。Fallback HGS allows you to configure a second set of URLs for Hyper-V to try if it can't reach your primary HGS server.

    使用脱机模式时,即使不能访问 HGS,也可继续启动受防护的虚拟机,只要 VM 已成功启动一次并且主机的安全配置并未更改即可。Offline mode allows you to continue to start up your shielded VMs, even if HGS can't be reached, as long as the VM has started successfully once, and the host's security configuration has not changed.

  • 故障排除改进Troubleshooting improvements

    我们还通过启用对 VMConnect 增强会话模式和 PowerShell Direct 的支持,简化了受防护虚拟机的故障排除We've also made it easier to troubleshoot your shielded virtual machines by enabling support for VMConnect Enhanced Session Mode and PowerShell Direct. 这些工具尤其适用于到 VM 的网络连接已断开,需要更新其配置才能恢复访问的情况。These tools are particularly useful if you've lost network connectivity to your VM and need to update its configuration to restore access.

    这些功能不需要进行配置。将受防护的 VM 置于运行 Windows Server 1803 或更高版本的 Hyper-V 主机上时,这些功能会自动变为可用状态。These features do not need to be configured, and they become available automatically when a shielded VM is placed on a Hyper-V host running Windows Server version 1803 or later.

  • Linux 支持Linux support

    如果你运行混合操作系统环境,Windows Server 2019 现在支持在受防护的虚拟机内运行 Ubuntu、Red Hat Enterprise Linux 和 SUSE Linux Enterprise Server。If you run mixed-OS environments, Windows Server 2019 now supports running Ubuntu, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server inside shielded virtual machines.

Windows Server 2016Windows Server 2016

与连接备用(新设备兼容)Compatible with Connected Standby (new)

当 Hyper-v 角色安装在使用始终可用/始终连接(AOAC)电源模型的计算机上时,连接的待机电源状态现在可用。When the Hyper-V role is installed on a computer that uses the Always On/Always Connected (AOAC) power model, the Connected Standby power state is now available.

离散设备分配(新)Discrete device assignment (new)

此功能允许你授予虚拟机对某些 PCIe 硬件设备的直接和独占访问权限。This feature lets you give a virtual machine direct and exclusive access to some PCIe hardware devices. 以这种方式使用设备将绕过 Hyper-V 虚拟化堆栈,使访问更迅速。Using a device in this way bypasses the Hyper-V virtualization stack, which results in faster access. 有关支持的硬件的详细信息,请参阅Windows Server 2016 上的 Hyper-v 系统要求中的 "离散设备分配"。For details on supported hardware, see "Discrete device assignment" in System requirements for Hyper-V on Windows Server 2016. 有关详细信息,包括如何使用此功能和注意事项,请参阅虚拟化博客中的发布 "离散设备分配—说明和背景"。For details, including how to use this feature and considerations, see the post "Discrete Device Assignment — Description and background" in the Virtualization blog.

第1代虚拟机(中的操作系统磁盘的加密支持(新)Encryption support for the operating system disk in generation 1 virtual machines (new)

你现在可以使用第1代虚拟机中的 BitLocker 驱动器加密来保护操作系统磁盘。You can now protect the operating system disk using BitLocker drive encryption in generation 1 virtual machines. 新功能密钥存储创建一个小型专用驱动器来存储系统驱动器的 BitLocker 密钥。A new feature, key storage, creates a small, dedicated drive to store the system drive's BitLocker key. 这是为了实现此目的,而不是使用仅在第2代虚拟机中提供的虚拟受信任的平台模块(TPM)。This is done instead of using a virtual Trusted Platform Module (TPM), which is available only in generation 2 virtual machines. 若要解密磁盘并启动虚拟机,Hyper-v 主机必须是已获授权的受保护构造的一部分,或者是虚拟机的一个保护者的私钥。To decrypt the disk and start the virtual machine, the Hyper-V host must either be part of an authorized guarded fabric or have the private key from one of the virtual machine's guardians. 密钥存储需要版本8虚拟机。Key storage requires a version 8 virtual machine. 有关虚拟机版本的信息,请参阅在windows 10 或 Windows Server 2016 上的 hyper-v 中升级虚拟机版本For information on virtual machine version, see Upgrade virtual machine version in Hyper-V on Windows 10 or Windows Server 2016.

主机资源保护(新建)Host resource protection (new)

此功能通过查找过多级别的活动来防止虚拟机使用其系统资源的份额。This feature helps prevent a virtual machine from using more than its share of system resources by looking for excessive levels of activity. 这可以帮助防止虚拟机的过多活动降低主机或其他虚拟机的性能。This can help prevent a virtual machine's excessive activity from degrading the performance of the host or other virtual machines. 当监视检测到具有过多活动的虚拟机时,将为虚拟机提供更少的资源。When monitoring detects a virtual machine with excessive activity, the virtual machine is given fewer resources. 默认情况下,此监视和强制功能处于关闭状态。This monitoring and enforcement is off by default. 使用 Windows PowerShell 打开或关闭。Use Windows PowerShell to turn it on or off. 若要启用它,请运行以下命令:To turn it on, run this command:

Set-VMProcessor TestVM -EnableHostResourceProtection $true

有关此 cmdlet 的详细信息,请参阅VMProcessorFor details about this cmdlet, see Set-VMProcessor.

网络适配器和内存(的热添加和删除)Hot add and remove for network adapters and memory (new)

现在,运行虚拟机期间,可以添加或删除网络适配器而不出现停机。You can now add or remove a network adapter while the virtual machine is running, without incurring downtime. 这适用于运行 Windows 或 Linux 操作系统的第 2 代虚拟机。This works for generation 2 virtual machines that run either Windows or Linux operating systems.

你还可以调整在虚拟机运行时分配给该虚拟机的内存量,即使尚未启用动态内存。You can also adjust the amount of memory assigned to a virtual machine while it's running, even if you haven't enabled Dynamic Memory. 这适用于运行 Windows Server 2016 或 Windows 10 的第1代和第2代虚拟机。This works for both generation 1 and generation 2 virtual machines, running Windows Server 2016 or Windows 10.

Hyper-v 管理器改进(已更新)Hyper-V Manager improvements (updated)

  • 备用凭据支持-当你连接到另一台 Windows Server 2016 或 windows 10 远程主机时,你现在可以在 Hyper-v 管理器中使用一组不同的凭据。Alternate credentials support - You can now use a different set of credentials in Hyper-V Manager when you connect to another Windows Server 2016 or Windows 10 remote host. 你还可以保存这些凭据,以便更轻松地登录。You can also save these credentials to make it easier to log on again.

  • 管理早期版本-在 windows server 2019、windows server 2016 和 windows 10 中,可以在 windows server 2012、windows 8、windows Server 2012 R2 和 Windows 8.1 上管理运行 hyper-v 的计算机。Manage earlier versions - With Hyper-V Manager in Windows Server 2019, Windows Server 2016, and Windows 10, you can manage computers running Hyper-V on Windows Server 2012, Windows 8, Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows 8.1.

  • 更新的管理协议-Hyper-v 管理器现在使用 ws-management 协议与远程 hyper-v 主机进行通信,该协议允许 CredSSP、KERBEROS 或 NTLM 身份验证。Updated management protocol - Hyper-V Manager now communicates with remote Hyper-V hosts using the WS-MAN protocol, which permits CredSSP, Kerberos or NTLM authentication. 使用 CredSSP 连接到远程 Hyper-v 主机时,可以执行实时迁移,而无需在 Active Directory 中启用约束委派。When you use CredSSP to connect to a remote Hyper-V host, you can do a live migration without enabling constrained delegation in Active Directory. 基于 WS-I 的基础结构还可以更轻松地启用用于远程管理的主机。The WS-MAN-based infrastructure also makes it easier to enable a host for remote management. WS-MAN 通过端口 80(该端口默认处于打开状态)进行连接。WS-MAN connects over port 80, which is open by default.

通过 Windows 更新(提供的集成服务已更新)Integration services delivered through Windows Update (updated)

针对 Windows 来宾的集成服务更新通过 Windows 更新分配。Updates to integration services for Windows guests are distributed through Windows Update. 对于服务提供商和私有云托管商,这会将应用更新的控制权置于拥有虚拟机的租户手中。For service providers and private cloud hosters, this puts the control of applying updates into the hands of the tenants who own the virtual machines. 租户现在可以通过单个方法为其 Windows 虚拟机更新所有更新(包括集成服务)。Tenants can now update their Windows virtual machines with all updates, including the integration services, using a single method. 有关适用于 Linux 来宾的 integration services 的详细信息,请参阅hyper-v 上的 linux 和 FreeBSD 虚拟机For details about integration services for Linux guests, see Linux and FreeBSD Virtual Machines on Hyper-V.

重要

不再需要 vmguest.iso 映像文件,因此它不会包含在 Windows Server 2016 上的 Hyper-v 中。The vmguest.iso image file is no longer needed, so it isn't included with Hyper-V on Windows Server 2016.

Linux 安全启动(新建)Linux Secure Boot (new)

在第 2 代虚拟机上运行的 Linux 操作系统现可以使用支持的“安全启动”选项进行启动。Linux operating systems running on generation 2 virtual machines can now boot with the Secure Boot option enabled. Ubuntu 14.04 及更高版本、SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 及更高版本、Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 及更高版本以及 CentOS 7.0 及更高版本可在运行 Windows Server 2016 的主机上启用安全启动。Ubuntu 14.04 and later, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 and later, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.0 and later, and CentOS 7.0 and later are enabled for Secure Boot on hosts that run Windows Server 2016. 首次启动虚拟机之前,必须将虚拟机配置为使用 Microsoft UEFI 证书颁发机构。Before you boot the virtual machine for the first time, you must configure the virtual machine to use the Microsoft UEFI Certificate Authority. 可以从 Hyper-V 管理器、Virtual Machine Manager 或提升的 Windows Powershell 会话执行此操作。You can do this from Hyper-V Manager, Virtual Machine Manager, or an elevated Windows Powershell session. 对于 Windows PowerShell,运行此命令:For Windows PowerShell, run this command:

Set-VMFirmware TestVM -SecureBootTemplate MicrosoftUEFICertificateAuthority  

有关 Hyper-v 上的 Linux 虚拟机的详细信息,请参阅hyper-v 上的 linux 和 FreeBSD 虚拟机For more information about Linux virtual machines on Hyper-V, see Linux and FreeBSD Virtual Machines on Hyper-V. 有关 cmdlet 的详细信息,请参阅set-vmfirmwareFor more information about the cmdlet, see Set-VMFirmware.

第2代虚拟机和 hyper-v 主机(的内存和处理器更新)More memory and processors for generation 2 virtual machines and Hyper-V hosts (updated)

从版本8开始,第2代虚拟机可以使用更多的内存和虚拟处理器。Starting with version 8, generation 2 virtual machines can use significantly more memory and virtual processors. 与以前支持的内存和虚拟处理器相比,还可以配置主机。Hosts also can be configured with significantly more memory and virtual processors than were previously supported. 这些更改支持新方案,例如,为联机事务处理(OLTP)和数据仓库(DW)运行电子商务大型内存中数据库。These changes support new scenarios such as running e-commerce large in-memory databases for online transaction processing (OLTP) and data warehousing (DW). Windows Server 博客最近发布了一个虚拟机的性能结果,其中包含 5.5 tb 的内存和128个运行 4 TB 内存中数据库的虚拟处理器。The Windows Server blog recently published the performance results of a virtual machine with 5.5 terabytes of memory and 128 virtual processors running 4 TB in-memory database. 性能大于物理服务器的 95%。Performance was greater than 95% of the performance of a physical server. 有关详细信息,请参阅Windows Server 2016 hyper-v 大规模 VM 性能,用于内存中事务处理For details, see Windows Server 2016 Hyper-V large-scale VM performance for in-memory transaction processing. 有关虚拟机版本的详细信息,请参阅在windows 10 或 Windows Server 2016 上的 hyper-v 中升级虚拟机版本For details about virtual machine versions, see Upgrade virtual machine version in Hyper-V on Windows 10 or Windows Server 2016. 有关受支持的最大配置的完整列表,请参阅规划 Windows Server 2016 中的 hyper-v 可伸缩性For the full list of supported maximum configurations, see Plan for Hyper-V scalability in Windows Server 2016.

嵌套虚拟(化新)Nested virtualization (new)

此功能允许你将虚拟机用作 Hyper-V 主机并在该虚拟化的主机中创建虚拟机。This feature lets you use a virtual machine as a Hyper-V host and create virtual machines within that virtualized host. 这对于开发和测试环境尤其有用。This can be especially useful for development and test environments. 若要使用嵌套虚拟化,你需要:To use nested virtualization, you'll need:

  • 若要在物理 Hyper-v 主机和虚拟化主机上至少运行 Windows Server 2019、Windows Server 2016 或 Windows 10。To run at least Windows Server 2019, Windows Server 2016 or Windows 10 on both the physical Hyper-V host and the virtualized host.

  • 具有 Intel VT-x 的处理器(嵌套虚拟化目前仅适用于 Intel 处理器)。A processor with Intel VT-x (nested virtualization is available only for Intel processors at this time).

有关详细信息和说明,请参阅使用嵌套虚拟化在虚拟机中运行 hyper-vFor details and instructions, see Run Hyper-V in a Virtual Machine with Nested Virtualization.

新增网络(功能)Networking features (new)

新网络功能包括:New networking features include:

  • 远程直接内存访问 (RDMA) 和交换机嵌入式组合 (SET)Remote direct memory access (RDMA) and switch embedded teaming (SET). 无论是否同时使用 SET,都可以在绑定到 Hyper-V 虚拟交换机的网络适配器上设置 RDMA。You can set up RDMA on network adapters bound to a Hyper-V virtual switch, regardless of whether SET is also used. SET 提供与 NIC 组合具有某些相同功能的虚拟交换机。SET provides a virtual switch with some of same capabilities as NIC teaming. 有关详细信息,请参阅远程直接内存访问(RDMA)和交换机嵌入式组合(SET)For details, see Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) and Switch Embedded Teaming (SET).

  • 虚拟机多队列 (VMMQ)Virtual machine multi queues (VMMQ). 通过为每台虚拟机分配多个硬件队列提升 VMQ 吞吐量。Improves on VMQ throughput by allocating multiple hardware queues per virtual machine. 对于一台虚拟机,默认的一个队列变为一组队列,而流量在队列之间传播。The default queue becomes a set of queues for a virtual machine, and traffic is spread between the queues.

  • 软件定义网络的服务质量 (QoS)Quality of service (QoS) for software-defined networks. 通过默认类带宽内的虚拟交换机管理流量的默认类。Manages the default class of traffic through the virtual switch within the default class bandwidth.

有关新网络功能的详细信息,请参阅网络中的新增功能。For more about new networking features, see What's new in Networking.

生产检查(点新)Production checkpoints (new)

生产检查点是虚拟机的 "时间点" 映像。Production checkpoints are "point-in-time" images of a virtual machine. 当虚拟机运行生产工作负荷时,这些应用程序会提供一种方法来应用符合支持策略的检查点。These give you a way to apply a checkpoint that complies with support policies when a virtual machine runs a production workload. 生产检查点基于来宾内的备份技术,而不是已保存状态。Production checkpoints are based on backup technology inside the guest instead of a saved state. 对于 Windows 虚拟机,使用卷快照服务 (VSS)。For Windows virtual machines, the Volume Snapshot Service (VSS) is used. 对于 Linux 虚拟机,会刷新文件系统缓冲区,以创建与文件系统一致的检查点。For Linux virtual machines, the file system buffers are flushed to create a checkpoint that's consistent with the file system. 如果要使用基于已保存状态的检查点,请改为选择标准检查点。If you'd rather use checkpoints based on saved states, choose standard checkpoints instead. 有关详细信息,请参阅在 hyper-v 中选择标准或生产检查点For details, see Choose between standard or production checkpoints in Hyper-V.

重要

新的虚拟机将默认使用生产检查点。New virtual machines use production checkpoints as the default.

正在滚动 hyper-v 群集升级(新)Rolling Hyper-V Cluster upgrade (new)

现在可以将运行 Windows Server 2019 或 Windows Server 2016 的节点添加到运行 Windows Server 2012 R2 节点的 Hyper-v 群集。You can now add a node running Windows Server 2019 or Windows Server 2016 to a Hyper-V Cluster with nodes running Windows Server 2012 R2. 这样就可以在不停机的情况下升级群集。This allows you to upgrade the cluster without downtime. 群集在 Windows Server 2012 R2 功能级别运行,直到升级群集中的所有节点并使用 Windows PowerShell cmdlet update-clusterfunctionallevel更新群集功能级别。The cluster runs at a Windows Server 2012 R2 feature level until you upgrade all nodes in the cluster and update the cluster functional level with the Windows PowerShell cmdlet, Update-ClusterFunctionalLevel.

重要

更新群集功能级别后,无法将其返回到 Windows Server 2012 R2。After you update the cluster functional level, you can't return it to Windows Server 2012 R2.

对于运行 Windows Server 2012 R2、Windows Server 2019 和 Windows Server 2016 的节点功能级别为 Windows Server 2012 R2 的 Hyper-v 群集,请注意以下事项:For a Hyper-V cluster with a functional level of Windows Server 2012 R2 with nodes running Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2019 and Windows Server 2016, note the following:

  • 从运行 Windows Server 2016 或 Windows 10 的节点管理群集、Hyper-v 和虚拟机。Manage the cluster, Hyper-V, and virtual machines from a node running Windows Server 2016 or Windows 10.

  • 你可以在 Hyper-v 群集中的所有节点之间移动虚拟机。You can move virtual machines between all of the nodes in the Hyper-V cluster.

  • 若要使用新的 Hyper-v 功能,所有节点都必须运行 Windows Server 2016 或并且必须更新群集功能级别。To use new Hyper-V features, all nodes must run Windows Server 2016 or and the cluster functional level must be updated.

  • 尚未升级现有虚拟机的虚拟机配置版本。The virtual machine configuration version for existing virtual machines isn't upgraded. 只能在升级群集功能级别后升级配置版本。You can upgrade the configuration version only after you upgrade the cluster functional level.

  • 你创建的虚拟机与 Windows Server 2012 R2 (虚拟机配置级别5)兼容。Virtual machines that you create are compatible with Windows Server 2012 R2, virtual machine configuration level 5.

更新群集功能级别后:After you update the cluster functional level:

  • 可以启用新的 Hyper-v 功能。You can enable new Hyper-V features.

  • 若要使新的虚拟机功能可用,请使用 VmConfigurationVersion cmdlet 手动更新虚拟机配置级别。To make new virtual machine features available, use the Update-VmConfigurationVersion cmdlet to manually update the virtual machine configuration level. 有关说明,请参阅升级虚拟机版本For instructions, see Upgrade virtual machine version.

  • 不能将节点添加到运行 Windows Server 2012 R2 的 Hyper-V 群集。You can't add a node to the Hyper-V Cluster that runs Windows Server 2012 R2.

备注

Windows 10 上的 hyper-v 不支持故障转移群集。Hyper-V on Windows 10 doesn't support failover clustering.

有关详细信息和说明,请参阅群集操作系统滚动升级For details and instructions, see the Cluster Operating System Rolling Upgrade.

(已更新共享的虚拟硬盘)Shared virtual hard disks (updated)

现在,可以调整用于来宾群集的共享虚拟硬盘(.vhdx 文件)的大小,而无需停机。You can now resize shared virtual hard disks (.vhdx files) used for guest clustering, without downtime. 当虚拟机处于联机状态时,可以扩大或收缩共享的虚拟硬盘。Shared virtual hard disks can be grown or shrunk while the virtual machine is online. 来宾群集现在还可以通过使用 Hyper-v 副本进行灾难恢复来保护共享的虚拟硬盘。Guest clusters can now also protect shared virtual hard disks by using Hyper-V Replica for disaster recovery.

启用集合上的复制。Enable replication on the collection. 对集合启用复制仅通过 WMI 接口公开Enabling replication on a collection is only exposed through the WMI interface. 有关更多详细信息,请参阅Msvm_CollectionReplicationService 类的文档。See the documentation for Msvm_CollectionReplicationService class for more details. 不能通过 PowerShell cmdlet 或 UI 管理集合的复制。You cannot manage replication of a collection through PowerShell cmdlet or UI. Vm 应位于作为 Hyper-v 群集一部分的主机上,以访问特定于集合的功能。The VMs should be on hosts that are part of a Hyper-V cluster to access features that are specific to a collection. 这包括在独立主机上共享 VHD 共享 vhd 不受 Hyper-v 副本支持。This includes Shared VHD - shared VHDs on stand-alone hosts are not supported by Hyper-V Replica.

遵循虚拟硬盘共享中共享的 Vhd 指南概述,并确保共享 vhd 是来宾群集的一部分。Follow the guidelines for shared VHDs in Virtual Hard Disk Sharing Overview, and be sure that your shared VHDs are part of a guest cluster.

具有共享 VHD 但没有关联来宾群集的集合不能创建集合的引用点(无论是否在创建引用点时都包含共享的 VHD)。A collection with a shared VHD but no associated guest cluster cannot create reference points for the collection (regardless of whether the shared VHD is included in the reference point creation or not).

新虚拟机(备份)Virtual machine backup(new)

如果要备份单个虚拟机(无论主机是否群集),则不应使用 VM 组。If you are backing up a single virtual machine (regardless of whether host is clustered or not), you should not use a VM group. 也不应使用快照集合。Nor should you use a snapshot collection. VM 组和快照集合仅用于备份使用共享 vhdx 的来宾群集。VM groups and snapshot collection are meant to be used solely for backing up guest clusters that are using shared vhdx. 相反,你应该使用HYPER-V WMI v2 提供程序拍摄快照。Instead, you should take a snapshot using the Hyper-V WMI v2 provider. 同样,不要使用故障转移群集 WMI 提供程序Likewise, do not use the Failover Cluster WMI provider.

新的防护(虚拟机)Shielded virtual machines (new)

受防护的虚拟机使用多种功能,使主机上的 Hyper-v 管理员和恶意软件难以检查、篡改或从受防护的虚拟机的状态中盗取数据。Shielded virtual machines use several features to make it harder for Hyper-V administrators and malware on the host to inspect, tamper with, or steal data from the state of a shielded virtual machine. 数据和状态是加密的,Hyper-v 管理员看不到视频输出和磁盘,只能在主机保护者服务器确定的已知的正常主机上运行虚拟机限制。Data and state is encrypted, Hyper-V administrators can't see the video output and disks, and the virtual machines can be restricted to run only on known, healthy hosts, as determined by a Host Guardian Server. 有关详细信息,请参阅受保护的构造和受防护的 vmFor details, see Guarded Fabric and Shielded VMs.

备注

受防护的虚拟机与 Hyper-v 副本兼容。Shielded virtual machines are compatible with Hyper-V Replica. 若要复制受防护的虚拟机,您要复制到的主机必须有权运行受防护的虚拟机。To replicate a shielded virtual machine, the host you want to replicate to must be authorized to run that shielded virtual machine.

群集虚拟机(的启动顺序优先级新建)Start order priority for clustered virtual machines (new)

此功能使你可以更好地控制首先启动或重新启动哪些群集虚拟机。This feature gives you more control over which clustered virtual machines are started or restarted first. 这样就可以更轻松地启动虚拟机,这些虚拟机在使用这些服务的虚拟机之前提供服务。This makes it easier to start virtual machines that provide services before virtual machines that use those services. 定义集,将虚拟机放置在集中,并指定依赖项。Define sets, place virtual machines in sets, and specify dependencies. 使用 Windows PowerShell cmdlet 管理这些集,如ClusterGroupSetClusterGroupSetClusterGroupSetDependencyUse Windows PowerShell cmdlets to manage the sets, such as New-ClusterGroupSet, Get-ClusterGroupSet, and Add-ClusterGroupSetDependency. ..

已更新存储服务质量(QoS ())Storage quality of service (QoS) (updated)

你现在可以在横向扩展文件服务器上创建存储 QoS 策略,并将它们分配给 Hyper-V 虚拟机上的一个或多个虚拟磁盘。You can now create storage QoS policies on a Scale-Out File Server and assign them to one or more virtual disks on Hyper-V virtual machines. 存储性能将随存储负载波动自动重新调整以符合策略。Storage performance is automatically readjusted to meet policies as the storage load fluctuates. 有关详细信息,请参阅存储服务质量For details, see Storage Quality of Service.

已更新虚拟机配置(文件格式)Virtual machine configuration file format (updated)

虚拟机配置文件使用新的格式,使读取和写入配置数据的效率更高。Virtual machine configuration files use a new format that makes reading and writing configuration data more efficient. 如果出现存储故障,格式也会使数据损坏的可能性变小。The format also makes data corruption less likely if a storage failure occurs. 虚拟机配置数据文件使用 .vmcx 文件扩展名和运行时状态数据文件,并使用 .vmrs 文件扩展名。Virtual machine configuration data files use a .vmcx file name extension and runtime state data files use a .vmrs file name extension.

重要

.Vmcx 文件扩展名指示二进制文件。The .vmcx file name extension indicates a binary file. 不支持编辑. .vmcx 或 .vmrs 文件。Editing .vmcx or .vmrs files isn't supported.

已更新虚拟机(配置版本)Virtual machine configuration version (updated)

版本表示虚拟机的配置、已保存状态和快照文件与 Hyper-v 版本的兼容性。The version represents the compatibility of the virtual machine's configuration, saved state, and snapshot files with the version of Hyper-V. 版本为5的虚拟机与 Windows Server 2012 R2 兼容,并且可以在 Windows Server 2012 R2 和 Windows Server 2016 上运行。Virtual machines with version 5 are compatible with Windows Server 2012 R2 and can run on both Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2016. Windows server 2016 和 Windows Server 2019 中引入的版本的虚拟机不会在 Windows Server 2012 R2 上的 Hyper-v 中运行。Virtual machines with versions introduced in Windows Server 2016 and Windows Server 2019 won't run in Hyper-V on Windows Server 2012 R2.

如果将虚拟机移动或导入到在 Windows server 2016 上运行 Hyper-v 的服务器或 windows server 2012 R2 上的 Windows Server 2019,则不会自动更新虚拟机的配置。If you move or import a virtual machine to a server that runs Hyper-V on Windows Server 2016 or Windows Server 2019 from Windows Server 2012 R2, the virtual machine's configuration isn't automatically updated. 这意味着可以将虚拟机移动回运行 Windows Server 2012 R2 的服务器。This means you can move the virtual machine back to a server that runs Windows Server 2012 R2. 但这也意味着在你手动更新虚拟机配置的版本前,不能使用新的虚拟机功能。But, this also means you can't use the new virtual machine features until you manually update the version of the virtual machine configuration.

有关检查和升级版本的说明,请参阅升级虚拟机版本For instructions on checking and upgrading the version, see Upgrade virtual machine version. 本文还列出了其中引入了一些功能的版本。This article also lists the version in which some features were introduced.

重要

  • 更新版本后,不能将虚拟机移动到运行 Windows Server 2012 R2 的服务器。After you update the version, you can't move the virtual machine to a server that runs Windows Server 2012 R2.
  • 不能将配置降级到以前的版本。You can't downgrade the configuration to a previous version.
  • 当群集功能级别为 Windows Server 2012 R2 时,Hyper-v 群集上的VMVersion cmdlet 将被阻止。The Update-VMVersion cmdlet is blocked on a Hyper-V Cluster when the cluster functional level is Windows Server 2012 R2.

第2代虚拟机(的基于虚拟化的安全性新增)Virtualization-based security for generation 2 virtual machines (new)

基于虚拟化的安全功能(如 Device Guard 和 Credential Guard)提供对操作系统的增强保护,防止恶意软件攻击。Virtualization-based security powers features such as Device Guard and Credential Guard, offering increased protection of the operating system against exploits from malware. 基于虚拟化的安全在第2代来宾虚拟机中提供,从版本8开始。Virtualization based-security is available in generation 2 guest virtual machines starting with version 8. 有关虚拟机版本的信息,请参阅在windows 10 或 Windows Server 2016 上的 hyper-v 中升级虚拟机版本For information on virtual machine version, see Upgrade virtual machine version in Hyper-V on Windows 10 or Windows Server 2016.

Windows 容器(新增)Windows Containers (new)

Windows 容器允许许多独立的应用程序在一台计算机系统上运行。Windows Containers allow many isolated applications to run on one computer system. 它们速度非常快,并且具有高度可伸缩性和可移植性。They're fast to build and are highly scalable and portable. 提供两种类型的容器运行时,每个都有不同程度的应用程序隔离。Two types of container runtime are available, each with a different degree of application isolation. Windows Server 容器使用命名空间和进程隔离。Windows Server Containers use namespace and process isolation. Hyper-v 容器将轻型虚拟机用于每个容器。Hyper-V Containers use a light-weight virtual machine for each container.

关键功能包括:Key features include:

  • 支持使用 HTTPS 的网站和应用程序Support for web sites and applications using HTTPS

  • Nano server 可托管 Windows Server 和 Hyper-v 容器Nano server can host both Windows Server and Hyper-V Containers

  • 通过容器共享文件夹管理数据的能力Ability to manage data through container shared folders

  • 能够限制容器资源Ability to restrict container resources

有关详细信息,包括快速入门指南,请参阅Windows 容器文档For details, including quick start guides, see the Windows Containers Documentation.

Windows PowerShell 直接(新建)Windows PowerShell Direct (new)

这为你提供了一种从主机在虚拟机中运行 Windows PowerShell 命令的方法。This gives you a way to run Windows PowerShell commands in a virtual machine from the host. Windows PowerShell Direct 在主机和虚拟机之间运行。Windows PowerShell Direct runs between the host and the virtual machine. 这意味着不需要网络或防火墙要求,无论远程管理配置如何,它都可以正常工作。This means it doesn't require networking or firewall requirements, and it works regardless of your remote management configuration.

Windows PowerShell Direct 是使用 Hyper-v 管理员连接到 Hyper-v 主机上的虚拟机所用的现有工具的一种替代方法:Windows PowerShell Direct is an alternative to the existing tools that Hyper-V administrators use to connect to a virtual machine on a Hyper-V host:

  • 远程管理工具,例如 PowerShell 或远程桌面Remote management tools such as PowerShell or Remote Desktop

  • Hyper-V 虚拟机连接 (VMConnect)Hyper-V Virtual Machine Connection (VMConnect)

这些工具工作良好,但需要权衡:VMConnect 可靠,但可能难以自动执行。Those tools work well, but have trade-offs: VMConnect is reliable, but can be hard to automate. 远程 PowerShell 功能强大,但可能难以设置和维护。Remote PowerShell is powerful, but can be hard to set up and maintain. 随着 Hyper-v 部署的增长,这些折衷可能会变得更加重要。These trade-offs may become more important as your Hyper-V deployment grows. Windows PowerShell Direct 通过提供功能强大的脚本和自动化体验来解决这种情况,这与使用 VMConnect 一样简单。Windows PowerShell Direct addresses this by providing a powerful scripting and automation experience that's as simple as using VMConnect.

有关要求和说明,请参阅通过 PowerShell Direct 管理 Windows 虚拟机For requirements and instructions, see Manage Windows virtual machines with PowerShell Direct.