如何确定 64 位版本的 Windows 的相应页面文件大小How to determine the appropriate page file size for 64-bit versions of Windows

页面文件大小取决于系统崩溃转储设置要求和系统提交费用的峰值使用或预计高峰使用。Page file sizing depends on the system crash dump setting requirements and the peak usage or expected peak usage of the system commit charge. 这两个注意事项对于每个系统都是唯一的,即使系统相同也是如此。Both considerations are unique to each system, even for systems that are identical. 这意味着,页面文件大小对每个系统也是唯一的,不能进行一般化。This means that page file sizing is also unique to each system and cannot be generalized.

确定合适的页面文件大小Determine the appropriate page file size

对于所有 Windows 和 Windows Server 版本的页面文件大小,请使用以下注意事项。Use the following considerations for page file sizing for all versions of Windows and Windows Server.

故障转储设置Crash dump setting

如果你希望在系统崩溃期间创建故障转储文件,则页面文件或专用转储文件必须存在,并且足够大,以备份系统故障转储设置。If you want a crash dump file to be created during a system crash, a page file or a dedicated dump file must exist and be large enough to back up the system crash dump setting. 否则,将不会创建系统内存转储文件。Otherwise, a system memory dump file is not created.

有关详细信息,请参阅系统故障转储支持部分。For more information, see Support for system crash dumps section.

系统提交费用峰值Peak system commit charge

系统提交费用不能超过系统提交限额。The system commit charge cannot exceed the system commit limit. 此限制是组合的物理内存(RAM)和所有页面文件的总和。This limit is the sum of physical memory (RAM) and all page files combined. 如果不存在页面文件,则系统提交限制将略微小于安装的物理内存。If no page files exist, the system commit limit is slightly less than the physical memory that is installed. 系统提交的峰值内存使用量在不同的系统之间可能会有很大差异。Peak system-committed memory usage can vary greatly between systems. 因此,物理内存和页面文件大小也各不相同。Therefore, physical memory and page file sizing also vary.

不经常访问的页面的数量Quantity of infrequently accessed pages

页面文件的用途是返回(支持)不经常访问的已修改页面,以便可以从物理内存中删除这些页面。The purpose of a page file is to back (support) infrequently accessed modified pages so that they can be removed from physical memory. 这为更频繁访问的页面提供了更多的可用空间。This provides more available space for more frequently accessed pages. "\Memory\Modified 页列表 Bytes" 性能计数器度量,部分是指的是不常访问的硬盘所修改的页面的数量。The "\Memory\Modified Page List Bytes" performance counter measures, in part, the number of infrequently accessed modified pages that are destined for the hard disk. 但是,请注意,已修改的页面列表中的所有内存都不会写出到磁盘。However, be aware that not all the memory on the modified page list is written out to disk. 通常,数百兆字节的内存仍保留在修改后的列表中。Typically, several hundred megabytes of memory remains resident on the modified list. 因此,如果满足以下所有条件,请考虑延长或添加页面文件:Therefore, consider extending or adding a page file if all the following conditions are true:

  • 需要更多可用物理内存(\Memory\Available Mb)。More available physical memory (\Memory\Available MBytes) is required.

  • 已修改的页面列表包含大量内存。The modified page list contains a significant amount of memory.

  • 现有的页面文件相当满(\Paging 文件(*) % 使用情况)。The existing page files are fairly full (\Paging Files(*)% Usage).

对系统故障转储的支持Support for system crash dumps

系统崩溃(也称为 "bug 检查" 或 "Stop 错误")在系统无法正常运行时出现。A system crash (also known as a “bug check” or a "Stop error") occurs when the system cannot run correctly. 从该事件生成的转储文件称为系统故障转储。The dump file that is produced from this event is called a system crash dump. 使用页面文件或专用转储文件将故障转储文件(内存 dmp)写入到磁盘。A page file or dedicated dump file is used to write a crash dump file (Memory.dmp) to disk. 因此,页面文件或专用转储文件的大小必须足以支持所选故障转储的类型。Therefore, a page file or a dedicated dump file must be large enough to support the kind of crash dump selected. 否则,系统无法创建故障转储文件。Otherwise, the system cannot create the crash dump file.

备注

在启动过程中,系统管理的页面文件的大小对应于系统故障转储设置。During startup, system-managed page files are sized respective to the system crash dump settings. 这假定存在足够的可用磁盘空间。This assumes that enough free disk space exists.

系统故障转储设置System crash dump setting 最小页面文件大小要求Minimum page file size requirement
小内存转储(256 KB)Small memory dump (256 KB) 1 MB1 MB
内核内存转储Kernel memory dump 取决于内核虚拟内存使用情况Depends on kernel virtual memory usage
完全内存转储Complete memory dump 1 x RAM 加 257 MB *1 x RAM plus 257 MB*
自动内存转储Automatic memory dump 取决于内核虚拟内存使用情况。Depends on kernel virtual memory usage. 有关详细信息,请参阅自动内存转储。For details, see Automatic memory dump.

\ * 1 MB 的标头数据和设备驱动程序可能总共 256 MB 的辅助故障转储数据。* 1 MB of header data and device drivers can total 256 MB of secondary crash dump data.

默认情况下,"自动内存转储" 设置处于启用状态。The Automatic memory dump setting is enabled by default. 这是一个设置,而不是一种故障转储。This is a setting instead of a kind of crash dump. 此设置会自动选择最佳的页面文件大小,具体取决于系统崩溃的频率。This setting automatically selects the best page file size, depending on the frequency of system crashes.

自动内存转储功能最初选择较小的页面文件大小。The Automatic memory dump feature initially selects a small paging file size. 它大部分时间都能容纳内核内存。It would accommodate the kernel memory most of the time. 如果系统在四周内再次崩溃,则 "自动内存转储" 功能会将页面文件大小设置为 RAM 大小或 32 GB (每个较小)。If the system crashes again within four weeks, the Automatic memory dump feature sets the page file size as either the RAM size or 32 GB, whichever is smaller.

内核内存故障转储需要足够的页面文件空间或专用转储文件空间,以适应虚拟内存使用的内核模式。Kernel memory crash dumps require enough page file space or dedicated dump file space to accommodate the kernel mode side of virtual memory usage. 如果系统在上一次崩溃的四个星期内再次崩溃,请在重新启动时选择一个完整的内存转储。If the system crashes again within four weeks of the previous crash, a Complete memory dump is selected at restart. 这需要至少一个物理内存(RAM)大小的页面文件或专用转储文件加 1 MB 的标头信息,加上 256 MB 以支持从内存中转储的所有潜在数据。This requires a page file or dedicated dump file of at least the size of physical memory (RAM) plus 1 MB for header information plus 256 MB for potential driver data to support all the potential data that is dumped from memory. 同样,系统管理的页面文件将提升为回退此类故障转储。Again, the system-managed page file will be increased to back this kind of crash dump. 如果系统配置为具有特定大小的页面文件或专用转储文件,请确保大小足以回退本部分前面的表中列出的故障转储设置以及系统提交费用的峰值。If the system is configured to have a page file or a dedicated dump file of a specific size, make sure that the size is sufficient to back the crash dump setting that is listed in the table earlier in this section together with and the peak system commit charge.

专用转储文件Dedicated dump files

运行 Microsoft Windows 或 Microsoft Windows Server 的计算机通常必须具有支持系统故障转储的页面文件。Computers that are running Microsoft Windows or Microsoft Windows Server usually must have a page file to support a system crash dump. 系统管理员现在可以选择创建专用的转储文件。System administrators now have the option to create a dedicated dump file instead.

专用转储文件是不用于分页的页面文件。A dedicated dump file is a page file that is not used for paging. 而是在发生系统崩溃时,"专用" 回叫系统崩溃转储文件(内存 dmp)。Instead, it is “dedicated” to back a system crash dump file (Memory.dmp) when a system crash occurs. 可以将专用转储文件放在任何支持页面文件的磁盘卷上。Dedicated dump files can be put on any disk volume that can support a page file. 如果你需要系统崩溃转储但不希望使用页面文件,建议使用专用转储文件。We recommend that you use a dedicated dump file if you want a system crash dump but you do not want a page file.

系统管理的页面文件System-managed page files

默认情况下,页面文件由系统管理。By default, page files are system-managed. 这意味着页面文件基于许多因素(如安装的物理内存数量、保证系统提交费用的过程)以及容纳系统故障转储的过程来增加和减少。This means that the page files increase and decrease based on many factors, such as the amount of physical memory installed, the process of accommodating the system commit charge, and the process of accommodating a system crash dump.

例如,当系统提交费用超过系统提交限制的90% 时,页面文件将增加到备份。For example, when the system commit charge is more than 90 percent of the system commit limit, the page file is increased to back it. 这将持续发生,直至页面文件达到物理内存大小的三倍或 4 GB (以较大值为准)。This continues to occur until the page file reaches three times the size of physical memory or 4 GB, whichever is larger. 这全都假设托管页面文件的逻辑磁盘足够大,可以容纳增长。This all assumes that the logical disk that is hosting the page file is large enough to accommodate the growth.

下表列出了 Windows 10 中系统管理的页面文件的最小和最大页面文件大小。The following table lists the minimum and maximum page file sizes of system-managed page files in Windows 10.

最小页面文件大小Minimum page file size 最大页面文件大小Maximum page file size
根据页面文件使用历史记录、RAM 量(RAM ÷8、最大 32 GB)和故障转储设置而有所不同。Varies based on page file usage history, amount of RAM (RAM ÷ 8, max 32 GB) and crash dump settings. 3× RAM 或 4 GB (以较大者为准)。3 × RAM or 4 GB, whichever is larger. 这将被限制为卷大小÷8。This is then limited to the volume size ÷ 8. 但是,如果故障转储设置需要,它可以在卷的 1 GB 可用空间范围内增长。However, it can grow to within 1 GB of free space on the volume if required for crash dump settings.

性能计数器Performance counters

多个性能计数器与页面文件相关。Several performance counters are related to page files. 本部分介绍计数器及其测量内容。This section describes the counters and what they measure.

\ 内存 \ Page/sec 和其他硬页面错误计数器\Memory\Page/sec and other hard page fault counters

以下性能计数器测量硬页面错误(包括但不限于页面文件读取):The following performance counters measure hard page faults (which include, but are not limited to, page file reads):

  • \ 内存 \ Page/sec\Memory\Page/sec

  • \Memory\Page Reads/sec\Memory\Page Reads/sec

  • \Memory\Page 输入/秒\Memory\Page Inputs/sec

以下性能计数器测量页面文件写入次数:The following performance counters measure page file writes:

  • \Memory\Page Writes/sec\Memory\Page Writes/sec

  • \Memory\Page 输出/秒\Memory\Page Output/sec

硬页面故障是指必须通过从磁盘检索数据来解决的故障。Hard page faults are faults that must be resolved by retrieving the data from disk. 此类数据可以包含 Dll、.exe 文件、内存映射文件和页面文件的部分。Such data can include portions of DLLs, .exe files, memory-mapped files, and page files. 这些故障可能与页面文件相关,也可能不会与页面文件或内存不足的情况相关。These faults might or might not be related to a page file or to a low-memory condition. 硬页面故障是操作系统的标准功能。Hard page faults are a standard function of the operating system. 当阅读以下项目时发生它们:They occur when the following items are read:

  • 所使用的图像文件(.dll 和 .exe 文件)的组成部分Parts of image files (.dll and .exe files) as they are used

  • 内存映射文件Memory-mapped files

  • 页面文件A page file

这些计数器的高值(过多页交换)表示 x86 和 windows Server 的 x86 和 x64 版本上一般 4 KB 每页故障的磁盘访问。High values for these counters (excessive paging) indicate disk access of generally 4 KB per page fault on x86 and x64 versions of Windows and Windows Server. 此磁盘访问可能与页面文件活动无关,但可能会导致磁盘性能较差,如果相关磁盘已满,可能会导致系统范围内的延迟。This disk access might or might not be related to page file activity but may contribute to poor disk performance that can cause system-wide delays if the related disks are overwhelmed.

因此,我们建议你监视托管页面文件的逻辑磁盘的磁盘性能是否与这些计数器相关。Therefore, we recommend that you monitor the disk performance of the logical disks that host a page file in correlation with these counters. 请注意,每秒具有持续100硬页面故障的系统都会遇到每秒 400 KB 的磁盘传输。Be aware that a system that has a sustained 100 hard page faults per second experiences 400 KB per second disk transfers. 大多数 7200 RPM 磁盘驱动器以 16 KB 或 800 KB 的 io 大小每秒处理大约 5 MB 的 io 大小,每秒 io 大小为 4 KB。Most 7,200 RPM disk drives can handle about 5 MB per second at an IO size of 16 KB or 800 KB per second at an IO size of 4 KB. 没有性能计数器直接测量硬页面故障解析为哪个逻辑磁盘。No performance counter directly measures which logical disk the hard page faults are resolved for.

\Paging 文件(*) % 使用情况\Paging File(*)% Usage

\Paging 文件(*) % 使用性能计数器测量每个页面文件的使用百分比。The \Paging File(*)% Usage performance counter measures the percentage of usage of each page file. 100的页面文件使用率不会指示性能问题,只要系统提交费用不达到系统提交限制,并且如果有大量内存不等待写入页面文件,也不会出现性能问题。100 percent usage of a page file does not indicate a performance problem as long as the system commit limit is not reached by the system commit charge, and if a significant amount of memory is not waiting to be written to a page file.

备注

已修改的页面列表(\Memory\Modified 页列表 Bytes)的大小是等待写入磁盘的已修改数据的总数。The size of the Modified Page List (\Memory\Modified Page List Bytes) is the total of modified data that is waiting to be written to disk.

如果已修改的页面列表(最少访问的物理内存页面列表)包含大量内存,并且所有页面文件的 % Usage值大于90,则可以通过增加或添加页面文件,使更多的物理内存可用于更频繁的访问页面。If the Modified Page List (a list of physical memory pages that are the least frequently accessed) contains lots of memory, and if the % Usage value of all page files is greater than 90, you can make more physical memory available for more frequently access pages by increasing or adding a page file.

备注

未修改的页面列表上的所有内存均写出到磁盘。Not all the memory on the modified page list is written out to disk. 通常,数百兆字节的内存仍保留在修改后的列表中。Typically, several hundred megabytes of memory remains resident on the modified list.

多个页面文件和磁盘注意事项Multiple page files and disk considerations

如果系统配置为具有多个页面文件,则首先响应的页面文件是所使用的文件。If a system is configured to have more than one page files, the page file that responds first is the one that is used. 这意味着更频繁地使用更快的磁盘上的页面文件。This means that page files that are on faster disks are used more frequently. 此外,如果将页面文件放在 "快速" 或 "慢速" 磁盘上,则仅在经常访问页面文件时,以及托管相应页面文件的磁盘已淹没时,才有必要。Also, whether you put a page file on a “fast” or “slow” disk is important only if the page file is frequently accessed and if the disk that is hosting the respective page file is overwhelmed. 请注意,实际页面文件用法很大程度上取决于系统所管理的已修改内存量。Be aware that actual page file usage depends greatly on the amount of modified memory that the system is managing. 这意味着磁盘上已存在的文件(如 .txt、.doc、.dll 和 .exe)不会写入页面文件。This means that files that already exist on disk (such as .txt, .doc, .dll, and .exe) are not written to a page file. 只有已修改但尚未存在于磁盘上的数据(例如,记事本中的未保存文本)是可能由页面文件支持的内存。Only modified data that does not already exist on disk (for example, unsaved text in Notepad) is memory that could potentially be backed by a page file. 将未保存的数据作为文件保存到磁盘后,它由磁盘而非页面文件进行支持。After the unsaved data is saved to disk as a file, it is backed by the disk and not by a page file.