颜色、光线和材料Color, light, and materials

颜色、光线和材料

为混合现实设计内容需要认真考虑所有虚拟资产的颜色、照明和材料。Designing content for mixed reality requires careful consideration of color, lighting, and materials for all your virtual assets. 美观目的包括使用光线和材料来设置沉浸式环境的音调,而功能目的可以包括使用各种颜色来提醒用户即将发生的操作。Aesthetic purposes can include using light and material to set the tone of an immersive environment, while functional purposes can include using striking colors to alert users of an impending action. 必须将每个决策与体验目标设备的机会和约束进行权衡。Each of these decisions must be weighed against the opportunities and constraints of your experience’s target device.

下面是特定于在沉浸式耳机上呈现资产的准则。Below are guidelines specific to rendering assets on both immersive and holographic headsets. 其中的许多内容都与其他技术领域密切相关,并且可在本文末尾的 " 另请参阅 " 一节中找到相关主题的列表。Many of these are closely tied to other technical areas and a list of related subjects can be found in the See also section at the end of this article.

在沉浸式与全息设备上渲染Rendering on immersive vs. holographic devices

与全息耳机中呈现的内容相比,在沉浸式耳机中呈现的内容看起来会有所不同。Content rendered in immersive headsets will appear visually different when compared to content rendered in holographic headsets. 虽然沉浸式耳机通常会像在二维屏幕上一样呈现内容,但使用彩色的全息耳机(如 HoloLens)可以呈现全息影像。While immersive headsets generally render content much as you would expect on a 2D screen, holographic headsets like HoloLens use color-sequential, see-through RGB displays to renders holograms.

在全息耳机上,请始终花时间测试您的全息体验。Always take time to test your holographic experiences in a holographic headset. 即使是专门为全息设备构建内容,内容的外观也会有所不同,如辅助监视器、快照和 spectator 视图中所示。The appearance of content, even if it's built specifically for holographic devices, will differ as seen on secondary monitors, snapshots, and in spectator view. 请记住,在设备上进行测试,测试全息影像的照明,并从所有两侧 (以及从上方和) 下方观察内容呈现方式。Remember to walk around experiences with a device, testing the lighting of holograms and observing from all sides (as well as from above and below) how your content renders. 请确保使用设备上的一系列亮度设置进行测试。Be sure to test with a range of brightness settings on the device. 所有用户不太可能共享假设的默认值,以及不同的照明条件集。It's unlikely all users will share an assumed default, and a diverse set of lighting conditions.

全息设备上呈现的基本知识Fundamentals of rendering on holographic devices

  • 全息设备具有累加性显示器 –通过向现实世界中的灯光添加光源来创建全息影像–白色将显示为明亮,而黑色将显示为透明。Holographic devices have additive displays – Holograms are created by adding light to the light from the real world – white will appear brightly, while black will appear transparent.

  • 颜色影响因用户的环境而异 –用户房间内有很多不同的照明条件。Colors impact varies with the user’s environment – There are many diverse lighting conditions in a user’s room. 创建具有适当的对比度级别的内容,以便清晰地提供帮助。Create content with appropriate levels of contrast to help with clarity.

  • 避免动态照明 –在全息体验中均匀发亮的全息影像是最有效的。Avoid dynamic lighting – Holograms that are uniformly lit in holographic experiences are the most efficient. 使用 "高级" 时,动态照明可能会超出移动设备的功能。Using advanced, dynamic lighting will likely exceed the capabilities of mobile devices. 需要动态照明时,建议使用 混合现实工具包标准着色器When dynamic lighting is required, it's recommended to use the Mixed Reality Toolkit Standard shader.

用 color 设计Designing with color

由于 "加法" 显示的性质,某些颜色在全息显示器上可能会有所不同。Because of the nature of additive displays, certain colors can appear different on holographic displays. 某些颜色将在照明环境中弹出,而其他颜色显示的有影响力更少。Some colors will pop in lighting environments while others will appear as less impactful. 冷颜色通常会 recede 到背景中,而热颜色会跳到前台。Cool colors tend to recede into the background while warm colors jump to the foreground. 在浏览经验时,请考虑以下因素:Consider these factors as you explore color in your experiences:

  • 呈现浅色颜色 -白色显得非常明亮,应谨慎使用。Rendering light colors - White appears bright and should be used sparingly. 大多数情况下,请考虑有关 R 235 G 235 B 235 的空白值。For most cases, consider a white value around R 235 G 235 B 235. 较大的亮点可能导致用户 discomfort。Large bright areas may cause user discomfort. 对于 UI 窗口的 backplate,建议使用深色颜色。For the UI window's backplate, it's recommended to use dark colors.

  • 呈现深色颜色 -由于 "加法" 显示的性质,深色颜色显示为透明。Rendering dark colors - Because of the nature of additive displays, dark colors appear transparent. 实心黑色对象将与现实环境中的显示效果完全不同。A solid black object will appear no different from the real world. 请参阅下面的 Alpha 通道。See Alpha channel below. 若要使 "黑色" 的外观出现,请尝试使用非常深的灰色 RGB 值,例如16、16、16。To give the appearance of “black”, try a very dark grey RGB value such as 16,16,16.

  • 颜色一致性 -通常,全息影像呈现得非常明亮,因此,无论背景如何,都可以保持颜色一致性。Color uniformity - Typically holograms are rendered brightly enough so that they maintain color uniformity, whatever the background. 大区域可能会变得 blotchy。Large areas may become blotchy. 避免出现鲜艳、纯色的大型区域。Avoid large regions of bright, solid color.

  • 从一种颜色的 "宽范围" 中获益,从概念上讲类似于 Adobe RGB。Gamut - HoloLens benefits from a "wide gamut" of color, conceptually similar to Adobe RGB. 因此,某些颜色可以显示设备中的不同质量和表示形式。As a result, some colors can show different qualities and representation in the device.

  • 伽玛 -所呈现图像的亮度和对比度将因沉浸式和全息设备而异。Gamma - The brightness and contrast of the rendered image will vary between immersive and holographic devices. 这些设备的差异经常会使颜色和阴影变暗,更亮或更不亮。These device differences often appear to make dark areas of color and shadows, more or less bright.

  • 颜色分离 -也称为 "color 细分情况" 或 "color fringing",当用户跟踪对象的眼睛时,最常发生颜色分离 (包括光标) 。Color separation - Also called "color breakup" or "color fringing", color separation most commonly occurs with moving holograms (including cursor) when a user tracks objects with their eyes.

技术注意事项Technical considerations

  • "别名"-深思熟虑后得出的,它是锯齿、锯齿或 "楼梯段" 的边缘与现实世界之间的边缘。Aliasing - Be considerate of aliasing, jagged or “stair steps” where the edge of a hologram’s geometry meets the real world. 如果使用具有高细节的纹理,则会加剧此效果。Using textures with high detail can aggravate this effect. 应映射和筛选已启用纹理。Textures should be mapped and filtering enabled. 请考虑在对象周围创建黑色边缘边框,以淡化全息影像边缘或添加纹理。Consider fading the edges of holograms or adding a texture that creates a black edge border around objects. 尽可能避免精简几何。Avoid thin geometry where possible.

  • Alpha 通道 -对于不呈现全息图的任何部分,必须清除 alpha 通道,使其完全透明。Alpha channel - You must clear your alpha channel to fully transparent for any parts where you aren't rendering a hologram. 在从设备或通过 Spectator 视图拍摄图像/视频时,使 alpha 不确定会导致视觉对象。Leaving the alpha undefined leads to visual artifacts when taking images/videos from the device or with Spectator View.

  • 纹理软化 -由于浅是全息显示屏中的加法,因此最好避免较大的纯色区域,因为它们通常不会产生预期的视觉效果。Texture softening - Since light is additive in holographic displays, it's best to avoid large regions of bright, solid color as they often don't produce the intended visual effect.

全息显示器的设计准则Design guidelines for holographic display

颜色和手封闭

设计全息显示器内容时,需要考虑几个元素来获得最佳体验。When designing content for holographic displays, there are several elements that you need to consider achieving the best experience. 有关指导原则和建议,请访问 设计内容以提供全息显示器Visit Designing content for holographic display for the guidelines and recommendations.

带有浅和颜色的故事分享Storytelling with light and color

光源和颜色可帮助你在用户的环境中更自然地显示全息影像,并为用户提供指导和帮助。Light and color can help make your holograms appear more naturally in a user's environment and offer guidance and help for the user. 对于全息体验,请在探索光照和颜色时考虑以下因素:For holographic experiences, consider these factors as you explore lighting and color:

  • Vignetting -"vignette" 效果用于加深材料,有助于将用户的注意力集中在视图的中心。Vignetting - A 'vignette' effect to darken materials can help focus the user's attention on the center of the field of view. 这种效果会将全息图的材料从用户的注视向量变暗。This effect darkens the hologram's material at some radius from the user's gaze vector. 当用户从倾斜或 glancing 角度查看全息影像时,这也很有效。This is also effective when the user views holograms from an oblique or glancing angle.

  • 强调 :通过对比颜色、亮度和照明来吸引对象或交互点。Emphasis - Draw attention to objects or points of interaction by contrasting colors, brightness, and lighting. 若要详细了解故事分享中的照明方法,请参阅 像素 Cinematography-适用于计算机图形的照明方法For a more detailed look at lighting methods in storytelling, see Pixel Cinematography - A Lighting Approach for Computer Graphics.

    图像:使用 color 显示故事分享元素的强调,此处显示的内容位于 片段的场景中。Image: Use of color to show emphasis for storytelling elements, shown here in a scene from Fragments.

使用 "颜色" 显示对故事分享元素的强调,此处显示在片段的场景中。

材料Materials

材料是用于制作真实全息影像的重要元素。Materials are crucial elements for making realistic holograms. 通过提供适当的视觉特征,你可以制作出引人注目的全息对象,这些对象可与物理环境完美融合。By providing proper visual characteristics, you can make compelling holographic objects that can blend well with the physical environment. 材料对于为各种类型的用户输入交互提供可视反馈也很重要。Materials are also important for providing visual feedback for the various types of user input interactions.

MRTK 提供了一个 MRTK 标准着色器,其中包含可用于视觉反馈的各种视觉效果选项。MRTK provides an MRTK Standard Shader with various visual effect options that can be used for visual feedback. 例如,当用户的手指接近对象的表面时,可以使用 "邻近感应" 属性来提供灯光效果。For example, you can use 'Proximity Light' property to provide a lighting effect when the user's finger is approaching the object's surface. 了解有关MRTK 标准着色器的详细信息Learn more about MRTK Standard Shader

视频循环:基于与边界框  的邻近的视觉反馈示例视觉对象反馈Video loop: Example of visual feedback based on proximity to a bounding box Visual feedback on hand proximity



另请参阅See also