获取进程堆

此示例阐释了如何使用 GetProcessHeaps 函数来检索默认进程堆的句柄以及当前进程的活动的任何专用堆。

该示例调用 GetProcessHeaps 两次,以便计算所需的缓冲区大小,并再次检索缓冲区中的句柄。 使用 GetProcessHeap返回的句柄从默认进程堆分配缓冲区。 此示例将每个堆的起始地址输出到控制台。 然后,它使用 HeapFree 函数释放为缓冲区分配的内存。

进程中的堆数可能会有所不同。 一个进程始终至少具有一个堆(默认进程堆),并且它可能具有一个或多个由应用程序或加载到进程的地址空间中的 Dll 创建的专用堆。

请注意,应用程序应仅在其默认进程堆或应用程序已创建的专用堆上调用堆函数;对其他组件拥有的专用堆调用堆函数可能会导致未定义的行为。

#include <windows.h>
#include <tchar.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <intsafe.h>

int __cdecl _tmain()
{
    DWORD NumberOfHeaps;
    DWORD HeapsIndex;
    DWORD HeapsLength;
    HANDLE hDefaultProcessHeap;
    HRESULT Result;
    PHANDLE aHeaps;
    SIZE_T BytesToAllocate;

    //
    // Retrieve the number of active heaps for the current process
    // so we can calculate the buffer size needed for the heap handles.
    //
    NumberOfHeaps = GetProcessHeaps(0, NULL);
    if (NumberOfHeaps == 0) {
        _tprintf(TEXT("Failed to retrieve the number of heaps with LastError %d.\n"),
                 GetLastError());
        return 1;
    }

    //
    // Calculate the buffer size.
    //
    Result = SIZETMult(NumberOfHeaps, sizeof(*aHeaps), &BytesToAllocate);
    if (Result != S_OK) {
        _tprintf(TEXT("SIZETMult failed with HR %d.\n"), Result);
        return 1;
    }

    //
    // Get a handle to the default process heap.
    //
    hDefaultProcessHeap = GetProcessHeap();
    if (hDefaultProcessHeap == NULL) {
        _tprintf(TEXT("Failed to retrieve the default process heap with LastError %d.\n"),
                 GetLastError());
        return 1;
    }

    //
    // Allocate the buffer from the default process heap.
    //
    aHeaps = (PHANDLE)HeapAlloc(hDefaultProcessHeap, 0, BytesToAllocate);
    if (aHeaps == NULL) {
        _tprintf(TEXT("HeapAlloc failed to allocate %d bytes.\n"),
                 BytesToAllocate);
        return 1;
    }

    // 
    // Save the original number of heaps because we are going to compare it
    // to the return value of the next GetProcessHeaps call.
    //
    HeapsLength = NumberOfHeaps;

    //
    // Retrieve handles to the process heaps and print them to stdout. 
    // Note that heap functions should be called only on the default heap of the process
    // or on private heaps that your component creates by calling HeapCreate.
    //
    NumberOfHeaps = GetProcessHeaps(HeapsLength, aHeaps);
    if (NumberOfHeaps == 0) {
        _tprintf(TEXT("Failed to retrieve heaps with LastError %d.\n"),
                 GetLastError());
        return 1;
    }
    else if (NumberOfHeaps > HeapsLength) {

        //
        // Compare the latest number of heaps with the original number of heaps.
        // If the latest number is larger than the original number, another
        // component has created a new heap and the buffer is too small.
        //
        _tprintf(TEXT("Another component created a heap between calls. ") \
                 TEXT("Please try again.\n"));
        return 1;
    }

    _tprintf(TEXT("Process has %d heaps.\n"), HeapsLength);
    for (HeapsIndex = 0; HeapsIndex < HeapsLength; ++HeapsIndex) {
        _tprintf(TEXT("Heap %d at address: %#p.\n"),
                 HeapsIndex,
                 aHeaps[HeapsIndex]);
    }
  
    //
    // Release memory allocated from default process heap.
    //
    if (HeapFree(hDefaultProcessHeap, 0, aHeaps) == FALSE) {
        _tprintf(TEXT("Failed to free allocation from default process heap.\n"));
    }

    return 0;
}